COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL Chapter 1 Different cost functions In this first chapter will

discuss the specific services that costs the company pays special form and the employer and / or executive. We also look at ways it c an and should take to bring its service to the diverse needs to meet. The presence of Operational Control Costs What ...? Where ..? How ...? Administr ative channels What about costs? Near business economic interpretation of realit y Ways How do we present the product? " Budgeted Expenditure Start Thinking norm al Volume Application Rate How is each field? Manpower The two appearances incor porate the data to the Excel spreadsheet Activities Summary 16 18 18 19 20 22 24 24 25 27 28 29 29 32 33 34 35 36 47 48 SERVICE TO THE READER: lectores@tectimes.com COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL THE PRESENCE OF COSTS Cost The study presents two distinct profiles, when viewed from the mandated fun ctions of the business model. It must act as effective "controller" in operation al terms and help be a clear understanding of the business, there we are defined in principle two fields of action: operational control and economic performer, as shown in the diagram in Figure 1. Control Interpretation Figure 1. Fields. While it is true that this work will explore the second main objective of the ab ove functions, a scale will start to remember the necessary integration between the two states have. These fields of action should be clearly linked to the esse ntial purposes of achieving harmony in the conduction (Figure 2). This harmony w ill ensure that what is made in terms of "business idea" is what is running and vice versa, rest in the belief that knowledge of source on the situation of the company and its operation is built in the form reliable. 16 The presence of costs Figure 2. Related fields. It is difficult to imagine a day passes in which there is asome the question: Ho w much do I need to cover certain expenses? or what if I go up or under a certai n price? And in all these questions, through these ongoing questions, Costs ensu res your presence and permanence. However, these costs are occurrences of the ch aracteristic of being simple, the employer makes a fast and accurate economic co ncept that does not need to know the name of cost to use or observe a particular procedure. Your intuition guides you on the right track. This paper will attemp t to take advantage of this fresh, this friendly and almost spontaneous presence of Costs to incorporate a technical mechanism to continue to honor these benefi ts. One principle that costs should be met is very simple operation and understa nding, do not forget that we prepare to serve as the control board of a vehicle usually traveling at high speeds and must, at some point, make abrupt maneuvers. Therefore, your message must be timely and effective. Then continue the road, k

nowing more deeply the two fields of action mentioned. 17 Different cost functions To rescue a point in this journey of initiation is the presence of "natural" has costs in business and in business. What does this mean? That unlike other areas of application and beyond have a responsibility in the organization or office s pecifically assigned, you always have a guaranteed place in a privileged place: the mind of the employer. 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL OPERATIONAL CONTROL Costs in this area appears to us as a hinge, watching the stage production, foll ows and controls by adopting the practices and language appropriate to this area , to decode it and subsequently carried in accounting language. What ...? Where ..? Specifies the extent that we give the term control and, above all, we set the su bject of it and the context in which it occurs. In the area accounting Inventori es (Raw Materials - Production Process - Finished) found its ultimate goal of co ntrol, and factory activity in the production environment, its natural place of observation. However, what represents the conjunction of these two concepts? If we apply on them a supposed short, we would find the process of wealth creation, which has an industrial company. Real Change + Production = Wealth Creation Whi le it is true that this process must be complemented and supplemented by other a ctivities also generate value,€as marketing, administration, finance, etc.., we find the feasibility of its initial construction in the transformation process ( Figure 3). FLOUR + Wealth Creation Figure 3. Wealth Creation. 18 Operational control How ...? Witness the transformation process. This presents us with the sequence (Figure 4 ): Raw Materials Work in process Finished goods Figure 4. Transformation process. On this ed. How we are ds in a tour made by Real Change is where they develop and incorporate value-add accompanies this transit costs, how it continues to fulfill the function describing, productive land? We found that support this monitoring metho production order, which is accompanying the same throughout the tour, wh

