unesp SAO PAULO STATE UNIVERSITY Differential units - SOROCABA / IPER Control Engineering and Automation OMA Mechanical

Workshop Practice Automation 2003 Adjustment; Process, Tools and Machines Professor.: Dr. Luiz Carlos Rosa Instructor. : Edson Aparecido Rosa 1 1. Summary The operations reported aims to produce a play for learning and adjusting machin ing techniques, using tools and machines such as planer, drill, file, male, amon g others. 2. Theoretical Introduction 2.1. Splinter The chip is the result of the removal of excess metal from the surface being mac hined. By the look and shape of chips being produced, it is possible to evaluate if the operator chose the correct tool with technical criteria and used the app ropriate cutoff parameter. Breaking the chip is needed to prevent it by not lett ing go of the part, detrimental to the dimensional accuracy and surface finish m achining. To facilitate the breaking of the chip, it is necessary for the advanc ement and cutting depth are appropriate. During normal machining, the chip forma tion occurs as follows: During the machining, due to penetration of the tool in part, a small portion of material, (still attached to the piece) is repressed, t hat is, is trapped against emitting surface of the tool. The repressed material undergoes plastic deformation which increases progressively until the shear stre sses become large enough to start sliding. With the continuation of the cut, the re is a partial or complete rupture of the shear in the region, giving rise to d ifferent types of chips. In continuation of machining and due to the relative mo tion between the tool and workpiece, starts to release the chip surface by the t ool's output. While another chip begins to form. The chips can be differentiated into four basic types: • In Helical ribbon • • • Spiral chips or chunks. The ch ip on tape can cause accidents, being sharp and because of its shape, and occupy much space and is difficult to transport. The chip coil is the most convenient. Besides shape, four basic types of chips can be formed according to the physica l characteristics of the material and cutting parameters used: • • From sheared rupture • Continuous • Continuous with "built. Although unavoidable, the chip be comes undesirable as soon as it is produced. His presence in the region may dama ge the cutting tool or the surface of the workpiece. Thus, for example, the "bui lt-chip or false, which is a deposit of material adhered to the tool face, it be comes a false cutting edge that is constantly changing during the course of cutt ing. She is due to strong friction between the chip and the tool, which produces the tearing of small particles of material and hot chips that end up on the edg e of the welding tool. When machining is characterized by this kind of chip, the surface is covered with fragments adjacent long and partially adhered to the su rface, which is rough. The degree of roughness is greater the higher the fragmen ts. This type of chip can be avoided by choosing appropriately the chip thicknes s, temperature and angle-cut exit, the emitting surface of the tool and the cool ant itself. The continuous type of chip in most cases is undesirable because it is very large and can cause accidents. Moreover, it undermines the court, causin g breakage of the cutting edge complicates the cooling directed hampers transpor tation, makes losing the coolant and affect the finish.] To mitigate these effec ts, are employed the chip breaker, which grooves are formed on the face of the c utting tool, or else pieces of metal stuck to the hard tool. Indeed, the chip br

eaker do not break the chips, but the "ripple" against an obstruction. This obst ruction breaks the chip at regular intervals. The chip breaker reduces contact b etween the hot chip and the tool, reducing heat transfer to the tool. Furthermor e, the broken chips offer a much smaller obstruction to the flow of cutting flui d on the cutting edge. Other advantages of using chip breakers are the smallest of accidents laughter to the operator, the ease of removing the larger chips and more economical handling. 2 Once set the cutting parameters and controlled the problem of removing chips, th e good result of machining, depended upon, so reducing the friction between tool and chip, and heat generated during cutting. This is a function of cutting flui ds. 2.2. Milling Machines 2.2.1. Planers PLAIN Relative motion between tool and part Movement Planer filer The motion of the court or labor L is rectilinear, reciprocating, horizontal mot ion of the tool. The forward motion of the part is given by (1) or tool (2). The movement of penetration P is given by the tool (1) or part (2). Movements Planers Table The labor movement is effected by the piece (table). The advancement and penetra tion P are made by the tool. Movement in Mortejadoras or Vertical Planes As far as advancing the penetration P is given by the piece. The labor movement is effected by the tool. TYPES OF PLAIN filer: It's a machine of limited size to a maximum of 1 meter wid e. Planer Table: It's a machine large and can work great lengths. Vertical plane: There are more applied to interior surfaces, especially keyway. 3 It is understood by plane, the engine starter horse for cutting rectilinear alte rnate motion introduced between the tool and workpiece. They are made in shaping planers, planer and table mortejadoras planers or vertical. Replace the manual labor of files and cinrel. The common feature of all three machines is the movem ent of work. In instances of parts planers planers, you can work any horizontal surface plane outside of any shape and size. A - B: Surface of prismatic parts. C: Slots. D: Guides swallowtail. 4 Examples of parts made in planer vertical or mortejadoras A: slot milling in the shaft. B: slot milling into cubes and flat surfaces indoo rs. C: lateral surfaces. The shaping-plane presents alternative rectilinear motion (shuttle) that moves t he tool over the flat part of removing the material. This means that the complet e cycle is divided into two parts: one (tool advance) takes place the cut, on th

