Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Packaging Introduction The containers are perhaps the most

everyday objects, common and necessary that man has invented, to the point that somehow project the ideology and lifestyle o f the whole society in a particular historical period. From the simplest to the most complex design, the packaging complies with the specific function for which it was created: to contain, protect, inform ... dress the product. And finally, packaging contributes to this movement during the long road that runs to arrive , ultimately, the consumer. Commercially it is becoming increasingly important, has ceased to serve as a simple container and protector of goods arriving to acq uire symbolic connotations. It is crucial in the purchase, since it is the first thing the consumer sees before making a final decision. It has therefore been c alled the silent salesperson then tells us the qualities and benefits we get fro m consuming a given product. Basic Definitions Package: Object manufactured that contains, protects and presents a product for marketing, designed so that it has the optimal cost compatible with the requirem ents of product protection and the environment. Are classified as Primary packag ing: This direct contact with the product. Secondary packaging: Packaging that c ontains one or more primary packaging. Tertiary packaging: It's used to distribu te, consolidate and protect the product along the marketing chain. Packaging (pa cking): Object manufactured protecting so unified or collective goods or goods f or physical distribution along the logistics chain, ie during the rough handling operations, cargo, transport, unloading, storage, stowage and possible exhibiti on. Their dimensions reach beyond the capacity of human ergonomics. Secondary pa ckaging Primary packaging tertiary packaging perfume bottle packaging cardboard box containing a bottle of perfume cardboard box containing several bottles of p erfume Pallets The conditions of packaging are handled by different areas in order to fulfill t he following functions: physical or material § Area: Protect the integrity of th e content (to resist compression, falls, moisture, temperature, etc.., Depending on the product) ; Keep the product in time defend the product against the outsi de world and vice versa, provide thermal insulation and biological. -1 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road § § § § Economic Area: Consider the factors of the materials, Costs of transport and han dling, storage, volume and weight, returning, re-use. By market area: Differenti ation, Adaptation to market the brand extension, added value to the product; sta rt for products, profitability, formats and sizes, promoting the product at the point of sale and, if possible during transport. Area Ergonomic: easy to operate , safe and effective for any consumer. Area communication: visual impact; Adapta tion to the product image, corporate identity Vehicle, Legal, inform the user of the product and data attributes such as price, quantity contained, expiry date and you can use a bar code useful information for the entire retail chain in its various processes, provide information about the compliance environment in the

country to which the product is intended. The packaging must also meet the following requirements: Must be markable, marke d or placarded to identify, quantify and localize. § Comply with the terms and c onditions established environmental and phytosanitary legislation of the country of origin and destination country. § Be as light as possible and in turn, able to withstand the required load. § The preference must be reusable, recyclable an d, in extreme cases, burnable to meet the standards of packaging waste and envir onment prevailing in the destination country. § To establish a unit to avoid a c lash among themselves of the goods it contains. § The color on the package The color distinguishes, identifies and designates, generating feelings, suggest s actions and cues informative. Most container buyers more easily remember the n ame of the product, but the color, which has a high value in memory is recalled even more than the brand and design. The main mission is to draw attention color . The estimated time that consumers stop to see a product is 1 / 25 to 1 / 52 of a second, so that each product struggles to excel, be recognized or seeking att ention.€The shape and color are essential for visual communication. Some of the effects are: to give an impact to the teacher, creating optical illusions, impro ve readability and identify the product category. The choice of color for a prod uct must be in accordance with the consumer profile. In general, according to su rveys are favorite colors: blue, red, v erde, orange, yellow and black. Regardle ss of objects or shapes, pure colors are preferred over the intermediate tones. -2 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Colors have psychological issues to do with basic impulses in people, for exampl e: Food: Orange, yellow, vermilion, green and brown are related to this issue. T he yellowish brown, ocher, yellow, dry and grayish blue, refer to the thirst and dryness. Maternal Instinct: The soft tones and pastel colors express love and t enderness. Importance and prestige and distinguished sober colors like violet, w ine red, yellow, gold, black, some green and silver. Color as a product identifi er in the marketing of packaged goods, it is possible to determine which colors correspond to specific product categories. The expression of color information i s provided by the shape and size of container, one does not expect detergent in a small container about the size of cigarettes, although the color is blue with white for example. During an experiment consisted of two hundred people serving coffee, served in cups red, blue, brown and yellow, and ask them the differences they found in the product, left the following results: 73% of those people foun d very strong coffee brown cup, 84% considered rich and full bodied coffee cup r ed to blue cup unscented felt it, and the yellow cup coffee found it "very weak" . Like everyone was served the same coffee, you can deduct the prints go on the product came from the color of coffee, whose colors supported or devalue the pro duct characteristics. The categories to be considered, which are interrelated an d influence the choice of color, are: identity, image and sales requirements. Id entity: It is the nature, appearance and physical properties of the product, the color information of what kind of goods concerned. chocolate venom toothpaste Cosmetics

