Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________1 Gears The gears are mechanisms to transmit power and motion between the different elem

ents of a machine. A gear is a set of two gears whose teeth fit together, so tha t turning one of them dragging the other. However, in common parlance the term g ear is also used to designate the individual gears. Since ancient times, the gea rs have been used as the transmission system, although its form and materials us ed in its construction have evolved. In antiquity were well known inventions of Hero, a Greek scholar of the school of Alexandria, who built many devices that w orked with gears. At first, the gears were made of wood but, at present, the mat erials used in their manufacture are primarily metals and plastics. The transmis sion of motion and strength has important advantages through gears more robust m echanisms footprint reduction, gear ratio more stable (no possibility of slippag e), possibility of automatic transmission, noise reduction and increased ability to transmit power . The gears, due to the advantages involved in their use, hav e a wide field of application and are used in all kinds of machines and equipmen t: mixers cars, watches, games and more. Characteristics of the gears in the gea r transmission is no intermediate inputs, such as belts or chains, to transmit m otion. The wheels have teeth on its periphery that fit them, so that a wheel dra g to the other. To transmit motion and force through gears is necessary to employ at least two t oothed wheels, whose teeth have the same shape and size, so they can fit (mesh) between them. The rotation gear systems is reversed, ie if one rotates clockwise (in the sense of clockwise), the connected to it rotate counterclockwise (in th e opposite direction of clockwise). In a complex system of gears, the odd gears (on the one gear connected to the driving element) revolve in the same direction , while the pairs, counting from the same spin in the opposite direction. In a g ear system is called the gear wheel of larger diameter and the smallest sprocket . Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________2 When the pinion moves the wheel, we have a speed reducer. Otherwi se, ie if you move the sprocket wheel, the system will speed multiplier. The gear systems are used more as deterrents to as multipliers and generally the speed of the motors is a high rate which becomes lower speeds through complex g ear systems called gearboxes. Classification of gears Gears can be classified by the state of their teeth, according to the shape of y our teeth and in the form of gear CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE LOCATION OF THE TEETH Depending on the situation of the teeth, the gears can be indoors or outdoors. • The internal gears are those who have cut their teeth on the inside (it a hollo w cylinder. • The external gears are those who have cut their teeth on the outer surface of a cylinder. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM OF TEETH According to the shape of the teeth, the gears are classified as spur gears and helical teeth. • spur gears, as its name suggests, are in a straight line and ar e placed parallel to the axis of rotation of the sprocket. Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________3 • Helical gears are those whose teeth are arranged along the path

(parallel helices him around a cylinder. If we have a cylinder of a certain len gth, and carved on its periphery helices parallel to each other, to cutting the gears will get sliced cylinder coil. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF GEAR Depending on how the gear, they are classified as spur gears, bevel gears, worm gears and gear rack. Spur gears are cylindrical gears with teeth cut disks on it s periphery. There are different types of spur gears: straight teeth, helical te eth and V-shaped teeth with cylindrical gears have straight teeth straight teeth ,€parallel to the axis of rotation of gear cut on its periphery. They are the mo st used and most economical, but also the loudest, and can not be used to work a t high speeds. The spur gears with helical teeth are cylindrical disks are carve d on its periphery helical teeth. The system of gear teeth provides a smoother r ide than the spur gears, in addition, this makes them relatively quiet, with a force and moti on transmission more uniform and safer. Cylindrical gears V-shaped teeth are a s pecial case within the helical gears. They are used to offset the side thrust ar e subjected to helical gears because their teeth having inclined toward both sid es, the lateral thrust is balanced. Bevel gears Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________4 bevel gears are intended for the transmission of movement between trees that intersect at an angle determined. It is truncated cones with teeth c ut in its side surface. The teeth may be straight or curved (hypoid). Worm gears Worm gears are a special case within the helical gears, in which the pinion is a screw with a helical screw has one or more entries. The number of pr opellers is called number of entries and is equal to the number of teeth that wo uld have the pinion. The screw would then be a pinion with teeth like so many en tries have propeller or screw, usually 1, 2 or 3. The worm can engage with a sprocket outwardly, forming what is known as Worm mec hanism. The crown is a toothed wheel with a special concave teeth achieve a bett er coupling with the screw. The worm may also engage in a nut inside giving rise to the so-called screw-nut mechanism. Gear rack Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________5 The zipper is a special case within the spur. It is a prismatic b ar gear. The teeth may be straight or slant in terms of meshing with a spur whee l or a wheel with helical teeth. Applications gear The motion between two shafts can be spread through pulleys, bearings and gears pulley systems are used between axes which are at a distance. When the distance between the axes is small, you can use gearing. However, higher speeds or to tra nsmit considerable efforts these systems have problems of stalling due to slippi ng of the wheels or belts. The solution to this problem is the use of gears. Gea rs with internal teeth gears with internal teeth allow a minimum distance betwee n the axles thus its implementation will be indicated in those systems that requ ire minimal space, such as small portable drills, electric screwdrivers and smal l appliances. They also apply in some machines, such as manual cutting of grass, within Wankel engines, etc. Straight-tooth spur gears cylindrical gears spur be tween parallel shafts are used do not have to reach high speeds. These gears are part of the so-called gearing (gear train is called the set of wheels and gears needed to convey the effort and the movement between two specific axes) This ty pe of gear is the most widely used and can be found in any type of machine clock s, appliances, toys, cars, etc. cylindrical gears with helical teeth of cylindri

