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and someone please buy 10 ,000 pieces of attachment, which will be manufactured by bending of steel plates . Your potential customers, and want a sample of the product that you manufactur e, certainly also want to know how much it will cost. One of the items of the bu dget you will have to match the cost of raw materials needed to manufacture the parts. For this answer, you have to calculate the length of each piece before th ey are folded, since you will be working with guys. How to solve this problem? 3 3 Let The problem Bending parts Calculate the length of the pieces before they are folded, there is a very diffi cult problem to be solved. Just only use knowledge of mathematics for the calcul ation of perimeter. Remember is to learn Perimeter is the measure of the contour of a plane geometric figure. Examine the diagram below and think of a way to so lve the problem. Our class 50 B = 50 June 6 B 30 The C C = 30 CLASSROOM 3 What you saw in the picture? Basically there are three line segments (A, B, C). A and C are equal and correspond to the height of the piece. B, in turn, is the basis. What can be done with them in terms of calculation? You have two alternat ive solutions: a) Calculate the length of the midline part of the plate. b) Mult iply the height (30 mm) by 2 and add to the internal measure (50 mm). Let's see if this works out with the alternative a. This alternative considers the midline of the plate. You know why? It's simple: if you use external measures of the pi ece, it will be larger than necessary. Likewise, if you use the internal measure s, it gets smaller. So by logic, you should use the midline. Taking the middle l ine as reference, the segment B corresponds to the internal measure twice, half the thickness of the plate. So we have: 50 + 2 x 3 = 50 + 6 = 56 mm With this va lue, you get the length of the midline of the base of the piece. Now, you have t o calculate the height of the segments A and C. By drawing the figure from the p revious page, you saw the height of the specimen is 30 mm. Of this amount, we su

btract half the thickness of the plate in order to find the measure we seek. 303 = 27 mm With this, we obtain the three measurements: A = 27 mm, B = C = 56 mm and 27 mm. The length is obtained from the sum of the three measures. 27 + 56 + 27 = 110 mm Therefore, the plate you need is to have 110 mm long. Try you too Now let's train some of this type of calculation. Exercise 1 b The alternative i s a practical method. Calculate the length of material needed for the piece that we show in our account, using this alternative. You should get the same result. Solution: 30 x 2 + 50 = 50 = ................+ Circular curved pieces Suppose now that instead of bending parts, your order is for production of steel rings. Again, you must use the perimeter. We must also consider how materials b ehave when suffering distortions. The rings you have to make will be bent from t he flat profiles. Therefore, it is not possible to calculate the amount of mater ial required either by inside diameter or outside diameter of the ring. You know why? If you could put a piece of steel under a microscope, you'd see that it is forme d of crystals arranged in a geometrical way. When this type of material sufferin g any distortion, such as when they are bent, the crystals change shape, stretch ing or compressing it. It is more or less what happens with the palm of your han d if you open it or close it. The skin will stretch or contract, depending on th e move you make. In the case of rings, because of this deformation, the inner di ameter can not be used as reference for the calculation because the number gets smaller than the size specified. For the same reason, the external diameter may also not be used, since the piece will be greater than specified. What is used f or demonstration purposes, is what we call a neutral line, which does not underg o deformation when the part is curved. The following figure gives an idea of wha t that line is neutral. structure that has undergone compression <o CLASSROOM 3 Neutral line structure that has undergone elongation But how to determine the position of the neutral line? It seems we have another little problem here. In large companies, this line is determined by what we call , in Mechanics of a test, ie a study of the behavior of the material, performed with the appropriate equipment. However, your company is too small and does not have such equipment.What can you do to find the neutral axis of the material an d accomplish the task? The solution is to do a rough calculation of the average diameter of the ring. To find this mean, you need only add the values of outer d iameter and inner diameter of the ring and divide the result by 2. Let's try? Su ppose the design you receive is the following. August 10 80 100 CLASSROOM 3