Image: The idea that the consumer has the product, the color suggests various qu alities of it. Listing Requirements: Mainly are visibility, clarity and unity in the graphics, all with the aim of facilitating the sale and location of the pro duct and to ensure the degree of identification. -3 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Packaging Materials The main materials used for the manufacture of packaging are: © © © © © Metal. P aper and cardboard. Madera. Glass. Plastic. Metal containers They are rigid containers to hold liquid and / or solids that can be closed tigh tly. Metallic containers have experienced a considerable boom in recent years, p articularly for carbonated beverages. Both their production and destruction are really considerable environmental cost. Metal packaging materials are usually el ectrolytic tinplate, tin or chrome (TFS) free of tin. Another currently used mat erial is aluminum. • Tin Containers The tin, it is highly resistant to impact and fire, as well as inviolability and secrecy, offers consumers the highest level of safety of extended shelf life of food. Properties of tin cans a) Resistance: food wrap, pressure or vacuum. b) T hermal stability: The metal does not change their properties when exposed to hea t (only expands, but that does not affect food). c) resistant: Property princ ip al required packaging to avoid decomposition by the action of microorganisms or oxidation reactions. d) Magnetic Quality: Allows easily separated from other was te discarded containers with magnets. e) Chemical Integrity: Minimum chemical in teraction helps to preserve color, aroma, flavor, etc.. f) Versatility: An infin ity of shapes and sizes. g) Ability to Print: can print at high speed with high quality lithographic designs or can be coated with lacquer for protection. Tin p lating Tin is an important element in the manufacture of tin cans, as is the lin ing of the steel base. -4 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Formerly performed by immersion of the sheet of molten tin (tinning hot).€Electr olytic processes are currently used, the most important are halogen, and acalino ferrostan. Most common shapes and sizes a) Cylinder: Two or three pieces, cylin drical body, bottom and top flat or slightly concave; can be straight, reinforce d or cords. There are others where the bottom and top are one piece. b) Rectangu lar: prism shape with rectangular base, manufactured in various capacities. c) S ardina Type: In the form of a prism, similar to cylindrical, ellipsoidal base bu t was generally used for packing sardines. d) Case Type: These are people have a friction lid. They are used as luxury packaging for candy, cookies and other pr oducts. Special features of construction) Acuellado: Consists of two or three cu ts in one end. b) Expanded: Performed in the body of the container, and is to in crease the cross section of it, either to facilitate filling, for greater ease i n the interior configuration of the product, or design reasons. c) Reeded: It co nsists in providing the container rings on the body, known as cords, which can h ave different designs, giving it the container horizontal resistance collapsed. d) Soldier: Recipient of three parts, to which you have welded the ends with app

ropriate caps, are characterized by a small hole in the lid surface to be filled with needle system. acuellado • expanded milled soldier Packaging tin-free steel They are known as TFS (tin free steel), have good resistance to compression, and even less resistant than the tin can be stowed safely. As the aluminum oxide la yer that forms on the surface of the container is not completely inert, the cont ainer should be covered internally with a lacquer health is compatible with what you want to canning. It is used to manufacture tops and bottoms of the cans, an d containers with complete printing around the body. -5 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road • Aluminum Foil The foils are thin sheets of aluminum that is used alone or in combination with other materials. They generally have less than 0.15mm thick and 1.52m wide, alth ough the width may be up to 4.06m. Features • Impervious to moisture and oxygen, so the aluminum foil is ideal for long haul. • Attractive and easy to decorate. • Ability to bend. • Lightweight and malleability. • Although aluminum resists solvents and fats, resistance to acids and strong bases is poor, unless you use lacquer or wax coatings. • Protect it from light. • High temperature resistance • It is quite weak and tear easily at small thicknesses, therefore, the impressi on in these materials is very difficult without adequate support. • They can be combined with kraft paper, which adds strength and rigidity are types of metal c ontainers 1. Cans: Used for beverage, food, chemicals, etc. 2. Collapsible tubes : These are used for packaging of sauces, mayonnaise, cheese, jellies, pastes, m edicines, toothpaste, etc. 3. Health Boat: tinplate or TFS container used to con tain foodstuffs, usually inside are coated with varnish health. 4. Semi-rigid co ntainers: These are used for trays, dishes, etc, for frozen products. 5. Aerosol s: Used for deodorants, cosmetics, paints, drugs. Protection lacquers applied on the inside of cans that prevent the interaction b etween food and packaging. Currently produce about thirty different types of lac quer, with some canned products are used without coatings. The coatings are appl ied by machine varnish varnished distribute liquid on the plates using a steel r oller. -6 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Cartons and paper

