# The UU AL AL 2 2 The Geometric figures If look around you, you will see that objects have shape, size

and other characteri stics. The geometric figures were created from observation of the forms existing in nature and manmade objects. Introduction In this class you will know or remember the various types of geometric figures. All objects, even the most complex, can be associated with a set of geometric fi gures. You will find it easier to read and interpret mechanical blueprints if yo u are able to relate objects and parts of the area of mechanics to geometry. Our class Basic geometric figures Press your pencil point against a sheet of paper. Note the mark left by the penc il, it represents a point. Look to the sky on a cloudless night: each star can b e associated with a point. The point is the simplest geometric figure. It has di mension, ie, no length or width or height. CLASSROOM 2 In the drawing, the point is determined by the intersection of two lines. To ide ntify it, we use capital letters of the Latin alphabet, as examples: The B C It reads: Section A, point B and point C. Line can have an idea of what's online, watching the wires that link the electri city poles or stroke resulting from movement of the tip of a pencil on a sheet o f paper. The line has one dimension: length. You can imagine the line as an infi nite set of points arranged in succession. The displacement of a point also gene rates a line. Straight or straight To get the idea straight, watch a taut wire. The line is unlimited, ie, has no beginning or end. The lines are identified by lowercase letters of the Latin alphabet. See the representation of a line r: r v v Ray Taking any point of a line, we divide the line into two parts, called half-l ines. The ray always has a point of origin, but no end. The Point A gives rise to two half-lines.

s v v The v The v Line segment Taking two distinct points on a line, we get a piece of limited str aight. In this piece of line, limited by two points, we draw a straight segment. from straight points that limit the line segment are called ends. des In the fo llowing example we have the line segment CD, which is represented as follows: CD . C v D t Points C and D (end) determine the line segment CD. v We plan to have an idea what the plan is looking at a wall or a tabletop. You ca n imagine the plan as being formed by a set of lines arranged successively in th e same direction or as the result of displacement of a line in one direction. Th e plan is unlimited, ie, has no beginning or end. Nevertheless, the design, it i s customary to represent him delimited closed lines: CLASSROOM 2 Greek. To identify the plan we use Greek letters is the case of letters: a (alph a), b (beta) and g (gamma), which you can see the plans represented in the figur e above. The plan has two dimensions, usually called length and width. If we tak e a line of any one plan, the plan divided into two parts, called half-plane hal f-plane. Positions of the line and plane in space Geometry, branch of mathematics that studies the geometric figures, is also conc erned with the position that objects occupy space. The line and the plane may be vertical, horizontal or inclined. A log floating on the surface of a lake gives us the idea of a horizontal line. Mason uses the bob to check the verticality o f the walls. The wire bob gives us the idea of a straight vertical. A plane is v ertical when it has at least one vertical line, horizontal is when all your line s are horizontal. When there is horizontal or vertical, the plane is tilted. Che ck out the positions of the line and plan. CLASSROOM 2 Geometric figures flat

Any one figure is flat when all points are in the same plane. Below you will rec all the main plane figures. Some of them you have to identify by name, as are wa ys that you find very often in mechanical drawing. Note the depiction of some pl ane figures of great interest to our study: ' ' Plane figures with three or more sides are called polygons. Geometric solids You already know that all points of a plane figure located in the same plane. Wh en a geometric figure has points in different planes, we have a geometric solid geometry. Looking at the illustration below, you will understand well the differ ence between a plane figure and a geometric solid. The geometric solids have three dimensions length, width and height. dimensions: Although there are infinite geometric solids, but a few,Âthat have certain pro perties are studied by geometry. The solids that you will study in this course a re related to geometric plane shown above. The geometric solids are separated fr om the rest of the space by surfaces that limit. And these surfaces can be flat or curved. Among the geometric solids bounded by plane surfaces, we will study t he cube prisms and pyramids Among the geometric solids limited prisms, pyramids. by curved surfaces, the cylinder will study the cone and sphere are the cylinde r, sphere, also called solids of revolution revolution. It is very important that you know well the main geometric solids, because howev er difficult that is, how a piece will always be considered the result of a comb ination of geometric solids or their parts. Prism The prism is a geometric solid bounded by polygons. You can imagine him as a pile of polygons equal very close to each other, as illustrated: CLASSROOM 2 The prism can also be imagined as the result of displacement of a polygon. It co nsists of several elements. For those who deal with technical drawing is very im portant to know them well. See what they are in this illustration: Checking understanding Analyze the plastic model 31 or, failing that, a matchbox shut. Compare with the illustration above and answer: How many faces, edges and vertices have this lig ht? .................................................. ... faces. .............. .................................... ... edges. ................................ .................. ... vertices. The correct answers are: 6 faces (in it we see only three sides, the other three are hidden), 12 edges (the dashed lines in the drawing represent the edges that can not see directly), 8 vertices (the vertice s are the points where the edges meet). CLASSROOM 2 Note that the base of this prism has the shape of a rectangle is why he rectangl e. is called rectangular prism rectangular. Depending on the polygons that form its base, the prism receives a specific name. For example, the prism that is bas ed on the triangle, is called triangular prism triangular. When all the faces of the geometric solid geometric figures are formed by equal, we have a regular ge

