NERVOUS SYSTEM Components: Work done for partial fulfillment of the biology discipline, coordinated and dir ected

by Professor Lolozinho. September 1998 - Census - São Mateus - ES. SUMMARY 1 - Introduction 2 - Development Illustrations 2.1-2.2-Nervous System 2.2.1 - 2.2.2 Comparative Anatomy - System cerebrospinal human 2.2.3 - System 2. 2.4 standalone or vegetation - Anatomy and function of nerves 3 - 4 Conclusion Bibliography 1 - Introduction 2 - Development 2.1 - Illustration 2.2 - NERVOUS SYSTEM As life evolved on Earth and that the environment has become more complex, the s urvival of animals came to depend increasingly on how they could respond to the changing environment. Since the communication between cells by chemical means was very slow, there was a system able to provide faster respo nses: the nervous system, which transmits electrical impulses almost instantly, a region of the body to another through specialized nerve cells. Nervous system is a physiological animal unit, formed by a set of specialized cells called neur ons, which is in charge of the coordination functions of the organism and its re lationship with the external environment and with all the anatomical elements th at comprise it. 2.2.1 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY The simplest form of nervous system is the phylum of coelenterates, which compri ses the hydras, jellyfish and polyps. These animals possess nerve cells distribu ted throughout the body, forming a kind of network. In the least developed worms , flatworms and Nemertine, the nervous system is still primitive, but there is a lready a degree of polarization, and cerebriform ganglia and longitudinal nerve fibers. The annelids are in the next stage of the evolutionary scale. The nervou s system of these animals consists of a pair of nodes connected by a ring cerebr iform Periesophagic to metameric ganglia. Lateral nerves also occur. Arthropods, the nervous system, not very different from annelids from which evolved. In the phylum of mollusks, the nerve structure is very differentiated and reaches its highest degree of evolution in the class of cephalopods (squids, octopuses, naut ilus etc). In these animals, the different ganglia fuse to form the brain mass, which distinguishes one party responsible for visual function and another which is responsible for regulating the functioning of the gills, viscera etc. In vert ebrates, the nervous system is divided into central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (cranial and spinal nerves, and autonomic nervous system or vegetativ e). The brain is divided into three regions: the forebrain, or previous brain, t he midbrain, or middle portion, and the hindbrain, or back. The anterior segment can be divided further into telencephalon (formed by the lobes of Olfaction and cerebral hemispheres) and diencephalon (which comprises the epithalamus, thalam us and hypothalamus). The middle section contains the optical lobes, the posteri or also differs in hindbrain (which is part of the cerebellum) and mielencéfalo (consisting of the medulla oblongata, which connects to the spinal cord). The a natomical complexity of the brain is related to the enormous number of sensory f unctions and processes regulated by it. Generally, there is a smaller fish in br ain development for the benefit of the olfactory organs. As we advance in the ev olutionary scale, the dimensions of the brain increase until they reach maximum size in primates and humans, they occur convolutions and separation of the brain