In the many attempts made to return to traditional recyclable materials, pro-eco logy, paper and cardboard are uniquely placed to achieve this end. • Paper Properties that should be the role for packaging a) Tensile strength and tractio n, the elongation, bursting and folding. b) Skid resistance: the bags of several layers of paper for packaging, must have sufficient strength to prevent slip sl iding over each other when placed in cells or are transported. Are treated with a slip agent such as colloidal silica. c) Degree of gloss because it greatly inf luences the outcome of the print. d) Resistance to water: essential roles for pa ckaging.€e) Optical properties: in particular the opacity, brightness and whiten ess. f) Ability to print: among other is the absorption of oils and inks for pri nting. g) Water resistant to fats: important property for papers for wrapping fo ods that contain fat. h) Light resistance: refers to resistance to fading or yel lowing of the paper when exposed to light. i) a liquid or vapor barrier: many pa ckaging materials should be protected from loss or gain of moisture and conseque nt deterioration. They are combined with materials that provide protection such as wax, plastic films and aluminum foil in the form of coating. j) HP: the roles of pH between 7 and 8.5 have the greatest potential for long life (neutral and alkaline paper). The different properties of a paper, are interdependent, that i s, are interrelated and therefore can not be changed without affecting the behav ior of others. Types of paper used to pack paper used for packaging are: § Kraft : It's very tough, so it is used to make tissue paper, paper bags, paper bags an d wrapping multilayers. § vegetable parchment paper: It has properties of resist ance to moisture and fats and oils. It is used to wrap butter, margarine, meats, cheeses, wraps. Just as birds and fish packaging. § Tissue Paper: This paper is used to protect certain electrical products, glass containers, tools, utensils, shoes and handbags. § waxed papers: They offer a good protection from liquids a nd vapors. It is widely used for packaging of food, especially pastries and -7 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road dry cereals, also for frozen and industry for various types of industrial packag ing. Containers of paper and paper products • Bag and sack are non-rigid contain ers, manufactured of paper or your combinatio No other flexible materials. The d ifference is a weight limit according to which the bags containing no less than 11.5 kg, while the sacks containing a higher weight, so that the latter term is regularly applied to containers for industrial use. • Saco multilayer paper bag manufactured with 3-6 layers of kraft paper, usually 70, 80 or 100 g/m2. It is r ugged and its particular construction and adding more layers and depends on the nature of the material that is intended and the type of transport used. Characte ristics of paper bags) are relatively inexpensive. b) They are safe and dust-tig ht when closed. c) Due to its porosity allows the action of certain processes wi thout any problem, as in the case of sterilization of certain products. d) autom atically shares take the form of the product they contain, which can be a disadv antage. e) Paper bags are generally not suitable for wet products or sharp edges . • Cardboard Cardboard is a variable of the paper, is composed of several layers of this, whi ch overlapped and combined give rigidity property. 65gr/m2 paper to be considere d; more 65gr/m2 is considered as cardboard. Folding The folding cartons are fair ly widespread use, and are used as primary packaging of the product or as a seco ndary container primary packaging. Advantages and disadvantages of a folding box Advantages: • Low cost • They are easily stored because they can be bent, occup ying minimum space. • excellent impressions can be achieved, thereby improving p roduct presentation. Disadvantages:

-8 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road • They have the same strength as other containers of material. • The folding box strength is limited by the manufacturing process, which can not produce 0,040 c artons thicker, it can pack not exceeding 1.5 kg liquid food carton: Tetra Pak P ackaging Used for liquid foods such as wine, soft drinks, oil, sauces, water, et c. Protecting Features § The beverage carton is resistant to shocks. § Protects against air sensitive products, bacteria and light. § aseptic cartons liquid foo ds kept at room temperature. § rational distribution empty cartons are transport ed to the bottling plant in the form of rolls, to dispatch 800 000 containers ne ed only one truck. As to transport these containers should be fewer trucks and p roduce less emissions. § 9.000 cartons for beverages in refillable containers compared to 9000 A full rec tangular cardboard takes up minimal space in the distribution equal to 95% and 5 % product packaging, allowing for: representative in fuel savings, lower volume traffic routes, and generate, thus less pollution. § Aseptic cartons require no refrigeration, energy saving. The entire surface of p ackaging material is sterilized. The food maintains its nutritional value and or ganoleptic characteristics, for a long period of time. -9 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Minimal use of natural resources § effectively protect content using a minimum o f materials. § A 1-liter carton now weighs 25 to 28 grams. § For the manufacture of packaging requires an aluminum foil of 5.6 microns, significantly less than that used in the production of a soda cap. § The weight of the package represent s only 5% by weight of product packaging. The shell of the egg, for example, represents 10% § In the last 20 years, the we ight of a carton has been reduced by 20%. This means that when consumers shop lo ad more food and less packaging, compared to what happened in the past. § renewable resource cartons are made from at least 75-80% of paper fiber that c omes from wood - a natural, renewable resource that comes from industrial forest s where management is applied for guiding strategic planning for sustainable gro wth acia h ( each year grow more trees than they cut). § Most of the fibers obta ined from young trees or branches that can not be used as lumber. Visit è Fecovi ta Fecovita A is a winery located in Maipú, Mendoza, with a total of 400 employees in all its branches, and has the Tetra Pack packaging system. Packaging Rolls bu y them Tetra Pak de La Rioja, each roll contains 8000 one-liter containers and e ach pallet 40,000. The machines, which also belong to Tetra Pak, are brought fro m the Headquarters located in Buenos Aires, which arrive from Sweden. Tetra Pak is a company of Swedish origin, trademark triangular stems from the geometry of the container, a tetrahedron. Tetra prefix comes from the Greek and means four,