ile others expect the pace of production for each of its significant processes. In this way, and through a very synthetic description, recognize and distinguish systems Costs and Production Order Process (Figure 5). However, beyond the part icular, both are from each of the systems as well as production of such features , we will make a global approach that allows us to represent the path of the Exc hange Property, establishing liaison mechanisms which worth Costs, to appear in it. 19 Different cost functions There, then, appears in every sense of the concept to care, the initial and fina l concern of costs: in principle, understand and then help consolidate the proce ss of generating wealth. 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL Deposit materials Production Process Consumption Labor Production Order Finished product Figure 5. Production monitoring. We can also imagine the company as a magazine of four walls and on the study thi s transition and see it integrated circuits: "Necessary expenses? Raw Materials PRODUCTION Finished product Reception Circuit Circuit Production Tour Merchandise Sold Cost Figure 6. Control scheme. Administrative Circuits Exposed three permanent circuits that feed information and a special control: 20 Operational control Consider the particular route of each circuit and its characteristics: From Operating Territory

Approved material Until the stock higher in the The arrival of the raw material plant Material rejected Its output plant Figure 7. Reception circuit. The main control measures found in this segment are referred to the amounts rece ived as well as the simultaneous or subsequent revisions of quality. In the next segment, we take the example system for orders. Note the actions that occur between: Since the release of production order to de livering the finished product Figure 8. Production Circuit. The control exerted on rates of return, waste, wastage and time spent, as well a s compliance with quality goals. 21 Different cost functions • Operational Planning Reception Circuit Circuit Production • Cost • Merchandise Sold Circuit Link Market 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL Real Change Follow Up From the customer's acceptance deposit your entry into the finished product revenue product Control rejected Figure 9. Merchandise Sold Cost Circuit. Most control action on that section is directed primarily to the physical quanti ties in stock and also to the released, providing a safe and effective bridge to the billing process. What about costs? Let us now comment on the critical view of costs on production costs. This criti cal view takes as a parameter of acceptance of the need that the production proc ess at the level of production that is, is the Total Expenditure and each item c omponent of that total (Figure 10). Production Is it necessary? ... Are they necessary? Expenses Figure 10. Control scheme. We are one of the two N as important and frequent Costs: Necessary, the other th at we will see Normal. We both help define and clarify the concept. We close the analysis of this field with all the above diagram (Figure 11). 22

Operational control Control field Arrival feedstock Not Approval Rejection Yes Reception Circuit X Stock raw material Production Waste Sinking Circuit Production Not Quality control Yes Stock finished product X Client Not Approval Rejection Yes Tour Merchandise Sold Cost Bill X X = Circuit is not relieved Figure 11.€Necessary expenses. 23 Different cost functions 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION OF BUSINESS Let us place ourselves in the other fields mentioned, the field from which costs the company must be interpreted in economic terms. Start As an aside, let's say that this field can be also recognized as decision-expression with which we wil l mention it at some time. We begin our analysis with a question: What does this mean, concretely, according to economic performance? We refer to the company to

understand its ability to generate profits, to install mechanisms in instrument al terms and apply the concepts required in the field of analysis, to optimize t he business operation, in fulfilling its main objective. While it is true that e very company has peculiarities that require special analysis to respect this "in dividuality", is generally valid patterns with clarity and provide us a way to m ake us carry out this task. To fulfill this function, Costs, requires in princip le "rise" in the conceptual field, becoming an acute and profound analyst of the company on its ability to generate profits. Then, for the purposes of this anal ysis have practical effect, tends to structure itself, taking for viewing the fo rm of a leadership board, which, through its indicators, guidance on the directi on to follow while warning the dangers to face. Thus, the different types of org anization: Production, Sales, Finance, etc., Will be measured and reviewed on an ongoing and permanent. Costs shown in this role and manifests itself through su ch actions as the most powerful and reliable behavior counselor available to the employer and / or to incorporate security executive with the difficult task of driving. Closer to reality We recall here what has been said about the link that should exist between this field of economic and pointing to the above-mentioned control measures. 24 Economic interpretation of the business This rapid mechanism "desktop" simplifies nothing less than reality, which is th e initial subject on which we are projecting, and more, on which we must improve . This information will become a false counselor behaviors that then in full swi ng, it will require imagination to amalgamate what happened with the "writing", cast doubt on the conduct by subtracting momentum and delaying decisions. Is req uired in all tasks of planning and interpretation of the company, begin fortifyi ng the "ground wire" which informs us about the reality of the business scenario for on it, as conveniently, build superior vision of the company. Remember this requirement, prior to the approach that we as an interpreter of economic costs (target of this book), to emphasize the respect that is required in the exercise of that on interaction with operational activities and the certainty of the sit uation. Forms submitted In both fields, and presents costs treated differently. This difference arises f rom their ability to adapt to meet more effectively the needs that arise in each . What needs to change from one to another field in order to fulfill their respe ctive roles? The modification is basically the treatment is applied to the mass overhead. In one case will be part of the cost and other not. Consider and remem ber to Figure 12, located in the control field, the elements • Raw materials tha t make up the cost of production. • Direct labor • Indirect costs Figure 12. Elements that make up the cost of production. 25 Different cost functions It is very common that we find attractive in practice strategic planning studies or definitions of its own economic reality of the company, which assumptions ar e based on costs that we should have, in conclusion by inferring on the results obtained or expected. 1

COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL In the product The term used in the third element ("indirect") directs us, in principle, the di stinctive feature that we mentioned, to strengthen the distinction we make this brief analysis: If we have before us a product, whatever it is, the observation itself he makes us aware that we could say directly, the raw material it contain s. Similarly, although we need a little more imagination in our observation,€we can detect the incorporation of Labor hours required for their processing (later we will make a special comment on this point.) That is, the two elements mentio ned in the first place we appear sharper and clearer as we approach the product. Product Out But what happens when we raise our eyes and observe the production environment? We found a set of charges that the company should take and which are necessary f or production. Very numerous are the possible members of this group. Mention onl y some, as an example to us on the topic: • Salaries and social charges Production Manager. • • staff salaries and social security deposit. • Salaries and social charges Quality Control staff. • Mainten ance. • Energy. • On machine. • On buildings. • Ar • Test and trials. • General manufacturing costs. Figure 13. Production costs that are outside of the product. 26 How do we take the product? The concepts we have not detailed show sharper as we approach the product, not d iscovered through them. These concepts actually relate, are easier to see in per iods of time (eg one month). This is, in most cases, through which we use for fu ll comprehension. In practice it is rare that we refer to the salaries of foreme n as a unit charge, but rather we ask "how much we are having a month salary." N ow known as the different behavior of this item, we know that to perform its sup ervisory role, Costs need to know what it is for each product at each production unit, the mass of expenses that we mentioned, which is more well related to per iods of time. Compliance, among other things, to value the inventory, considerin g it our effort already made, requires this knowledge. How do I go to the product? Well, how do we add to each product? We reiterate the charge for each unit costs for those who have no direct relationship with him, we saw that they were more clear in its monthly view (Figure 14). "Direct Product Raw Materials? Monthly Fixed Expenses Direct labor Figure 14. Fixed Expenses. Obviously, we're going to have to find a mechanism that allows us to distribute to all units produced. 27 Different cost functions 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL

It at this point to make something clear: the mechanism will be shown in a very tight brief, which will require an additional fee for care of your total underst anding. To ensure traceability, this procedure has been segmented and show and s tations for which we will: Purpose of the procedure: Fixed Expenses reasonably distribute the goods. We try in this order: • Start thinking first thing that comes to mind. • Budgete d Expenses: normal. The present located at production sites and service centers. • Normal Volume: we can produce units. The mod ion n is responsible for what Figure 15. Spending the product. Start Thinking The first thing one thinks of is "what could divide the units manufactured by" t hinking we could find an option. A brief argument will allow us to see that it i s not, while we help you find the appropriate mechanism. This was our states: Total expenditure Units produced = Cargo unit Figure 16. Cargo Unit. 28 How do we take the product? Here the two concepts embodied. Budgeted Expenditure There are several questions that we can do about the numerator of the relationsh ip suggested: • "All this spending is for this period? • Do not miss any? • Do y ou have relative to the volume produced? With the answer to these simple questio ns, find the method to accurately determine the concept. The corresponding per site Budget spending is required is that required for the expected production in the period. Therefore, it is safer to work with an expens e budget that considers the various appearances and frequencies of it and show i t in its monthly incidence. It would also be very useful to make more effective their understanding while we begin to bring the cost to the product, that this b udget is set open in the various existing centers, thus establishing the differe nce between those that are produced and those are of service. Table 1. Use budgeted expenditure. Conclusion: as period expenses will consider the budget for the expected product ion.€The same will be opened in: Production Centers and Service Centers. Normal volume Regarding the divisor of the formula with the start we gave this analysis, units produced, which are ultimately those that will receive these charges, we can al so ask some questions to guide us to a correct determination: • Are we making th e level allow us the capability and resources involved? • All products do we mea n the same effort? 29