hemispheres. The intra-spinal portion of the nervous system is the spinal cord, from which emerge the pairs of spinal nerves, which innervate the various muscl es, glands and organs. In vertebrates quadrupeds are observed in the spinal cerv ical and lumbar swellings, which correspond to the emergence of nerves that are intended for anterior and posterior limbs. The autonomic nervous system is an ad ditional functional unit, consisting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic syst ems, which depends on the balance of organic life. The function of the nervous s ystem in higher animals is complemented by the action of the endocrine system, in charge of regulating horm one secretion. 2.2.2 - cerebro-spinal system HUMAN In humans, the structure of the nerves is differentiated into two areas. One cor responds to the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, which lodges in the cranial-spinal canal, protected by the meninges and vertebr ae. The other way the peripheral nervous system, which consists of a set of nerv es distributed throughout the body. Part of the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system, or vegetative€which regulates the functioning of organs and gl ands. Central nervous system, the human brain retains the threefold division int o forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, characteristic of embryonic development of vertebrates, although preferably organically to establish the distinction betwee n brain, cerebellum, bridge Varólio (or lump), midbrain and medulla CSF (or med ulla oblongata). The brain is the main element, which are directed to the impuls es received by the nervous system. His weight, once attained maximum development , is 1.400g and 1.260g in men and women. In brain morphology distinguishes an in itial separation into two large hemispheres cut by a deep line, the sagittal fis sure. On the surface of each hemisphere there are two other cuts, the fissure of Sylvius, or lateral sulcus, and Rolando, or central sulcus. Are so defined four lobes in each bisection: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The i nternal cavity is irrigated by the brain cerebrospinal fluid that flows in the s pinal cord and also constitutes an element of extreme importance in the diagnosi s of many diseases and metabolic disorders. From the inside out, are distinguish ed white matter, composed of neurons (nerve cells) coated with myelin, a lipopro tein material involving the fibers and increases the transmission speed of nerve impulses, and the gray matter, which forms the sheath or cortex. The brain mass is covered by three protective membranes, the meninges, which separate the cort ex of the cranial bones. These are the pia mater (inner), arachnoid (middle) and the dura mater (outer). In the posterior-inferior brain, lies the cerebellum, t he body responsible for motor coordination formed by a middle part, the worm, an d two lobes or hemispheres. Varólio Bridge, also called annular bulge, connects the brain, the cerebellum and the bulb, and lies at the bottom of the brain. It consists of different planes of longitudinal and transverse nerve fibers. The b ulb makes the transition between the brain and spinal cord. Him crisscrossing th e nerve fibers that reach the brain, which is why the regulatory functions of th e right side of the body are controlled by the left lobe, and those correspondin g to the left, the right lobe. Bulb comes the spinal cord or spinal, nerve cord that extends the cylindrical interior of the spine until the end of the sacrum. The umbilical cord consists of a central core of gray matter, with characteristi c X-shaped arrangement, wrapped in a cylindrical mass of white substance. The gr ay branches from the spinal cord to form the roots of spinal nerves. Throughout its extension, the spinal marrow is protected externally, as the brain, the thre e meninges, and in its internal channel, a membrane called the ependyma. Nerves represent the fundamental unit physiological peripheral nervous system. They ori ginate in the two basic components of the central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord. The 12 pairs of cranial nerves can be distinguished in olfactory, o ptic, ocular motor common, pathetic (or trochlear), trigeminal motor external oc ular, facial and intermediate estate-acoustic (vestibulocochlear), glossopharyng eal, vagus (pneumogastric) cord (accessory) and hypoglossal. Another 31 pairs fo

rm the set of spinal nerves, which depend on the reception of peripheral pulses, its transmission to the key centers of the nervous system and send signals to m uscles. 2.2.3 - OR AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM VEGETATIVE The regulatory functions of internal organs, is involuntary and autonomous, is p erformed by the vegetative nervous system, physiological unit integrated by two different systems, the sympathetic and parasympathetic, with opposing activities . The intestinal motility, for example, is stimulated by a sympathetic nerve sys tem and inhibited by another of the parasympathetic system. The functional units of the vegetative system are the fibers and ganglia. The sympathetic system is integrated by a double chain of ganglia arranged on both sides of the spine. The conduction of nerve impulses to the viscera is made of two neurons: the pregang lionic portion of the spinal ganglion and form a synapse with the postganglionic neuron, which continues to unnerve a peripheral organ. The second component of the autonomic nervous system is the parasympathetic system, formed by nerve fibe rs that emerge from the autonomous nervous system by the cranial nerves and the sacral segments. Although its components comply with the general pattern of the track consists of two autonomous effector neurons,€the parasympathetic system i s characterized by having very close to the ganglion that innervates viscera. 2.2.4 - ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF NERVE The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. His role in the t ransmission of impulses could be established from the studies of researcher Span iard Santiago Ramon y Cajal and later the German Heinrich Wilhelm von Waldeyer, responsible for its denomination. These two scientists, who opposed those who ad vocated the theory of diffuse fibrillar structure, failed to demonstrate that th e nervous system consists of cells which differ in a cell body, or soma, an axis of transmission of nerve impulses, called the axon or cylinder- axis, and a ser ies of branched extensions, or dendrites. The impulse transmission occurs in are as of interference, called synapses. In addition to neurons, there are nervous s ystem cells that form the fabric of support and nutrition system: a neuroglia. W e describe three main groups of neuroglial cells: (1) astrocytes that participat e in synaptic transmission, (2) oligodendrocytes, which function as protection and isolation of the neuron, and (3) microglial cells, small and phagocytic. As for the physiology of the nervous system, its components have different functions of regulation and control. In t he spinal cord are exercised or shares conducting motor and reflex functions suc h as posture and locomotion. The medulla oblongata involved in control of cardia c and respiratory function, among others, and the cerebellum in the control of b alance and muscle tone and coordination of movements. The brain is the center th at combines and integrates all processes sensitive and motor, emotional and inte llectual. Nerve impulses can be voluntary or reflex, not second or reach the cer ebral cortex. They also differ sensitive transmissions that occur from the nerve s to the higher centers and motor when the direction of the momentum is reversed . The nerve impulse (of electrochemical nature) has increased its speed or inten sity of neurotransmitter substances, such as acetylcholine and adrenaline, of si ngular importance for the study of diseases of the nervous system. Brain, Neurol ogy; Reflection © Encyclopaedia Britannica Publications of Brazil Ltda.