a tetrahedron is a figure with four triangular faces, one of which serves as the base. The material structure of the geometric surface of the packaging offers a large printing surface for printing needs. - 10 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road You can print in flexo, off-set or retrograbado in four colors on a fifth option . Generally, the text on this type of packaging needs to be large and clean (pre ferably without auctions), and not less than 9 points. Packaging Coatings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Polyethylene: protection against humidity. Role: stability and strength. Polyeth ylene: adhesive layer. Layer of aluminum: oxygen barrier, aroma and light. Polye thylene: adhesive layer. Polyethylene: Sealed Main functions performed by the materials that make up the Tetra Pak packaging p aper is the main raw material used by Tetra Pak for the manufacture of packaging . The paper supply comes from forests located in Brazil and industrialized tempe rate forests, managed under the concept of sustainable development. TetraPak use s only the paper mills that previously had their forests certified by ISO Intern ational. In addition, audits performed annually from its headquarters in Sweden to their suppliers. Represents 80% of the container. The aluminum foil of 5.6 mi crons of aluminum eliminates the need for cooling, saving, thus more energy is r equired for the production of container. The microscopic layer of aluminum creat es an excellent barrier against food spoilage and to protect them from the influ ence of exogenous agents such as oxygen, light and aromas and flavors. Tetra Pak uses the thinnest sheet currently offers the highest technology, which contains 30% less aluminum than when it was created Tetra Pak packaging. Represents 5% o f polyethylene packaging The thin outer layer of polyethylene protects the paper from moisture, while the double layer of polyethylene on the inside of the cont ainer hermetically seal achieved. In - 11 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Once, polyethylene food separated from direct contact with aluminum foil. It use s low-density polyethylene,€offering the maximum performance by using a minimal amount of material. It is present in 15%. Tetra Pak uses ink water-based inks, o rganic pigments and no heavy metals. Packaging Types Tetra Brik ® Aseptic aseptic packaging liquid food is used to treat sensitive UA T, allowing them to have a longer life. Products packaged in Tetra Brik Aseptic packaging, require no refrigeration for storage and distribution. It comes in fo ur different formats, volumes ranging from 100 to 1500 cc Tetra Rex An optimal s olution to pasteurized products requiring cold chain. It offers great convenienc e to the consumer. The volumes vary from 118 to 2000 cc. Its packaging system is flexible. Tetra Wedge ® Tetra Wedge Aseptic packaging is ideal for juices and b everages. It has an attractive format. This is an aseptic package with a distinc tive format. The currently used volume is 200 cc. Tetra Classic ® Aseptic unique and distinctive format, in the form of a tetrahedron, due to its shape requires very little material. Products intended for children and adults. Easy opening. Volumes ranging from 8 cc to 250 cc.

Packaging Tetra Brik Aseptic system packaging of the product in a safe manner. T he product is conveyed to the packaging machine in a closed system. In it - 12 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road packaged under aseptic conditions in a packaging material is sterilized on the m achine. The rolls of material from Tetra Pak are a sub-frame that defines the fi nal shape of the container. It is equipped with a code to be read by a sensor th at contains the machine is synchronized to make this sub-frame. The entire surfa ce of packaging material is sterilized by thermal chemical systems: the web of m aterial passes through a hydrogen peroxide solution, which disappears with heat. This makes the material is completely dry and at the same time creates a steril e environment in the filling section. The sterile area of the machine is small, which provides the system with high operational safety. Subsequently the materia l is folded in half and it passes the highest point of the machine is already do ubled and driven vertically downward, passing through a tool that is a few notch es where the container is formed. Then there is the filler pipe, a spout with a sensor designed according to the filling capacity. When the band folded paper th rough this point, the fill tube is inserted between the edges of paper close to each other, then the packaging material forms a somewhat flattened tube, is fill ed with product and packaging are sealed through fluid, thus being completely fu ll. The filling machines packed 6,000 liters / hour and operate 24 hours. The transverse sealing and cutting are the last phase, becoming permanently pack aging by folding and sealing the top and bottom lashes, which is achieved throug h a system of rollers. - 13 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road The formation and sealing of the packaging is made with two pairs of jaws, which also pull the material forward in a continuous motion. The longitudinal Ellada s is performed with hot air, while the cross sections are sealed by impulse (wel der voltaic). Packaging The packaging is done in trays surround system, from San Juan and Buenos Aires, trademark and Smurfi Zucamor respectively. Containers ou t of the filling machine and head of the line for the final packaging. They pass through two sensors, one allows the separation of a six brick, the other a pair (two of six) for the assembly of the tray. E sta is sealed by a sticker affixed by an injector at a temperature of 180 ° C. In armed trays to print the date of packaging, number of tests, and other specifications that must lead. Then throu gh a robot and overlay the trays and wrapped with plastic film. It is stored in storage and after 7 days was released. Wooden containers The wood is used for the manufacture of pallets, boxes, bars and spools. The str ength and duration of a box or a platform depends on the type of wood used, as t he particular properties of this material, especially the impact resistance, var ies even within a species, depending on the development of tree and the type and layout of the court. Pallets Pallets freight€pallets or pallets are used for ha ndling packages with lift (there are also fiber cardboard or plastic) to facilit ate the handling of goods in the warehouse of the producer and along the distrib ution chain to the store of stores that distribute the product in detail. Packag