e other (down tool), there is no work, that is, time is wasted. 5 This kind of plane is composed of: (a) body, (2) base, (3) tailstock or torpedo: moves with varying speed, (4) Head of waiting: it may have varied the height of which is attached the tool holder (5), (6) table with forward motion and fit an d in which the part is fixed. In shaping-plane is the tool that makes the course of the cut and the piece has only small advances cross. This shift is called a step forward. The maximum stro ke of the shaping-plane in general is around 600mm. Therefore, it can only be us ed for machining medium sized parts or small, as a rule adjustment. Regarding op erations, the plane can perform shaping-grooves, slots, recesses, chamfers, faci ng on top very long items. This is possible because the set where is the toolhol der can rotate and be locked at any angle as the tool exerts a pressure on the p iece, it must be securely attached to the machine table. When the piece is small , it is secured by a vise and with the help of wedges and shims. The major piece s are fastened directly on the table by means of clamps, angles and wedges. 6 2.2.2. Drills In the area of machining of metals there are several ways to get holes in pieces . We can highlight the following ways: punching, casting, forging, saw the glass and through drills. Will focus attention only to drill holes from it and the mo st widely used in industry due to its versatility, low cost involved and also th e simplicity of operation. The boring machines, or simply drills, basically cons ist of a tree, which rotates with velocities determined where and set the drill. This tree can slide in the direction of its axis. It is possible that also has a table where fixed and moves the piece. The drill bench are used for small serv ices, and generally in the drilling of small pieces. It has a lever that acts as a cursor that raises or lowers the arm containing the drill. This kind of eleva tion in the case of the machine used was manual. During the drilling process mus t be attentive to drill used, because each of them and corresponding to a size o f hole. The drill column and a tool very simple and easy to use. There is a tool that provides high accuracy, perhaps because it is operating almost entirely ma nual. To perform the practice of mechanical workshop was a useful tool when it w as necessary to make holes in the piece made. 3. Methodology and Data Analysis 3.1. Testing chip The test chip was made upon the material would be machined to the fabrication of the piece, cut a bar of rolled steel in 1020 65cmx35cmx15cm dimensions. The tes ts were performed on the face of greater area of the part.€This process was to c heck what options the best finish in the plane would be produced, and the type o f scrap that was produced in the process. Tests done by changing the way the mac hine advances, the number of strokes per minute and the depth, the specification s of the three tests performed in the play are listed below in Table 1. Table 1 - Settings plane for the test in part Advancement Testing 1 2 3 1 3 5 Blows per min. 24 60 96 Depth 0.4 mm 0.8 mm 1.2 mm In trial 1, where progress and the number of blows were the lowest in the machin e, using a small depth of cut, the result was a chip short, cold, coiled, crisp and color of the metal. In this test the metal surface after the procedure showe d a low roughness. In trial 2, where progress and the number of hits were on med ium speed, with the cutting depth of twice the first, got a chip short, not coil ed, crisp and golden in color approaching. Its surface showed a roughness averag e. In the third test, used a major breakthrough and number of strokes at three t imes the initial depth produced a chip not coiled, thick, non-brittle, golden /

