31 Industrial Lubrication I The UU AL AL 31 The beverage company uses in its production line with a conveyor roller bearings.

Th e conveyor transports bottles that are filled with a delicious diet soda. From t ime to time, the official responsible for the lubrication of machines and equipm ent went to the mat to lubricate it. He knew that the rolling bearing of the mat using a lubricant with special features. What were the special characteristics of the lubricant used in rolling bearing mat? Answer to this and other informati on regarding lubrication and lubricants will be given this lesson. A Concept and objectives of lubrication Lubrication is an operation that consists in introducing an appropriate substanc e between solid surfaces which are in contact with each other and perform relati ve movement. This substance is usually a suitable oil or grease that prevents di rect contact between solid surfaces. When covered with a lubricant, the points o f friction of solid surfaces causes the friction sound is replaced by fluid fric tion, ie friction between a solid surface and a fluid. Under these conditions, t he wear between the surfaces will be greatly reduced. CLASSROOM 31 Besides this reduction of friction, other objectives are achieved with lubricati on, lubricating the substance is selected correctly: · lower power dissipation a s heat, · lower temperature, because the lubricant also cools · reduction of cor rosion; · reduction Noise and vibration; · reduce wear. Lubricants Lubricants can be gaseous such as air, liquids and oils in general, semi-solids such as greases and solids such as graphite, talc, mica etc. However, lubricants and more practical for everyday use are the liquid and semisolid, ie oils and greases. Classification of oils on the origin Regarding the origin of the oils can be classified into four categories: mineral oils, vegetable oils, animal oils and synthetic oils. Mineral oils - are substa nces obtained from oil and according to their molecular structure, are classifie d as paraffinic oils or naphthenic oils. Vegetable oils - are extracted from see ds, soybean, sunflower, corn, cotton, rice, castor oil, myrtle, etc. babassu. An imal oils - are extracted from animals such as whales, sperm whales, cod, etc. c apybara. Synthetic oils - are produced in chemical plants that use organic and i norganic substances to manufacture them. These substances can be silicones, este rs, resins, glycerin etc.. Applications of oils The animal and vegetable oils are rarely used alone as lubricants because of the ir low oxidation resistance compared to other types of lubricants. As a result, they are often added to mineral oils with the aim to act as agents for oils. The mixture obtained has characteristics for effective lubrication, especially in a reas of difficult lubrication.

Some vegetable oils are are applied very rare, her types of substances dely used in industrial CLASSROOM 31

used as food. You are able to name a few? Synthetic oils because of its high cost, and are used in cases where ot are not acting efficiently. Mineral oils are the most wi arrangements, being obtained largely from oil.

Characteristics of lubricating oils Lubricating oils, before being offered for sale by the manufacturer, are subject ed to standard physical tests, in addition to control product quality, serve as parameters for users. The main standard physical tests for lubricating oils are summarized in the following table. TYPE OF TEST THAT DETERMINES THE TEST Viscosity Flow resistance offered by the oil. Viscosity is inversely proportional to tempe rature. The test is performed on devices called viscometers. The most commonly u sed viscometers are the Saybolt, the Engler, Redwood, and Ostwald. Shows how to vary the viscosity of an oil according to variations in temperature. Paraffinic mineral oils are those with less variation in viscosity when the temperature var ies and, therefore, have higher viscosity than the naphthenic. Relationship betw een the density of oil at 20 ° C and the density of water at 4 ° C or the ratio of the density of oil at 60 ° F and the density of water at 60 ° F. Minimum temp erature at which it can ignite the oil mist at least 5 seconds. The flash point is an important factor when dealing with oils that work at high temperatures.€Mi nimum temperature which supports the burning of oil. Minimum temperature that oc curs in the flow of oil by gravity. The point of minimum flow is an important fa ctor when dealing with oils that work at low temperatures. Waste solids remainin g after the destructive distillation of oil. Viscosity Index Relative density Flash point (flash point) Point of combustion point of minimum flow Waste coal Grease Lubricating greases are composed of semi-solid consisting of a mixture of oil, a dditives and thickening agent called metallic soaps, made from aluminum, calcium , sodium, lithium and barium. They are used where the use of oils is not recomme nded. CLASSROOM 31 Greases also undergo physical tests and standardized major are in the table belo w. TYPE OF TEST THAT DETERMINES THE TEST Consistency Structure filamentation Adhesiveness Melting or drip

