General Training Course FG1A0-1 Mathematical Thought and Reality 2007, Spring Se mester Natural disasters and their

occurrence in Chile: Tsunamis, volcanoes, earthquakes and landslides Teachers and Departments • Ricardo Thiele, Sofia Rebolledo, Sergio Sepúlveda, Gabriel Vargas, Rodrigo Luc a Department of Geology • Jaime Campos, Department of Geophysics • Ramón Verdugo , Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics Course Objectives This course allows the student to know the cause and extent of natural phenomena to better understand the natural environment. Upon graduation, students will be able to: • Recognize the natural phenomena and the magnitude that they can achi eve. • Know the occurrence of these phenomena in Chile and elsewhere. • Incorpor ate this knowledge into various aspects of their profession. Program Volcanoes Item 1 Date 24-July 31-July 7-Aug 14-Aug 21-Aug Types of Cases histori c volcanic eruptions Hazards Volcanic Rocks avalanche Responsible Ricardo Vargas Ricardo Thiele Thiele Rodrigo Gabriel Rodrigo Luca Luca Item 2 Landslides and floods 28 Aug 04 Sep 11 Sep 02 Sep 25 Oct Earthquakes Item 3 Oct 16 Oct 23 types of earthquakes, seismicity and seismic hazard in Chile 30 -Oct seismic hazard associated with 06 potentially active faults Nov tsunamis an d major earthquakes in Chile and worldwide. Nov 13 Effect of earthquakes on civi l works. Ricardo Thiele Thiele Sofia Rebolledo Ricardo Jaime Campos Ramón Verdug o types of phenomena Great Floods in Chile in the world landslide mass wasting h azard Control 1 Sofia Sofia Rebolledo Rebolledo Sergio Sepulveda Sergio Sepulved a Sofia Rebolledo / Rodrigo Luca Sofia Rebolledo / Rodrigo Luca Nov 20 Review Review Evaluation • Control 1: 30% final grade • Examination: 30% final grade • Note Attendance: 4 0% final grade Note for assistance ASSISTANCE 00.0-08.0% 08.1-16.0% 16.1-24.0% 24.1-32.0% 32.1-40.0% 40.1-48.0% 48. 1-56.0% 56.1-64.0% 64.1-72.0% 72.1-80.0% 80.1-88.0%% 88.1-100% NOTE 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 • Students at the end of the semester do not reach the minimum score of 4.0 or w ish to raise their final grade or offers a special status, are entitled to stand for examination of recovery. The exam date will be published on the website of FG and will be announced in class, considering the end of the semester and final evaluation. The introductory note weighted 70% and 30% examination. VOLCANOES AND VOLCANO TYPES OF ERUPTIONS THE VOLCANOES ARE A PRODUCT OF THE DYNAMICS OF PLATE MARGINS THE DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES IN THE WORLD is closely related to the plate bound aries