blue with a high temperature after being removed from the piece, which shows tha t practically no there machining, but were torn pieces of the piece, which shows that there should be tool wear, according to the configuration is not ideal-chi p presented. The surface of the material shows a high roughness. 7 3.2. DRILLING Drilling Are machines that are mainly the implementation of holes using the drill. But: M ost of the pieces have holes that can be opened in several ways. • • • • • • Enlargement: Is used or is applied to calibrate a hole and improve t he finish. Recess: It used to inlay pieces, for example, bolt head, nut, washer, etc.. Enlargement with Stepped Reamer: To improve the finishing holes with diff erent diameters. Reamer: It is used for deburring holes and tapered inlay. Male: Open thread. Reamer Taper: To extend tapered holes in arrays which uses guide p in. 8 Extend or improve on finishing holes Use as a reamer tool, making the first open hole, large diameter or tapered. Escario Use as a tool sunk. 9 Demote Use as a tool reducer. Select drill The choice of drill is done by: • • • • • • Form of the piece; size of the piece ; numbers of holes to be performed; Quantity batch of parts; Diversification of 0s holes; degree of accuracy of the finished hole. Types of drills Classically there are four types of drills: • • • • Portable. Sensitive (bench w ith manual feed). Column. Radial. 10 For the holes were made in the piece, a drill table was used, and that these wer e produced correctly, it was necessary to know the ideal cutting speed (rpm) for each drill diameter. This was found by using a table of speeds for various mate rials associated with the following calculation: η = π D W ere η is t e r m of t e drill, Vc is t e cutting s eed and D t e diameter of t e ole you want to do. For t e RPM a ro riate for eac ole diameter, were mad e t e calculations below: Hole 5 / 32 ": D = 5 32 '⋅ = 25.4 mm 3.97 mm 25 ⋅ 1000 = 2005r m η = 3.97 π ⋅ Hole 1 / 4 ": = D ⋅ η ⋅ π ⋅ = Hole 5 / 16 ": D = 5 16 "25.4 mm = 7.94 ⋅ 25 mm 1000 ⋅ π ⋅ η = 7.94 η = 1002r m D = 27 64 '⋅ = 25.4 mm 10.7 mm 25 1000 ⋅ η = π ⋅ 10 744r m, 7

 

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Hole 27/64 ": T e diameters of t e oles and t eir RPMs used in t e following table 2. Table 2 - s eed for eac diameter drill oles. Screw diameter (in.) 3 / 8 "½" diameter oles (in) 5 / 32 "¼" 5 / 16 27/64 Drill diameter (in.) 5 / 16 ", 27/64" Drill diameter (mm ) 7.94 10.7 1253 1002 744 20 05 RPM Holes diameter (mm) 3.97 6.35 7.94 10.7 11 4. References: "Mac ining Tec nology of Materials." • Aut ors: Anselmo E. Diniz, Nivaldo L. Co ini and Francisco C. Marcondes. • Aranda Editora. Fundamentals of Mac ining of Metals. " • Aut or: Prof. Dino Ferraresi. • Publis er: Edgard Blüc er. "Toleranc es, Adjustments, Variations and Analysis of Dimensions." • Aut ors: Osvaldo Luiz Agostin o, Antonio Carlos dos Santos Rodrigues and Jo n Lirani • Publis er: Edg ard Blüc er. "ABNT - Tec nical Conce ts of Motion and Geometric Relations." • NB R - NBR 6162 and 6163 5. Fabricating t e re ort: • • • • Introduction. Test ( lane). Calculations (RPM) Conclusion. 12 Prof. Luiz Carlos D Rose Instr. Edson A arecido Rosa r r. Adjustment Questionnaire 1. 2. 3. 4. T e c i derives from t at? W y is it necessary to break t e c i ? W at is neede d to facilitate t e breaking of t e c i ? How many basic ty es can be differenti ated c i s, and w at are degrees. 5. W y t e c i becomes undesirable as soon as it is roduced? 6. W y t e c i ty e is still undesirable. And t at is em loyed to mitigate t ese effects? 7. W at ot er benefits does t e break-c i offer? 8. W at is used to reduce friction between t e tool and c i , and eat generated d uring cutting? 9. How many ty es of laners are t ere and w at are t ey? 10. Tal k about Planer Table 11. Talk about t e filer Planer 12. W at is t e main a lic ation of Planers Mortejadoras? 13. W at is meant by flattened? 14. W at are Bori ng? 15. W at is or is a lied to enlargement? 16. W ic is used for t e sunk? 17 . W y is using t e recess? 18. How is t e c oice of t e drill, w ic arameters s ould be analyzed? 19. W at are t e four ty es of drills are available? 20. How is t e formula for calculating t e rotation ()? 13

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