AU U L A LA 9 9 Electronic circuits special the problems they faced electronics consisted in the fact that the valves, then

employed in systems, besides being very large, overheated equipment. This proble m was solved with the development of the transistor, which enabled the miniaturi zation (large size reduction) of electronic circuits. Along the same lines of th e transistors, which are used to drive loads of low and medium power devices wer e developed, ie, other electronics, to drive loads that require more power. Thes e components differ from those transistors have a greater capacity for heat diss ipation and allow for loads that operate on alternating current. One problem A Thyristors Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) after the two layers of semiconductor diode, electronics appeared three, four and even five layers. The thyristors are compon ents of four layers (PNPN) circuits used in controllers and actuators of various loads, such as electric motors. Among the thyristors, there is the SCR (silicon controlled rectifier), which has three terminals for external connection § the anode connected to layer P of the end; anode, cathode connected to ⠢ the N laye r from the other end, cathode, · the door (or gate), connected to the inner P l ayer. SCR fed with positive voltage on the anode (and cathode negative) acquires a high electrical resistance, which prevents the passage of current. However, w hen a positive voltage is applied to the door, even for a short time, begins to circulate a stream exiting the cathode, passes through the region of the door an d ends up being attracted to the positive potential SCR symbol anode. The electrical resistance of the SCR drops to values well below 1 ohm. Th e SCR acts as an electronic key. CLASSROOM 9 SCR off and driving The DIAC DIAC and TRIAC is a bidirectional path for passage of current. This cha racteristic makes it a component suitable for applications in alternating curren t, in which case the power comes and goes. The TRIAC is a DIAC with a control te rminal (gate), as the SCR. His opera-tion is similar to the SCR, with the advant age that can be triggered with any sense of power, enabling it to operate in AC systems. DIAC TRIAC Application of thyristors in the load drive electric The thyristors can be combined to trigger an electric charge. In this case, an a lternating current motor. The "wave" that appears on the left side of the circui t represents the alternating voltage, which can be removed for the electrical ne

twork. Their variations are smooth (sinusoidal): start from scratch and move up to a maximum positive value, then fall, pass through zero again, reaching a maxi mum negative value and return to zero. So is the AC voltage outlets. The rise an d fall of tension is repeated 60 times per second. application of the DIAC and TRIAC power control of AC motors CLASSROOM 9 A small change in the circuit of the previous figure allows even the implementat ion of SCR power control in power control in DC motors, using the alternating vo ltage network. of DC motors Place an SCR and triac in place of an ordinary diode in place of the DIAC. In recent years, appeared on the market designed for thyr istor control powers as high as 10 MW (10 million watts) and capable of handling currents around 2000 amps, with voltage of 1,800 volts. So powerful, these comp onents end up having an external aspect that jars a bit of electronic components , which generally are thumbnails. thyristors Digital circuits The components and circuits studied so far lend themselves well to drive, and a reasonable control of electric charges. When a control requires more complex cir cuits are needed capable of working with more electrical parameters, indicating more combinations. To facilitate the design of circuits for this purpose have be en developed systems that operate with only two voltage levels: a low level and another senior high. They feature low power consumption and can be used in very complex logical drive. To understand well the importance of this type of circuit , it is worth noting that your application is directed toward the development of electronic equipment capable of performing logical operations to drive or not a charge, depending on the situation of several variables, called input variables . input As an example, we present the following situation. Imagine that we thro w a press in which the operator drives the only two security sensors at the same time,€very common condition in practice to protect the operator's hands, since they must be in the sensors, well away from the area of operation of the press. In this case, the following occurs: ⠢ The logic says the press P1 must be activ ated if the sensor 1 and sensor 2 are activated. ⠢ The AND operation indicates t hat the action will only occur if all conditions are met. The electronic circuit that solves this problem is a two-door and E, entries (on e for each sensor) and one output. Its symbol is: CLASSROOM 9 To further simplify, it moved to call the state "deactivated" from zero (0), and fired one (1). These levels 0 and 1 are also called logical levels, logical ter ms because they represent very clear, well defined and opposing, as low, open, h igh and low closed and open hot and cold etc.. Levels 0 and 1 are the digits of the binary numbering system a binary system, strange to us who are accustomed to the decimal system (a system with ten digits, 0-9), but very familiar to a bran ch of electronics known as digital. The digital electronics system has only two binary digits, 0 and 1, which are sufficient to represent any amount, as in the decimal system. Thus, to represent the number zero, we use the 0, to represent a quantity, we use the one, two is represented by 10 (it reads a zero), three for 11 (pronounced one, one) . There is even an English word that identifies the bi nary digit: bit (binary digit). Digital circuits are electronic circuits that op