Magmatism and VOLCANO • Magma is generated under the earth's crust, ON TOP of the lithosphere, and is directly related to the dynamics of the plates. The processes associated with ma gmatism TO FOCUS ON THE EDGES OF PLATES OR CONTACTS. When magma rises to the Ear th's surface, comes out as lava ASSOCIATED PROCESSES THROUGH WHAT WE KNOW AS A V OLCANO • • 1 Ane lc s Vo The volcanoes have an enormous and potentially devastating eruption all lead to various hazards, direct and indirect, to humanity. Pyroclastic (Redoubt Volcano, Alaska) Magma originated from partial melting of lower crust and / or upper mantle, usua lly at depths varying between 50-200 km It can move in the cortex, Penetrates through IT. THE MAGMA IS A PRODUCT OF THE DYNAMICS OF PLATE MARGINS AS THE MAJORITY OF FLUIDS, THE MINOR IS MAGMA DENSITY THAT IS FORMED OF SOLID AN D BY THE FORCE OF BUOYANCY tend to migrate upwards through the mantle and crust (the process of intrusion: the rocks penetrates superiors, fracture injection, p ressing and pushing the rock above, forming a dome rocks melted and assimilated invading THE MAGMA • THE MAGMA: SILICATE MATERIAL IS A CAST (gas + liquid + crystals) • The constit uent elements are: If, O, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K • MAGMA physical properties such as density, viscosity, and how to extrude, ARE CONTROLLED BY THE CONSTITUENTS I S WIDELY O2 and H2 O. THE PROPORTION OF CONSTITUENT If O2 CHEMISTRY OF THE MAGMA is variable, between 33% and 75% • THE EXPLOSIVE IS CONTROLLED BY GASES DISSOLV ED (C O2 and H2 O, S O3, ...), which H Cl CAN GET UP TO 14% IN VOLUME THE CHEMISTRY OF DIFFERENT magmas, basalts (or mafic) to Granite, through the di orite, ROCK FORMING MINERALS WITH DIFFERENT and give rise to volcanic eruptions DIFFERENT. END IN A RASH "quiet"€LAVA FLOWS WITH ONLY THE OTHER END AND RASH "vi olent" and explosive, with pyroclastic ONLY EXPULSION. MIXED ERUPTION, effusive and pyroclastic, is associated with magmas INTERMEDIATE. NOTWITHSTANDING THE WIDE VARIETY OF ITS COMPOSITION OF MAGMA can be illustrated LONG CONSIDERED ONLY ON MAGMA SILICATES two extreme types: mafic and MAGMA MAGMA Silica. • mafic magma: contains (+ or -) 50% Si O2 and a temperature range of 9 00 ° to 1200 ° C. ROCK OF THE FAMILY PRODUCE GABR - BASALT (Ca-plagioclase and p yroxene, with lesser amounts of olivine and no or very little, quartz). Is gener ated by partial melting of the mantle (in the Rift - zone). Is very fluid. MAGMA Silica: containing 65% and 75% Si O2 generally low temperature 850 ° C. FAMILY PRODUCE GRANITE ROCKS - Rhyolite (quartz, K-feldspar, Na-plagioclase, biotite an d less hornblende). Is generated by partial melting of oceanic crust and lower c ontinental crust (subduction zone). Is very viscous. A magma of intermediate com position (between high and low content of Si O2) PRODUCE FAMILY ROCKS Andesite D

iorite • • IF YOU DO THE EXTRUSION OF WAY "QUIET, THROUGH A CENTRAL DUCT O fissure, EXTRUDE D MATERIAL ON THE LANDSCAPE CAN FLOW IN A CASTING LAVA, an igneous rock FORMING ALSO CALLED ROCK EFFUSIVE. If the magma extruded less "quiet" you can do it EXPLOSIVE, SOLID CALLED pyrocla stic fragments pass. These fragments form the so-called pyroclastic rocks pyroclastics 1 Ane lc s Vo The volcanoes have an enormous and potentially devastating eruption all lead to various hazards, direct and indirect, to humanity. Pyroclastic (Redoubt Volcano, Alaska) Pyroclastics Pyroclastic SIZE IS VARIABLE: ASH FROM FINA (<1 / 16 mm); A THICK ASH (16-2 mm), lapilli (2-64 mm); AND PUMPS OR BLOCKS (> 64 mm). THE ROCKS PRIROCLÁSTICAS that originate, respectively, are: TOBA, DIVIDE AND CHIPBOARD Pyroclastic BLOCK Larger than 64 mm LAVAS • COMMON TYPES OF CAST lavas are "aa" (with little gas, slow moving, 3-10 m thic k) and the "pahoehoe" (lowest thickness (1 m) with folds or coils of rope, and t ube lava). COMMON TYPES OF CAST: "aa" (a little gas, slow moving, 3-10 m thick). COMMON TYPES OF CAST: lavas "Pahoehoe (thinner (1 m), folds or rolls of rope lav a tubes). • Other types are the vesicular lavas (gas bubbles), the massive and vesicular l avas, with cooling fractures polygonal (hexagonal columns), and "pillow lava (la va in the form of pads), which solidified under the water. Central Volcanic Activity ASH FLOWS AND CLOUDS BURNING: up to 250 km / hour, 400 km length, 100 m thick (catastrophic). give rise to an ignimbrite. FALL or "RAIN" ASH gives rise to the "TEFRA" Types of Rashes Basic magma eruptions cause less violent and more "calm." Type Hawaiian: only flows (few pyroclastic) lava lakes