With measurements of internal diameter and external diameter of the drawing, you do the sum: 100 + 80 = 180 mm The result, you divide by 2: 180 ¸ 2 = 90 mm: The average diameter is therefore 90 mm . This value (90 mm) corresponds approximat ely to the diameter of the circle formed by the neutral line, which you need to calculate the necessary raw materials. As the length of the material for the man ufacture of the ring more or less corresponds to the perimeter of the circle for med by the midline, you have to do now is find the value of the perimeter. Remem ber is to learn the formula to calculate the perimeter of the circle is P = D. p , where D is the diameter of the circle and p is a constant equal to 3.14. P = 3 .14 P = 90 x 282.6 mm As you might notice in design to the completion of work, y ou must use a plate with 10 mm thick. Because of the deformation that occurs in the material when it is bent, most likely will need to correct the measurement o btained (282.6 mm). In such cases, the trend is that the ring is greater than sp ecified. In a small company, the procedure is to do with the measurement obtaine d samples, analyze results and make any necessary corrections. Technology Tip Wh en working with a sheet 1 mm thick, no need to fix that extent, because in this case, the neutral axis of the material is very close to the average diameter of the ring. Try you too Let's do another exercise to reinforce what was explained Exercise 2 Calculate t he length of the material needed to construct the ring corresponding to the foll owing drawing: 1 • 31 m dio Solution: P = Diameter mean average diameter 30 Semicircular curved pieces You must be wondering what to do if the pieces do not present the full circumfer ence. For example, how would the calculation to find out the length of the mater ial for the piece that is on the drawing below? Line m • days CLASSROOM 3 30 The first step is to analyze the design and figure out which geometric elements contained in the figure. You should see her two semicircle and two line segments . But if you're having trouble seeing these elements, we will show them with the help of dotted lines in the figure below. 30 10 R 10 30 With the dotted lines of this new figure, formed two circles absolutely equal. T hat means you can do your calculations based only on measures of these circles. Because you have the radius of this circle, just calculate the perimeter and add to the value of the two line segments. Learn How to remember is we are working

p = 31 p = 3.14 P =

with the radius, remember that to calculate the perimeter, you have to use the f ormula P = p 2 R. Let's calculate: P = 2PR Substituting the values: P = 2 x P = 3.14 x 10 6, 28 x 10 P = 62.8 mm R 10 CLASSROOM 3 Try you too For now, we have only the value of two semicircle. We need to add the value of t he two line segments. 62.8 + 30 + 30 = 122.8 mm So the length of the necessary m aterial for the manufacture of chain link is approximately 122.8 mm. Reread this part of the lesson and do the following exercise. Exercise 3 Calculate the leng th of material needed to manufacture the clamping piece U-shaped, whose design i s shown below. Solution: Line average: 6: 2 = ° Distance: 10 + 3 = perimeter of the semicircle: P = Length: 20 + 20 + ......... = Another example. Does exhausted all possibili ties of this type of calculation? Probably not. Note this figure. 2pr p = p = 3.14 × 'pR 2 6 50 In it we have a line segment and a circle which is not complete, ie one arc. How to solve this problem? As you know, the first thing to do is examine the figure carefully to verify all the measures you have at your disposal. 34 12 0u In this case, you have: the material thickness (6 mm), the length of the segment (50 mm), the inner radius of the arc of a circle (12 mm) and the value of the a ngle corresponding to the arc you want to get (340 ). The next step is to calcul ate the radius of the midline. This value is necessary for you to calculate the perimeter of the circle. The measures you will use for this calculation are: the radius (12 mm) and half the material thickness (3 mm).These two values are add ed together and you get: 12 + 3 = 15 mm So you calculate the perimeter of the ci rcle, applying the formula that has been seen in this class. P = 2 x 3.14 = 94.2 0 x 15 mm As you have an arc and not the entire circumference, the next step is to calculate how many mm the arc corresponding to 1 degree circle. As the full c ircle has 360 °, divide the value of the perimeter (94.20 mm) by 360. 94.20 ¸ 36 0 = 0.26166 mm: Now you have to calculate the measure in millimeters of arch 340 . In reaching this result, multiply 0.26166 mm, which is the corresponding value for each degree of arc, by 340, which is the angle corresponding to the arc. 0. 26166 x 340 = 88.96 mm Finally, you add the value of the segment (50 mm) the val ue of the bow (88.96 mm). 50 + 88.96 = 138.96 mm. Therefore, the approximate len gth of the material for this type of piece is 138.96 mm. Things seem easier when we make them. Do the exercise below and see how easy it is. Exercise 4 Calculat e the length of material needed to manufacture the next piece.

CLASSROOM 3 Try you too 330û R12 6 30 Solution: Line average: 6 .......... = Radius: 12 + .......... Perimeter = = ... ......... ¸ 360 = ............ ': ............ = ............ + ............ +.. .......... = The U L A test what you learned 3 If you study the lesson carefully and did the exercises carefully, you will not have difficulty resolving the challenge we have prepared for you. Exercise 5 Cal culate the material required to manufacture the following parts folded. a) b) c) Exercise 6 Calculate length of material needed to manufacture the following part s. a) b)

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