erate with binary digits (bits). It's always good to remember not to lose the th read: each bit represents a level of electrical voltage. Level 0 typically repre sents a voltage of 0 volt, while the level 1 should represent the highest level of tension in the circuit. Hence, the idea of digital circuits work only with YE S or NO RIGHT or WRONG, GO or NO GO, 0 or 1. The circuits that develop digital f unctions are represented by symbols such as the following table. OR Gate: Data from a port or ports or "If input A or B input receive level 1, th e output level has a" Inputs Output Absa SSBB 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 Port E: Data from a door and door And: "If input A and input B receiving level 1 , the output level has an" Input Output Symbol Symbol adopted in Brazil adopted in the U.S. ABS 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 January 1 continues continuation CLASSROOM 9 EXCLUSIVE OR Gate: Data from an EXCLUSIVE OR gate OR gate EXCLUSIVE: "If only on e of the entries provide Level 1, the output has a level " Entries A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Output S 0 1 1 0 Symbol adopted in Brazil Symbol adopted in the U.S. Port OR NOT: Data from a NOT gate OR gate OR NOT: "Opera in the opposite way to the door OR Inputs Output Symbol Symbol adopted in Brazil adopted in the U.S. AB S 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Port AND NOT : Given a gate NOT gate NOT AND E: "Opera in the opposite way to the door and" Input Output Symbol adopted in Brazil ABS 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 Symbol adopted in the U.S. Port E: Data from a NOT gate NOT gate, "Output is logic level opposite the entry " Input Output Symbol Symbol adopted in Brazil adopted in the U.S. AS 0 1 1 0 To interpret the operation of digital logic circuits, you should keep in mind th at 0 equals not equals fired and a fired fired. From the 60's, techniques were d eveloped for the construction of miniature components. Thus it was possible to i ntegrate a large circuit in one piece (chips) of silicon. Emerged integrated cir cuits, key components of modern electronics. The following figure shows the MC68 030 microprocessor (the Motorola Company) and its external dimensions real. The component has 275 000 transistors and a slew of other integrated components such as resistors. It is a key part of several computers manufactured by companies l ike Apple and Hewlett Packard. CLASSROOM 9 Microprocessor 68 030 Some wires are welded on the integrated circuit chip to allow external connectio

ns. The set is packaged using plastic resins, and the components assume the exte rnal aspects as shown below. encapsulated integrated circuits Not only are digital circuits can be integrated. There is everything: power ampl ifiers, radio receivers and TV and others. The "legs" of components are called p ins. Each pin is numbered and refers to a useful point of the circuit. For examp le, a two-input AND gate in an integrated circuit must have at least five pins ( for two entries, one for output and two for connection to voltage supply). The f ollowing figure,€shows the internal diagram of the integrated circuit 7400, wit h four doors NOT E. The power supply pins common to all ports are 14 (VCC), whic h should receive the positive supply of 5 volts, and 7 (GND), which will receive the negative. IC 7400 CLASSROOM Exercises 9 Test your knowledge. Do the exercises and check their response to the feedback. Exercise 1 Mark V (true) or F (False) to the following statements about the thyr istor: a) () SCR has three terminals: anode, cathode and gate b) () DIAC has two terminals: the anode and gate; c) () does not have the TRIAC gate terminal d) ( ) is a bi-directional component, serves to control the TRIAC AC. Mark X in the c orrect answer. Exercise 2 is considered the correct procedure for firing the SCR : a) () SCR connect directly into the grid, b) () apply a voltage between positi ve and sufficient gate and cathode, with a positive voltage between the anode an d cathode, d) () refer the SCR to a high negative voltage between the anode and cathode, e) () DIAC connect a port on the SCR. Exercise 3 If inputs A and B are a logic gate with levels 0 and 1 (A = 0, B = 1), dial 1 or 0 as its output be if this port is: a) () OR b ) () E c) () AND NOT d) () OR EXCLUSIVE. 4 year integr ated circuits are: a) () any electronic circuit, provided it is small, b) () cir cuits with millions of transistors; c) () circuits, digital or otherwise, miniat urized components, assembled in a single semiconductor wafer, d ) () digital cir cuits built on a single semiconductor wafer.