ing of fruits and vegetables is the appropriate packaging that solves problems a nd physiological fruit and vegetables, protect and conserve it, highlight your p resentation without significantly increasing the price of the final product. For fresh fruit is composed primarily of corrugated cardboard box or wooden annexes elements to better present paper, polyethylene bags, chips, molded pulp trays o r polystyrene. In general packaging markets depend, for export is preferred corr ugated cardboard and wood from a single use. - 14 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road In the same factories that are made of corrugated placed in the bottom of boxes for packing stone fruits. These are colored with gentian violet, purple corrugat ed. They are simple one-sided and a single flute. Natural woods are used or mate rials of wood-based laminates, which are produced industrially. In the local ind ustry are the most common poplar drawers. The poplar has a straight grain, which can be cut into thin sections, saving raw materials, storage space, weight and freight costs. Low density is also reducing the weight of the package. All the w ood used in the manufacture of boxes should have proper moisture to avoid cracki ng, slipping off the pins and the development of fungi during storage. Since the points of attachment are the weakest of the box, use of sewing on thin wire and nails using thick materials. In the latter case, the grip length of the nails s hould not be less than 3mm. The pins or wires used are galvanized steel or have another kind of coating to avoid oxidation. Glass containers Glass is a mixture of metal oxides, which are linked by means of heat and its ba sic composition is silica sand, soda ash and limestone. In addition to other met al oxides used as colorants, oxidizing and reducing (chromite, sodium nitrate, c arbon, sulfur, manganese, selenium), the product recycling of packaging is used as a flux. For practical purposes it is more realistic to consider a supercooled liquid or solid by the high viscosity of a crystalline material. Can be obtaine d in different colors, depending on tastes or needs, both for content preservati on, as a design element. The most common colors are amber, green and opal. Featu res • • • • • • Transparency of the pack. The consumer can view the inside of th e container to check the appearance of the product. Light barrier, especially in amber containers for high-fat products. They are inert, so no chemical reaction with no evidence (except hydrofluoric acid) and do not interact with the produc t. They do not alter the taste of food. They are waterproof. Remarkably resistan t (up to 100 kg/cm2 pressure) but have no impact resistance. They resist high te mperatures, thermal conductivity provides for sterilization of products within t he container - 15 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road • • • Very malleable. They offer a versatility of designs in shape, size and color. Re usable and recyclable indefinitely without altering their properties. Clean, pur e and hygienic. Closed are completely sealed and can not be pierced by sharp age nts. User industries The main industries that use glass containers are: chemicals, be

verages, medicine, cosmetics and foods. Manufacture of the container. 1. Press-B low Process: used wide-mouth container. 2. Puff-puff Process: used to narrow mou th bottles. puff-puff è Process: Rayén Visit Cura. Rayén Cura is a company dedic ated to the production of glass bottles for wine and champagne. Its factory is l ocated in the National Rail 6070, Rodeo de la Cruz, Guayma full, province of Men doza. It was founded in 1947 and since 1998 is part of Saint Gobain, a world lea der in the manufacture of glass. Saint Gobain is among the 100 largest industria l groups in the world. It has a worldwide network of research and development, c ontributing to Rayén Curá counted among his capital with the best know how of th e business. Raw materials.€Glass is produced from the following combination of n atural raw materials: 71% silica sand from a quarry, 14% of soda in the form of sodium carbonate, 11% of lime from limestone (calcium carbonate) and 4% of sever al components that allow mainly the color of the glass. The sand was transported from San Juan, the red sand of the river Paraná (Entre Rios) and soda (soda ash , NaCO3) of South Africa. The materials are stored in silos. The weighing and mi xing of raw materials are made in a fully automated shop. To this mixture is add ed 45% cullet, glass recycling. 15% of cullet is shipped (or defective bottles o ut of specification that leave the production line and are ground to reenter the process) and the rest comes from local assemblers and suppliers. The latter arr ives by truck and stored in a large container of cement that feeds the recycling plant where it is processed, milled and classified automatically to a fine grin d - 16 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road (Which is less than dust) by eliminating the remnants of plastic, paper and othe r impurities that comes from abroad. The mixture is homogenized and sent to the ovens. Oven. The mixture of raw materials and cullet is melted in furnaces, wher e temperatures get closer to 1500 º C. These furnaces operate continuously 24 ho urs a day, 7 days a week. The plant has two furnaces: a guy whose daily producti on is 90 tons and a large one whose daily output reaches 300 tons. Its managemen t is fully automated. They run on natural gas and has n functions facilities nar gas oil to a possible cut of gas (there are also electric furnaces). The molten glass is then driven by distribution channel, called feeders, to the manufactur ing machines. At the end of the feeder, the casting is divided into drops, the w eight, shape and temperature are controlled with great precision as they are cru cial in the process (a difference of 5 º C can be detrimental to the quality). C onformation. The formation is made by a double set of molds: mold • Coach: the d rop falls into a narrow mold invested and pressed with an air stream at the bott om of the mold, which corresponds to the neck of the bottle finished. Then a swi tch goes down on top of the mold, and a stream of air coming from below, passes through the neck giving the first form in the bottle. • mold terminator: the hal f-formed bottle is clamped by the neck, inverted and passed to a second blow mol d where it is given final shape to the bottle. This is then extracted by a clamp to a cooling plate before being placed on the conveyor belt. The blowing is don e at a temperature of 600 º C, in these few seconds the glass remains at between red orange yellow and red working. The bottles come out at temperatures near 50 0 º C. The molds are brought from Belgium and for custom made with short notice with a vendor in Cordoba. The quality of imported molds is much higher, they are also cheaper. Argentine molds deform when heated and therefore require many adj ustments before starting work. The forming machine may include: rotary or linear . The first is easy to change the molds, is ideal for limited production, is ver y slow and if it breaks a mold is to stop the whole machine. The LP is very fast , is for mass production and if it breaks a mold, you can cancel and continue wo rking with others.