cal gears with helical teeth can transmit motion between parallel shafts or axle s from crossing in either direction. However, most current transfers are made be tween parallel and between axes that intersect perpendicularly. Given their stru ctural characteristics, the worm gear transmission allowing small efforts but mo re uniform speed, by contrast is more expensive construction. The podernos find gear trains, engine powertrains, transmissions etc. Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________6 Bevel gears bevel gears are used to transmit motion between shafts that are cut. Although bevel gears are normally made to transmit motion between perpendicular axes (90 °)€also made to transmit motion between axes located at different angl es of 90 º. Bevel gears can see almost all of the machine powertrains bevel gear s and hypoid gears are also widely used in transmission systems of automobiles. The worm gear Worm mechanism is used to obtain large discounts. If we have a mul titude of gearing a single entry on a wheel of twenty teeth, to make the wheel a full turn, the worm will have to give twenty and therefore reduce the speed twe nty times. The screw-nut mechanisms are used to transform circular motion into l inear motion, is frequently used for moving tables and carts of many machine too ls, horn lathes, milling machines, grinders, etc. Gear rack The main application of the rack and pinion mechanism is to transform circular motion into linear mo tion. We can find rack gear part of the direction of cars, where the circular mo vement of the steering rack moves right and left wheels spinning, in machine too ls, such as the drill, in the process of mountain railway, corkscrew , etc. ____ ____________________________________________________________________________ Calculation of rates The variation of a faster movement of slow or s of mechanisms expressed by numerical values the ratio between the number representing the e number representing the wheel speed dragged vice versa, through different type called transmission ratio (i), ie speed of driving wheel , n1 and th n2.

Intermediate gears: In a gear, the drive wheel rotates in the opposite direction to the driven wheel, or rotating in opposite directions. Placing an additional round, called idler between driving and driven, you can get the driving gear and driven gear rotate in the same direction. It is important to know that does not change the idler gear ratio of a system or change the output speed. Transmissio n simple When the motion is transmitted directly between two axes by means of a pair of gears is a simple transmission. Engranajes______________________________________________________________________ _____________7 n1 π • Z 2 = Z 2 = n 2 π • Z1 Z1 Transmission com ound is com osed of transmission is made between more than two axes at once, so it is necessary that each of the intermediate shafts are necess arily two s rockets mounted: one and one that connects to the axle that gives mo vement that connects you to the next shaft, which drag. In the com osite made by gear transmission, re lacing the diameters of the ulleys by the number of teet h of the wheels is satisfied that: Z 2 * Z * Z 6 * 4 ....... N1 = n * ZN NZ 1 Z 3 * Z * 5 * .......... * Z N -1