Types of Rashes Intermediate magma eruptions cause combined and "mixed." STROMBLIANA Type: EXPLOSIVE (incandescent slag rhythmic discharges, pumps), inte rspersed with lava flows Types of Rashes Intermediate magmas (slightly more acidic) also cause rashes "mixed." Vulcan: pyroclastic flows, dark clouds, table (vapor) Types of Rashes Acid magmas commonly generate explosive and violent eruptions. Type Fight: explosive violence, forming domes and "needles" Volcano The volcano (volcano) RESULTING FROM THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF eruption that occurs , PRESENT DIFFERENT FORMS OR STRUCTURES. THEREFORE AS THE TYPE OF ERUPTION OF TH E VOLCANO SHAPE ARISING are classified according to defined parameters TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and STRUCTURES Types of Rashes • Hawaiian: ONLY FLOWS (scarce pyroclastic) • STROMBLIANA LAVA L AKE: EXPLOSIVE (incandescent slag rhythmic discharges, pumps) • Vulcan: pyroclas tic flows, dark clouds, table (vapor) • Fight: VIOLENT EXPLOSIVE; FORM DOMOS Y " NEEDLES" • Pliniana: MAINLY GAS, CONTINUOUS CLOUD pumice • phreatomagmatic: MAGM A + WATER = VIOLENT ERUPTION SINGLE resulting volcano (volcanic structures) • vo lcanic shield up to 100 km in diameter and 10 km height • cinder cones: 30-300 m in height • Lava domes SILICEA: MULTIPLE NEEDLES (THORNS) OF 500-800 m • COMPOS ITE VOLCANO (JOINT): base: 30 -40 km and 3000 m (or more) high • BOILER AND volc anic lake (Sommer ): • Maars: small explosion crater the water table through ano ther type of volcanic activity • fumarolic activity (H2O, HCl, CO2),€Solfataric (H2S, SO2), geysers and hot springs Volcanic shield up to 100 km in diameter and 10 km height Cinder cones (30-300 m in height) Volcano compound (mixed) Lava domes SILICEA: MULTIPLE NEEDLES (THORNS) OF 500-800 m Profiles of volcanic edifices. Comparing sizes TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and STRUCTURES Types of Rashes • Hawaiian: ONLY FLOWS (scarce pyroclastic) • STROMBLIANA LAVA L AKE: EXPLOSIVE (incandescent slag rhythmic discharges, pumps) • Vulcan: pyroclas tic flows, dark clouds, table (vapor) • Fight: VIOLENT EXPLOSIVE; FORM DOMOS Y " NEEDLES" • Pliniana: MAINLY GAS, CONTINUOUS CLOUD pumice • phreatomagmatic: MAGM A + WATER = VIOLENT ERUPTION SINGLE resulting volcano (volcanic structures) • vo lcanic shield up to 100 km in diameter and 10 km height • cinder cones: 30-300 m in height • Lava domes SILICEA: MULTIPLE NEEDLES (THORNS) OF 500-800 m • COMPOS ITE VOLCANO (JOINT): base: 30 -40 km and 3000 m (or more) high • BOILER AND volc anic lake (Sommer ): • Maars: small explosion crater the water table through ano ther type of volcanic activity • fumarolic activity (H2O, HCl, CO2), solfataric (H2S, SO2), geysers and hot springs BOILER AND volcanic lake (Sommer)

Volcanic Hazards • Additional Dangers - - - - Harmful gases floods tsunamis atmospheric shock waves • Side effects - damage to crops - poisoning of livestock - water pollution - heal th problems - hunger - socio-economic change Some examples of eruptions Recent 1. El Monte Unsen (1975 and 15,000 muerrtos) 2. The Mont Saint Helens (19 80), 3. Nevados del Ruiz (1984 and 23.000muertos) Some examples of eruptions Historical 1. Vesuvius (AD 79 A.C.) 2. Mount Tambora (1815 and 90,000 dead) 3. K rakatoa (1883) 4. The Mont Pelé (1902 to 29,000 dead) Some examples of eruptions Geologic Time 1. Volcanoes and Diamond Maipo