- 17 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road The large oven has three production lines: two machines one with linear and rota ry. Each has 20 linear cavities (molds) and can form 120 bottles of 400g (for ta ble wines) per minute (the speed can be varied depending on the quality, weight, etc.., Which is to obtain and can produce up to 500,000 bottles per day each). Archa. To remove tensions caused during forming, the bottles go through an annea ling archa (10 minutes): ntadas are docked and then gradually cooled to temperat ures of around 70 º C. The glass container reaches its final level of resistance . Archa Before and after surface treatments are performed. Polyethylene coating is sprayed to protect the glass surface of any scratches and gives it a glossy f inish. Control. All packages are controlled by electronic machines that check ma inly its size, strength, appearance and the existence of possible cracks.€At the end of the line makes a visual inspection, if there was any wrinkle or bubble t hat had gone unnoticed by the electronic controls. All defective units are rejec ted and recycled as cullet. Strength, fracture and defects Resistance is determi ned by the shape of the container, the distribution of glass and the degree of a nnealing. To be defective in their resistance can occur different types of fract ures: on impact, thermal shock or internal pressure, all caused by an imbalance in the forces of internal tension. - 18 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road The main defects and their impact are deficient defects Thermal Shock Annealing glass Misallocation inclined Corona Outside dimensions and scale occlusions (bro ken glass, stones) Burr folds Wrinkle Black spots that affect color or flavor of the finished product problems, such as Malformed crown that allows exchange of gases affect Machinability Appearance Reaction product Expedition. The bottles are packed in pallets automatically. Pressboard is place d on the pallet, place the bottle, it becomes a Suncho with plastic tape and sta cked about five stories. Then they placed a plastic bag and stored heat shrink ( common stock available to customers) or distributed (continuously) to customers as exc lusivos Chandon, Bianchi, Peñaflor and Bodegas Lopez. Other data of inter est. • Rayén Cure is the only glass bottles factory in Argentina that has been c ertified ISO 9000 standards. - 19 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road • •

• Maintenance is currently mostly due to the demands corrective production. Preven tive maintenance is performed in the mold changes being made 5 or 6 times per we ek. Starting next year will be carried out scheduled maintenance. Energy saving is considerable to include cullet in the production, as per 10% of recycled glas s used in the mix is a decrease of 2.5% of the energy needed to melt virgin raw materials for lower temperature merger. In other words, one ton of recycled glas s is an economy of 130 kg of oil. While the production of glass does not take la rge amounts of water, some equipment such as compressors or cooling boxes in ove ns need to be cooled by water. Rayen Cura has a water treatment plant that contr ols, purifies and industrial water drinkable by techniques such as reverse osmos is and ultrafiltration of oil cleansing, operating virtually zero waste. OUTLINE OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS OF GLASS BOTTLES Description of the sector the company producing glass containers larger Cattorin ni Brothers in Argentina is over 50% of national production, which owns the fact ory Rigolleau bazaar products and services. It has a daily output of more than 1 ,300 tons of glass, and these are heavily used by the local food industry. Most industry is concentrated in Greater Buenos Aires, bringing together more than 70 % of the nation's factories. There is growing competition from companies of the beverages market, which in spite of the crisis sales are reduced too much. Plastic containers Plastics are materials that can be shaped by thermal processes at low temperatur es and pressures. They are characterized by organic substances and polymeric mac romolecular structure. According to its chemical composition have different prop erties which derive their applications. For the physical and chemical characteri stics of plastics have developed different types of packaging gaining strength p roperties, barrier and sealing each day covering industrial sectors for the dist ribution of their products. - 20 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road This type is divided into rigid packaging (bottles, jars, boxes, cases, etc..) A nd flexible (for packaging films, bags and sacks wrappers, etc.). Rigid plastic containers are made from materials that provide resistance to the package body, such as PET, HDPE, PVC, LDPE, PP, PS. The flexible plastic containers are develo ped from the combination of these movies together. Similarly, containers can be obtained from the combination of plastic films with paper or aluminum foil. Most pouches are produced with low density polyethylene, printed on flexo or rotogra fía.€Advantages of plastic containers § High resistance despite thin thicknesses . § Parts of high accuracy in shape and dimensions. § High productivity. § High production of plastic forms in production volume. § Easy operation. § Cost of ma chinery moderate. § Flexible thin wall mechanical strength. § Allows changes in production and the molds are not bulky or heavy. § Agility and low investment in changing the product design. Used for. They are widely used in industry of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and industrial chemistry. Also used fo r fuel tanks, drums, etc. Packaging manufacturing processes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 . Injection Extrusion-blow. Injection-blow. Extrusion Injection-blown two-stage two-stage rotational molding Thermoforming Thermoformed packaging technique of thermo formed or deep drawn, consists of a p rint process based on the extensibility of films made of thermoplastic. It is us ed in more shockproof polystyrene rigid PVC and to a lesser extent PE (polyethyl

