27 Axes and Trees You The UU AL AL 27 The ever thought what would be the human being without the

backbone to give support. The entire structure of arms, legs, hands, feet would be a pile of bones and mu scles without condition to forward movement. This is just an example to facilita te the explanations on the subject of our lesson today: axes and trees. Introduction Axes and Trees Like the man, the machines come with your spine as a major component of its phys ical structure: axes and trees, which may have smooth profiles or composite, in which are mounted the gears, pulleys, bearings, wheels, levers etc.. The axes and trees can be fixed or rotating and supporting the elements of the m achine. In the case of fixed axes, the elements (gears with bushings, bearings a nd pulleys on wheels) is turning. CLASSROOM 27 When it comes to rotating spindle, the shaft moves along with their components o r independently of them, for example, shafts of sharpening (grinding), trolley w heels (track), axes of machine tools, bearings on shafts. Manufacturing materials The axes and trees are made of steel or alloy steel, because metals have better mechanical properties than other materials. So are most suitable for the manufac ture of transmission elements: · · · · axles with small mechanical stress ar e made of carbon steel, spindle machines and cars are made of nickel steel, for high spindle speeds or for pumps and turbines are made of chrome-nickel steel; h ub for freight wagons are made of manganese steel. When the axes and trees have specific purposes, may be made of copper, aluminum, brass. Therefore, the manufacturing material varies with the function of axes a nd trees. Types and characteristics of trees As his duties, a tree can be gear (which are mounted bearings and bearings) or h andles, that turns circular motion into rectilinear motion. To support radial forces, they use spikes straight, tapered, necklace, crank and spherical. necklace CLASSROOM 27 To support axial forces, they use ear rings or head. The axial forces are perpendicular (90 degrees) to the cross section of the shaf t, while the forces are radial or tangential direction parallel to the cross sec

tion of the shaft. CLASSROOM 27 Regarding the type, the axes can be threaded grooves, massive, hollow, flexible, conical, whose characteristics are described below. Most solid axle shafts have massive massive circular cross section, with steps t o support or adjustment of parts assembled on them. The end of the shaft is beve led to avoid sharp edges. The edges are rounded to alleviate the concentration o f efforts. Typically hollow shafts, machine tool have leaked the spindle to facilitate the attachment of longer pieces for machining. We still have the hollow shafts used in aircraft engines because they are lighter. The tapered shafts tapered shafts should be adjusted to a component that has a t apered hole plug. The part that fits has a conical shape and are firmly attached by a nut. A key is used to prevent relative rotation. This type of threaded axle shaft is comprised of recesses and threaded holes, al lowing its use as a transmission element and also as an axis extender used in th e setting of grinding wheels for internal grinding and tool for machining holes. CLASSROOM 27 internal grinding, internal turning Spindles scored Such axis presents a series of longitudinal grooves around its c ircumference. These grooves mesh with the corresponding grooves of parts that wi ll be mounted on the shaft. The grooved axes are used to convey great strength. Spindles striated Like tapered shafts, such as braces, are characterized by ensu ring a good concentricity with good fixation, the striated spindles are also use d to prevent relative rotation in steering rods of motor vehicles, machinery etc levers. CLASSROOM 27 Flexible spindles consist of a series of layers of steel wire wound alternately in opposite directions and squeezed tightly. The assembly is protected by a flex ible tube and union with the engine is made by a special clamp with a screw. Axe s are used to transmit motion to portable tools (grinding wheel), and not suitab le for very large forces and high speed (speedometer cable). Test your learning. Do the exercises below, then check your answers with the fee dback. Mark with X the only correct answer.€Exercise 1 The shaft that transmits motion or power and support efforts is called: a) () or tree ear b) () or tree hollow shaft c) () spindle tree or d) () axis or cob . The second exercise machine elem ents are supported by: a) () ears, b) () walrus c) () bar d) () axes. Exercise 3 For long machining parts machine tools are used to: a) () hollow spindle; b) () spindle massive c) () hollow shaft d) () solid shaft. Exercise 4 axes can be: a

) () or flexible rotating b) () property or fixed c) () fixed or rotary d) () fi xed or floating. Exercise 5 axes and trees can be made of: a) () copper, aluminu m, brass, elastic, b) () lead, aluminum, brass, steel, c) () lead, steel, plasti c, iron, d) ( ) steel, copper, aluminum, brass. Exercise Lesson 27