ometric solid regular. The prism showing the faces formed by six equal squares i s called cube cube. Pyramids The pyramid is another solid figure bounded by poly gons. You can imagine it as a set of similar polygons, arranged on each other, d ecreasing in size indefinitely. Another way to imagine the formation of a pyrami d is to connect all points of a polygon to any one point P of space. It is impor tant that you also know the elements of the pyramid: The name of the pyramid dep ends on the polygons that form its base. In the figure, we have a pirÃ¢miquadran gular of square because its base is a square. The number of faces of the pyramid is always equal to the number of polygon sides that forms its base another. Eac h side of the polygon of the base is also an edge of the pyramid. The number of edges is always equal to the number of polygon sides of the base times two. The number of vertices equals the number of polygon sides of the base plus one. The vertices are formed by the meeting of three or more edges. The apex is the main meeting point of the side edges. Checking understanding Now it's your turn: Solve the following year. Consider the pyramid below and ans wer: a) What is the name of the polygon that forms the base of the pyramid? ......... ......................................... ................................. b) W hat do you receive this type of pyramid? ....................................... ........... ................................. c) How many sides has this pyramid ? .................................................. ........................... ...... d) How many edges has this pyramid? ..................................... ............. ................................. e) How many vertices has this py ramid? .................................................. ...................... ........... Make sure that you answered correctly: a) The polygon of the base is a triangle. triangular. triangle b) This is a triangular pyramid c) This pyramid has four f aces. d) This pyramid has six edges. e) This pyramid has four vertices. When the base of the pyramid is an equilateral triangle and the sides are formed by equi lateral triangles, equal to the base, we are called geometric solid tetrahedron The tetrahedron is thus a geometric solid regular tetrahedron. regular, because all its faces are formed by equilateral triangles equal. CLASSROOM 2 Tip equilateral triangle is a plane figure that has three internal angles equal. Solids of revolution Some geometric solids, called solids of revolution revolution can be formed by t he rotation of plane figures around an axis. Rotation means action to run, make a full turn. A plane figure that gives rise to the solid of revolution is called the figure-generating line that rotates around the axis forming a generator. th e surface of revolution is called generating line generatrix. The cylinder, cone and sphere are the main solids of revolution. Cylinder, Cylinder The cylinder i s a solid figure, limited laterally by a curved surface. You can imagine the cyl inder as a result of rotation of a rectangle or a square around an axis that pas ses through one of its sides. See figure beside. In the drawing, is represented only the outline of the cylindrical surface. A plane figure how asbases drum cir cle is noted that the meeting circle. each base with the cylindrical surface so the edges. Cone The cone is also a geometric solid limited laterally by a curved surface. The formation of the cone can be imagined by rotating a triangle aroun d an axis that passes through one of its legs. A plane figure that forms the bas e of the cone is the circle. The vertex is the meeting point of all segments lea ving the circle. In the drawing is represented only the contour of the conical s urface. The meeting of the conical surface with the base gives rise to an edge.