Different cost functions 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL PRODUCE - not occur if we make different amounts in real terms than those laid-s uppose a lower level of production and, above them, distribute the total expendi ture, it is obvious that we are attributing a large charge. If we think a little more, we are charging which would correspond to the units did not do, and this is a grave mistake that we should not make, we must never confuse the cost of pr oducing the cost of not producing. Ie should never be incorporated as a cost of idle capacity that a company can have, we have manufactured products did not nee d it. Therefore, as a first conclusion, the production volume to consider is that expe cted from the budget. This production volume we know as normal (Figure 17). Figure 17. Cost of producing - idle capacity. Let us reflect briefly on the implications of the inclusion of idle capacity and responsibility of the product. If an employer takes this as a reference cost of business-as-usual, think that the products leave no margin and can choose to op erate at higher prices, which probably further diminish their capacity occupied. Despite the simplicity of the example, we see the wrong orientation was done: t hey were found selling more units and goes to look for higher prices. 30 How do we take the product? The employer accepted this expense because it gets power transformation may have a certain amount of productive capacity. What we will be more accurate to measu re this capability? Our reasoning we quickly answer in hours, certainly there is the correct measure, in hours of work, as our production structure, we will be more representative to reflect the efforts of our staff (man hours) or use of ou r equipment (Hours Machine). There we found our second and final conclusion on t he volume, we put a factor of production, may be it man or Hours Hours Machine. The measure Consider a simple example of three products that use capacity in Man Hours as ho w we found then this volume: Figure 18. Capacity measured in man hours. There we find the capacity that gives rise to our spending. If we make that volu me production, we need that many hours, requiring in many respects to assume a l evel of spending. 31 Different cost functions However, the normal volume we're going to express is it valid to do so in units? "Each of them represents the same amount of effort? To measure their fair share of Total Expenditure, we might think: according to what we have this expense?, Why do we accept this monthly commitment? 1

How do I measure the normal capacity? COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL The data we obtained, the expected production volume measured in what is known a s a production factor in this case, the man-hours is called Application Module ( Figure 19). Expected volume of production x Unit production Factor Figure 19. Application Module. Application Fee To get the product, we can only properly combine the budget we have made with th e volume of production as measured above, so we'll get a reasonable price for ea ch hour incorporated into products. This price, which actually is called Applica tion Rate, is the vehicle we use to move reasonably share of each product of Tot al Expenditure (Figure 20). Expenditure Budget Application Module = Rate of Application Figure 20. Application fee. With this rate then we close this section that sought to guide us in how to keep costs to the product. It synthesizes the steps we have taken through a graph (F igure 21). Sequence collection The sequence for obtaining the application rate is: 1. To determine monthly expe nses budget. 2. Allocate Production Centers - Service Centers. 32 How does it present in every field? Application Fee Monthly Budget Expenses Production Centers Service Centers Monthly cost production centers Factor Application Module Production = Application Fee Normal Production Volume (by product) Figure 21. Summary of the steps taken so far. HOW TO SUBMIT IN EVERY FIELD? The explanation that we did in previous form will allow us to define how it is p resented now costs in the field of control. It does this by incorporating three 33 Different cost functions

