MELENDEZ Objectives Define a protein Define the various structures of proteins. Describe the main fu nctions of proteins in living systems. Know the different diseases caused by pro tein deficiency. Describe and give examples of the four levels of organization o f proteins. Describe the properties of proteins. What are proteins? Proteins (Greek proteion, first) are high molecular mass macromolecules formed b y amino acids joined by peptide bonds. May consist of one or more strings. Composition Proteins are biomolecules consisting of carbon (53%) Hydrogen (7%) Oxygen (23%) Nitrogen (16%) Sulfur (1%) Phosphorus (less than 1%) Iron Magnesium Copper, amon g other things. Amino Acids They are the structural unit of proteins, they are characterized by: Carboxyl gr oup (-COOH) Amino group (-NH2) Carboxyl and amino groups in the peptide chain Essential Amino Acids There are amino acids essential to health because the body is unable to synthesi ze if ingested. Human beings need to include in your diet eight essential amino acids to stay healthy: Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptop han Valine Matinoina. The peptides and the peptide bond Conformation of the peptide bond Nomenclature of Peptides â ¢ Oligopeptides .- if the number of amino acids is less than 10. â ¢ Dipeptides .if the number of amino acids is 2. â ¢ Tripeptide .- if the number of amino acids is 3. â ¢ Tetrapeptide .- if the number of amino acids is 4. â ¢ Polypeptides or po lypeptide chains .- if the number of amino acids is greater than 10. â ¢ Protein: number of amino acids> 50 Importance of Protein spoke in: Communication (nerves) Fenders (antibodies) Meta bolic regulation (hormones) Catalysis biochemical (enzymes) Transport of oxygen (hemoglobin) was used in the formation of new tissue and tissue maintenance and developed. Malnutrition Reduced immune competence Reduced glutathione synthesis Reduced ability to clear waste products produces free radicals or susceptibility to infection in the bod y that is manifested in the lung and small intestine Main sources of proteins: In our diet we can distinguish proteins: Animal: prese nt in meat, fish, poultry, eggs and dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt, etc .. .)

Plant Origin: present in mushrooms, cereals (rice, oats, corn, wheat, etc ...) L egumes (beans, lentils, soybeans, peas, etc ...) Seeds and nuts (sesame, walnuts , almonds, peanuts , etc ...) Related Diseases in Protein Synthesis Fallas Fallas in the immune response in inflammatory response Allergies Alzheime r mutations by carcinogens Haemophilia Multiple Sclerosis Pulmonary Emphysema Ph enylketonuria Sickle Cell Anemia Thalassemia Cystic Fibrosis Hypercholesterolemi a Diabetes Mellitus Classification of Proteins According to their shape: Fibrous Long polypeptide chains present a typical secondary structure. They are insolubl e in water and aqueous solutions, forming solid complexes and large well-suited to serve as bricks.