ene) or PP (polypropylene). The films are heated to specific temperature range i n which they present the best characteristics of elasticity. PVC For example the re are two: the state thermoelastic (110 to 135 ° C) and thermoplastic (from 165 to 180 ° C). The pure PVC can not be used, as it decomposes at high temperature s must - 21 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road stabilize it against heat and light by means of additives, otherwise turns yello w and dark. In polystyrene and PE are not known differences between the state an d thermoplastic plastics. The molding is performed by vacuum and compressed air, by both methods or by mechanical means. In the process of forming the laminate film is placed in and / or a mold with the proper way, so it rests in all its pa rts. In this state the film is cooled. The stripping of the piece can be perform ed immediately in pan or in a subsequent phase of work. Blisters are a combinati on packaging, usually plastic and cardboard. It is used mainly for small goods. There are three types of blister: the blister, the skin, also called bubble and blister. Blister bubble blister skin Blister packaging that does not need adhesive is the folding type, is obtained b y deep folds embución hot. Tablets such as aspirin, for example, are packaged in a blister pack is a thermoformed base, with many cavities of rigid PVC film. Is used as a cover sheet or aluminum foil, which is torn to provide access to the product. Skin Pack has a similar principle to blister, with the basic difference that the film does not form a mold, but the product itself, thus forming a seco nd skin product. Another difference is that the blister is generally used PVC sh eet mechanical resistance to tearing and in the case of food, films with high ba rrier to gases. Bubble was produced without mold, inflating with air a piece of hot movie giving different heights as the air pressure, this type of blister doe s not take into account the shape of the product. - 22 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Packaging skin adheres to the goods and cardboard, bubble and blister blisters s hould join the base of the carton staples or glue, or slots, but should be reinf orced with some adhesive. Visit è Sitec S.A. The Company was created in SITEC añ o1970 by its present owners and has a staff of Staff employed by professional, t echnical, administrative, sales supervisors and operators, forming a group of mo re than 90 people working inside the factory and 70 were it. It features three d ivisions: Packaging: Responsible for the production of easily ® line of own manu facture products such as hair tails, and others only blistering world-renowned b rands such as Singer, Dylon, Agfa (Germany and Japan) , db (USA) and Pax (Chile) . Logistics Division: Responsible for distribution in Argentina and neighboring countries easily ® brand, and our country internationally renowned brands. It ha s customers in worldwide locations such as Peru, Mexico (adena of pharmacies), c Venezuela, USA and Spain. They are suppliers of Jumbo chain. Music Division: ma

in operator in the nation's supermarkets. Has important links with major nationa l and international record labels, has developed interactive listening (fácilmús ica) and display areas. Disney is representative of the entire country (Ion dist ribution: CD, cassette, and films).€Production Plant The factory produced bliste rs, practitubos (PVC tube with lid up) and polypropylene bags. The factory has a production capacity of 20,000 daily blisters, but does not work to the total in stalled capacity, because there is sufficient market in which to place this amou nt. Corporate customers do not blister in themselves, because the costs are high automation line and to ensure profitable operation should turn on a machine to produce some 5,000 units. Also in the case of foreign brands to outsource the co st is less than the blistering transport the product and packaging. Products bli ster 1. Care accessories and beauty of the body, nail pliers, disposable nail fi les, pumice, etc. - 23 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road 2. Products basic notions needles, machine oil, buttons, elastics, pins, scissor s, centimeters, hook clasps, etc. 3. Various board games: dice, cards, etc. 4. R olls and Agfa cameras. 5. Office and school products: pens, markers, crayons, hi ghlighters, etc. The raw material pellets (PVC) used in the production process o f practitubos, among others, must be flexible, transparent and without UV protec tion, so you buy from suppliers Buenos Aires and Chile as well as rolls for manu facture of bags and blister. The rolls are standardized with a width of 460 mm w hich limits the size of the blister to be produced. Blower Technology: It is mai nly used to manufacture packaging practitubos but allows up to 10 liters of capa city, working with PVC pellets that enter from a cylinder hopper located at the top of the machine, and travel down the same where you can apply different tempe ratures to graduate through a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) based on the p roduct to manufacture and machine speed: 500, 600, or 1,500 containers per hour. The machine operates at a temperature of 170-180 ° C, delaying three hours to e nter the regime and by programming a clock control is performed on three hours b efore the start of the shift. Also has a cooling system, which consists of tubin g through which cold water circulates. This system is controlled by another PLC. The machine works at 15% capacity. There should be uniformity in the thickness of the finished product, where duct, driven by compressed air, is sent to storag e silos. Each unit produced has a cost of $ 0.11, but with the increase of oil w as $ 0.13 - $ 0.14 Machines for manufacturing rolls of bags are used polypropyle ne material. Production capacity: 1,000 bags / hour and the unit cost of $ 0.02. The roll of material may have different impressions, first passes through a ten sion, then the shoulder is going to give the tubular is then sealed and sent ver tically downward in the process of packaging the product that enters the interio r of the shoulder from a hopper, then sealed transversely. It - 24 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road can package any product provided within the tube packaging. As you can see the p ackaging and packaging of the product is performed simultaneously. This pack has the advantage of occupying less space than the previous one and is cheaper. The rmoforming machine thermoforming uses a matrix that has holes in its back. This is formed of sheet metal, plastic resins, and aluminum, the latter material used for heat dissipation, and whose amount varies according to the application to b e used for the array. Each array type has specific characteristics such as tempe rature, cooling time, etc.., Which are controlled through a PLC. First, the mach ine heats the material at a given temperature, then a vacuum which must be regul