Tip Right triangle is the triangle that has one internal angle of 900. CLASSROOM Sphere The sphere is also a geometric solid bounded by a curved surface called s pherical surface can imagine the formation of the ball from the ball. rotation o f a semicircle around an axis passing through its diameter. See the elements of the sphere in the figure below. 2 The radius of the sphere is the line segment joining the center of the sphere to any one of its points. Diameter of the sphere is the line segment passing throu gh the center of the sphere joining two of its points. Truncated geometric solids When a geometric solid is cut by a plane, resulting in new geometric figures: th e truncated geometric solids. See some examples of solid truncated, with their r espective names: Geometric solids leaked The geometric solids that have cavities are called solid cast. geometric cast pa rties drawn from geometric solids, resulting in a hollow, generally also corresp ond to geometric solids that you already know. Note the figure, noting that to g et the cast cylinder with a square hole, it was necessary to extract a square pr ism of the original cylinder. CLASSROOM 2 Checking understanding Solve the following exercise: Consider the square prism cast on the side and ent er the name of geometric solid extracted to give way to the hole. Name of solid: ............................ The geometric solid taken from the square prism to give way to the hole is a cyl inder. CLASSROOM 2 Comparing geometric solids and objects in the field of Mechanical Relations between geometric shapes and forms of some objects in the area of mech anics are obvious and immediate. You can prove this assertion by analyzing the f ollowing examples. Checking understanding Try it yourself to discover other associations. Review the objects represented b elow and type in the spaces indicated, the name of the geometric solid to which each object can be associated. a) the pin) ..................................... ........ ................... b) woodruff keyway b) ................................................ ................

c) fixer c) ................................................ ................ Make sure that you answered correctly: a) cylinder, b) truncated cylinder, c) th e trunk of rectangular prism, with a cylindrical bore. There are cases where obj ects have compound shapes or have several elements. In such cases, to better und erstand how these objects relate to geometric solids, it is necessary to break t hem down into simpler parts. Carefully review the following examples. So, you le arn to see geometric shapes in various objects. Examine this rivet head round: CLASSROOM 2 Imagining the rivet decomposed into simpler parts, you'll see that it consists o f a cylinder and a spherical cap (truncated sphere). Checking understanding Now you try! Write the names of geometric shapes that form the handle represente d below. a) ................................................ ............... b) ................................................ ............... c) ............ .................................... ............... d) ........................ ....................................... The correct answers are: a) truncated sphere, b) truncated cone c) cylinder, d) stem cylinder cast for square hole. There is another way of relating parts and o bjects with geometric solids. Notice in the illustration below, the withdrawal o f geometric shapes from a simple model (prismatic block) of origin to other more complex shape. CLASSROOM 2 In industrial processes the rectangular prism is the starting point for obtainin g a large number of objects and parts. Note the picture below. It is a rectangul ar prism with a recessed portion corresponding to the plastic model No. 1. See h ow it was obtained recess: The next illustration shows a drawing of a model that also derives from a rectan gular prism. Checking understanding With practice, you will be able to imagine the decomposition of the rectangular prism prismatic in other models, without the aid of the design of the extracted parts. Give it a try! Imagine that this block with bolt hole was obtained from a rectangular prism. Geometric solids that correspond to the parts removed? .................................................. ............................. .................................................. ............................ . .................................................. ........................... .. You should have replied that two prisms were removed from the sides and truncate d to form the rectangular hole, a square prism. Exercise 1 Write the name of geometric solids in the spaces indicated. Exercise Lesson

2 a) ....................................... b) .................................. ..... c) ....................................... Exercise 2 Connect each geometric solid figure plane that caused it. CLASSROOM 2 Exercise 3 Look at the tab represented below and indicate with an X the geometri c solids that compose it. a) ( ) b) ( ) c) ( ) d) ( ) Exercise 4 Write the names of geometric solids that can be broken down below the knob. Exercise 5 What geometric solid was removed from a block in the form of rectangu lar prism, to obtain this guide in swallowtail swallow? Exercise 6 Consider the following drawing and mark an X with the names of geomet ric solids that were removed from a rectangular prism, to obtain the prismatic m odel. a) b) c) d) (((( ) 2 trunks prism and a rectangular prism) 2 trunks pyramid and a rectangular pri sm) 2 trunks prism and a square prism) 3 trunks rectangular prism