3. Reassign Service Centers at the Centers for Manufacturing (distributed as the use made of each of them.) 4. Determine expected production volume (units per p roduct). 5. Defining the Application Module for Production Centre (units per inp ut). 6. Obtain the application rate (per site): budget expenditure / application module. 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL elements we have mentioned: Raw material and workmanship incorporated directly a nd expenses that come, as we have seen, through an indirect mechanism, so that w e recognize as indirect manufacturing costs. In the field of economic interpreta tion, we find a strong change: only the elements are considered direct costs, wh ile the costs will be considered in its entirety and associated with the period. They are not incorporated in the product no direct charges. Manpower We will reflect on the direct labor, while it is true in the field of control, p art of the product to facilitate performance measures on their use, not so clear ly presented to us in their behavior when trying to interpret the real meaning b usiness. If we find it hard to imagine a direct relationship between a salary, w ages or salaries and Production Unit, including the consideration of existing la bor laws, "even more difficult we find it more feasible to reduce them for havin g produced less (per hour, per day) than expected. For this, and privileging the practical sense that we have proposed is that the effects of a correct economic interpretation of the business, we believe the Workforce in the field, as a con cept indirectly incorporated into the mass of the Monthly Fixed Expenses . Raw Material Control Direct labor costs fixed decision Raw material Figure 22. Control and decision. Other Direct Costs In this review we have remained in the productive environment, being then the ra w material as a leading SOC. 34 How does it present in every field? In other environments can also find charges associated with the product, for exa mple, commissions paid for Sale. The two occurrences Consider the two occurrences analyzed in a simple example and the effect they ha ve on the respective tables of results: Figure 23. Tables of Results. • Budget Monthly cost: $ 33,000. • The company operates a single production cent er. • Expenses are distributed among the products per man hour. • We do not cons ider other fixed costs. Total Cost For we need to apply costs to products. How m uch time corresponds Man? To do this, follow the sequence of production: 1. We p ulled the Application Module: Figure 24. Application Module. 2. We obtain the rate of application: Expenditure Budget $ 33,000 Application Module

= 11 000 HH = 3 Figure 25. Application fee. 35 Different cost functions 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL 3. Now we can determine the unit charge for the expenses: Figure 26. Cargo Unit. 4. Therefore, the total cost is thus: Figure 27. Calculation of total cost per unit. We have added some data to the intent that this form entered in Excel will allow us to practice by doing a first-calculate the tables of results in both fields. Incorporate the data of the Production and Sale Real (same) for the purpose tha t we see in their behavior as intended, if we operated with spare capacity (less than expected) or have had overproduction. What would we do then? • Lower than expected production: the resulting amount of the units produced by the MOD and t he rate of application becomes a loss (Subaplicación). • Higher than expected pr oduction: ditto, but it becomes a utility (Over-). INCORPORATING DATA TO EXCEL Excel is an electronic template of calculation, a program that lets the computer manage the information normally handled in plan36 Enter the data to Excel spreadsheet plants and seeds. In the following pages we will see how to incorporate the data evaluated in this chapter within a spreadsheet. To create a new template,€Once the program starts, we go to File / New and then select the option Blank Workboo k. We'll then display a blank worksheet (Figure 28). Figure 28. Spreadsheet initial blank. As we see, the information is organized in rows and columns. Columns are designa ted by letters and rows with numbers. The boxes of this grid are called cells. G iven these variables is that diferntes work with the tools, functions and formul as that Excel provides us. Try now enter the payroll data relating to the calcul ation of Unit Costs for Excel will help us in visualizing the results. The idea of this first stage is simply to make contact with the tool. 37

Different cost functions 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL s Calculation of Unit Costs STEP BY STEP Enter each of the values for the table of results, starting with the titles (pro ducts, raw materials, etc.). Try to change the appearance of this form. The first will change the width of th e columns so that the texts of each cell are displayed in full. Position the mou se pointer on the line that separates one column from another. The pointer becom es a double arrow. Press the mouse button and hold it down, move left or right t o increase or decrease the width. Finally release the button. Continuing with the aesthetics of the template, draw dividing lines in each cell . Select the appropriate cells and then click the Borders. 38 Enter the data to Excel spreadsheet Now add the total hours column. To do this, select the column F and go to the In sert menu / Columns. After adding the title of the column, apply a simple formula for obtaining the t otal hours. What you have to do is type in cell F2 a formula that represents the expression X Check Volume Expected Normal Male Unit. In this case it = D2 * E2. Press the ENTER key. According to this first example, we can deduce that the formulas always begin wi th the equal sign (=) and that the terms involved in 39 Different cost functions You can also change the font of the titles of each column or convert the text in bold. Finally, use the key combination SHIFT + ENTER within each text cell to d ivide into two or more lines the contents of each cell and narrow the width of t he columns. 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL the calculation indicated by the coordinates (column + row) of the cells that co ntain the information. Now apply the formula to other cells. Place the cursor on the cell containing the formula will be extended (cell F2) and support the mous e pointer on the square dot is located in the lower right corner of the cell. Cl ick and hold the mouse button. Turn the mouse to cell F4 and release the button. It remains to indicate a final formula for the total column. Place the cursor in cell F5 and apply the formula = F2 + F3 + F4. To perform this type of larger amounts may also apply the formula = SUM (F2: F5)