ated, this makes the film down and cover the pan, while it adapts perfectly to y our shape. She later followed cooling and blown off the blister, thus avoiding b reakage. Blister sealing machine is constituted by an array of sealed, you must have the distinction of being perfect horizontal level. To seal an array of 16 b listers consumed a time of 15 seconds. The blister is placed in the array of sea ling and incorporating the product. Place the cardboard (cosmetics) and the plat e forming the bottom of the container. With pressure and heat the blister is sea led and cut. Lets shrink machine gun practitubos r a pack with a plastic film€by passing through a tunnel of heat, which produces a contraction of the material and thus allows to obtain the thermal pack made. Statistics Studies W.P.O. (World Packaging Organization) show that the packaging market ten ds to have a share of 1.0 to 2.5% of GDP of any country, which would lead to a g lobal market of around u $ s 500 billion. Following the same reasoning, in Latin America would have a market that could range from u $ s 20 billion and 48 billi on. Making a more conservative estimate, we believe that the Latin American mark et would u $ s 20 u $ s 25 billion. Local groups do their own research and that gives greater security to affirm this estimate. Therefore we can show the follow ing: - 25 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Source: ULADE (Latin American Union of packaging) The per capita market for packaging Packaging market per capita is in the follow ing order: Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico $ 132 $ 88 $ 50 $ 51 $ 28 Source: ULADE (Latin American Union of packaging) To give an idea of consumption in the first world USA Europe Japan U.S. $ 311 $ 385 $ 460 Source: ULADE (Latin American Union of packaging) Obviously we can not compare Latin American countries with the developed countri es but for that very reason, our potential is great. Improving the purchasing po wer of the population in Latin America, certainly the packaging market has much room for growth. The Market by Type of Packaging Other important information is the participation of each country by type of packaging: - 26 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Argentina Brazil Chile Paper & Paperboard 34% 23.4% 36.8% Source Metal Wood Plas tic Glass 11.3% 58.4% 5.6% 1.3% IAE 23% 6% 11.2% 18.5% Mexico 38.2% Colombia 33.9% 21.9% 5.5% 18% 34.8% 35% 20.8% 26.2% 21.5% 12.7% 2% n.d. n.d. AMEE CENEMES OPEN Colombian Center The import of packaging machines in some Latin American countries is relevant to the Packaging Market s imports of machinery for packaging of various countries.

Source: ULADE (Latin American Union of packaging) Situation in Argentina Beverage containers: glass vs. PET bottles • Until the 70 'the drinks are packag ed in returnable glass bottles. • Decade of the 70 '/ 80': begin to appear and d evelop returnable PET containers. Vigorously growing market for these beverage c ontainers. • Decade of the 80 '/ 90': local petrochemical production begins larg e-scale PET as raw material (in Zárate - Province of Bs As). PET returnable pack aging is largely replaced by disposable PET. This is due to several reasons: o C ost of washing or Consumer Preference (avoids having to move and return the empt y containers) or the system is more hygienic disposable or Less logistics for Tr ade / Industry and Opportunities for the Recycling of PET containers - Post cons umption. o In 1997 he began production in Zárate PET as raw material. - 27 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road • Economic Crisis: January 2002 From the peso devaluation, large bottlers start package over glass thus making use of the modality of returnable packaging. This dramatic change was not due to any environmental or health reason, not linked t o the consumer, but only took into account the cost of production, packaging and product, apart from numerous other factors to consider in the final cost of use during the life cycle of PET packaging. But you should make sure that the syste m returnable glass is actually more economical. To this end, studies should be d one with objective results, reliable and clear. Imports and exports According to surveys conducted by the CITENEM (Centre for Research and Development in Packag ing) under the INTI (National Institute of Industrial Technology) increased dema nd for imported packaging for export of products focused in 2002 in different ty pes of packaging made of cardboard (31%), plastics (30%) and paper (16%). With a lower percentage (4%) were imported packaging wood, metal and cork. The import of the most requested cardboard boxes and trays have been corrugated cardboard a nd pallets corner. They are used to export fruits and vegetables, frozen fish an d fine wines. In the case of plastic bags and trays were imported fruit and vege tables, fish plates for frozen and synthetic closures for wine bottles.€The pape r packaging instead were primarily for multi-wall kraft bags coal, paper or silk sulfite fresh fruit packaging, and labels for bottles of fine wine. Other input s were imported to a lesser extent boxes, bins and pallets (wood), steel drums f or juice and wine, and corks for bottles. Also entered the country elements of p ackaging made from tin, glass, burlap, aluminum and tin, and sulfur dioxide gene rators that are used for the preservation of fresh fruits, mainly grapes. Source: CITENEM Even without exporting too packagings are taken outside once the products contai ning become export products (eg glass bottles wines for export), thus leaving th e market anyway INTERNATIO NAL. - 28 Chair: Industry and services Containers, consumer road Bibliography Focus Magazine, Issue No. 04 September / October 2002. Article: "On Packaging. " Vidales Giovannetti, Ma Dolores. "The World of Packaging", Editions G. Gili,

Mexico, 1995. CITENEM Newsletter. "Import Substitution", year 3, No. 8, Augus t 2003. Technical Information Bulletin No. 19. CIT-COTEC. "PET vs disposable c ontainers. Returnable glass "Rayen Cura Company. SITEC Com pany SA Company Fecovita - 29 -

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