inside the cell F5. In this case, use the SUM function in Excel to get the resu lt. Then include the budget for expenditures in a separate cell, which will asse ss the application rate. He also believes the column Rate of Implementation. 40 Enter the data to Excel spreadsheet In turn, this in each case multiplied by the hours unit, to obtain the indirect manufacturing costs per product (which can be included in a new column, as shown in the picture). Continuing with the previous return, include one more column to the total amount of raw materials, application modules and indirect manufacturing costs. 41 Different cost functions Finally perform the corresponding formula in each cell, dividing the man-hours p er total hours. 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL Now you can also add a new column with the volume. As shown in the example, the volume title and the title total cost calculation u nit visually occupy a cell. To do this select, starting from the cell that conta ins the original title, the cells that you want this title to occupy. Once ident ified, press the Merge and Center button in the toolbar. Finally, save the template from File / Save As .... From the menu that appears, specify the destination folder of the template and a name for it. Now get in line with data obtained from the Unit Costs Result Tables that corres pond to each field: Output Control / Staff Decision.€Both results coincide. Only show differences in the treatment of Costs and Expenses. Now for the mathematic al training of Control and Decision Tables. 42 Enter the data to Excel spreadsheet Control • • • • • Actual volume ion - V. Normal x (CIF + MOD) • Result: Margin Fixed Costs + On - Various application functions Sub Costs 43 Decision • Sale: •: Raw Material Cost x Units Sold osto • • • ion • Result: Marg in - Fixed Costs Figure 29. Control and Decision. s box score STEP BY STEP The resulting box contains 3 columns, detailing: The number obtained in the row Sale of Control Result column is the sum of actua

l selling price of each product: 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL In Decision Outcome reiterate the same value, multiplying by 1. The data obtaine d in cell production cost arises from the sum of the total cost of each product multiplied by the volume. 44 Enter the data to Excel spreadsheet Margin is the subtraction in each case of the sale on Cost of Production. The next point (Sub-application) comes from multiplying the sum of indirect manu facturing costs and direct labor for each product by subtracting the actual volu me and normal volume of each product. 45 Different cost functions The value obtained in cell production cost decision score column is the sum of t he multiplication of the raw material of each product by volume. 1 COSTS: CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS WITH MICROSOFT EXCEL As mentioned above, the fixed cost comes from adding the direct labor to indirec t manufacturing costs as follows: Finally, the Control score is the sum of the value obtained as the margin and th e sub-application, while the decision results are subtracted from the margin Fix ed expenses. 46 Enter the data to Excel spreadsheet SUMMARY ... We locate the presence of costs in the two fields in which it participates: Cont rol and Economic Performance. Once highlighted the importance of these two field s are related, we made a brief description of the actions of costs in the contro l field. It punctuated the administrative circuits it uses to perform its functi on and also remember the elements that make up the cost in this field. 47 Different cost functions In this chapter we made an initial presentation of costs that displays it in a g lobal picture, to deepen the assembly of a table of results is developed under t he cost criteria used. We also met some of the basic tools that Excel offers us time to assemble a spreadsheet. With this we closed the process of obtaining cos ts and various forms of operation in each field. 1

ACTIVITIES 1 Name the fields of business where costs can be found. List four components of the cost to their oversight role. 5 What term limits spending for Control considered cost? 6 What are the components of the cost for its role in supportin g the decisions? Interpretation Raw Material Control Direct labor fixed costs Decision 2 What are the administrative channels that uses the cost to fulfill its functio n of control? 3 What item cost accounting is the main objective of control? Raw material 7 What should not include the cost of producing ever? 8 How to get the Applicati on Module? "Necessary expenses? Raw Materials PRODUCTION Finished product 9 What is the application rate used? 10 What does the phrase "costs and guiding behavior? Reception Circuit Circuit Production Tour Merchandise Sold Cost 48