Relative hardness, resistance to penetration. Tato, appearance. Ability to form wires or filaments. Ability to grip. Temperature at which the grease passes into the liquid state. Types of grease The types of grease are ranked based on the soap used in its manufacture. Grease from aluminum: soft, often filamentous; water resistant, good structural stabil ity when in use, can work at temperatures up to 71 ° C. It is used in roller bea rings and low-speed chassis. Calcium-based grease: Vaseline, water resistant, go od structural stability when in use, allow to easily apply a spray gun, can work at temperatures up to 77 ° C. It is applied in chassis and water pumps. Grease based on sodium: usually fibrous; not generally resists water, good structural s tability when in use. It can work in environments with temperatures up to 150 ° C. It is applied in roller bearings, wheel bearings, universal joints etc.. Grea se based on lithium: Vaseline, good structural stability when in use, water resi stant, can work at temperatures up to 150 ° C. It is used in automobiles and avi ation. Barium-based grease: general characteristics similar to lithium-based gre ases. Grease mixed: it consists of a mixture of soap. Thus, we have grease-based mixed sodium-calcium, sodium, aluminum, etc.. Besides these greases, greases fo r many applications, special greases and synthetic greases. Some solid lubricant s solids present peculiar characteristics that allow their use as lubricants, un der special conditions of service. Among the important characteristics of these substances should be mentioned as follows: • Low shear high temperature stabil ity, high yield strength, high rate of heat transfer high rate of adhesion absence of abrasive impurities . Although such characteristics are not always met by all substances used as solid lubricants, they appear satisfactorily in crystalline carbons such as graphite, and molybdenum disulfide, which are, therefore, those most commonly used for th is purpose. Graphite, after special treatments, giving rise to colloidal graphit e, which can be used in powder form or in finely divided dispersions with water, mineral oils, animal and some types of solvents. There is a growing use of moly bdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a lubricant. The action of sulfur (chemical symbol = S) in its existing structure provides a good adherence of the substance with the metal surface, and its use is recommended especially for metal parts subjected to severe conditions of pressure and elevated temperatures. Can be used in powde r form or in divided dispersion with mineral oil and some types of solvents. The use of solid lubricants as is recommended for services in special conditions, e specially those in which the parts to be lubricated are subject to pressures or high temperatures or under the action of intermittent loads or aggressive media. The aggressive media are common in oil refineries, petrochemical and chemical i ndustries. CLASSROOM 31 Additives Additives are substances involved in the formulation of oils and greases to give them certain properties. The presence of additives in lubricants has the follow ing goals: improve the characteristics of wear protection and performance in wor k under conditions of severe pressures increase resistance to oxidation and co rrosion increase the activity of dispersant and detergent lubricants; Increase adhesiveness increase the viscosity. Lubrication of sliding bearings The correct layout of the slots and grooves distribution of lubricant in the sli ding bearings is the prime factor to ensure proper lubrication. CLASSROOM









31 The sliding bearings can be lubricated with oil or grease. In the case of oil, t he viscosity is the main factor to be taken into account, in case of grease, its consistency is the relevant factor. The choice of an oil or grease also depends on the following factors: bearing geometry: size, diameter, bearing clearance / shaft rotation axis load bearing operating temperature of the bearing environmental conditions: temperature, humidity, dust and contaminants; appli cation method. Lubrication of roller bearings The spherical roller thrust bearings are lubricated, usually with oil. All other types of bearings can be lubricated with oil or grease. Grease lubrication in b earings for easy access, the box can be opened to renew or extend the grease. Wh en the box is split, cut up the top, one-piece housings feature easily removable side covers. As a general rule, the box should be filled only by a third or hal f of its space with a good quality grease, possibly based on lithium. Oil lubric ation oil level in the bearing box should be kept low, not exceeding the bottom center of the body belt. It is very convenient the use of a circulatory system f or oil and in some cases, it is recommended the use of mist lubrication. Lubrica tion intervals in the case of bearings lubricated by oil bath, the oil change pe riod depends basically on the operating temperature of the bearing and the possi bility of contamination from the environment. There is not much possibility of p ollution, and being the temperature below 50 ° C, the oil can be changed only on ce a year. At temperatures around 100 ° C, this range drops to 60 or 90 days. Lubrication of bearings of motors Temperature, speed and load bearing are the factors that will drive the choice o f lubricant. In general: high temperatures: more viscous oil or grease tha t remains consistent, high speed: Use thinner oil, low rpm: use oil more viscous . Gear lubrication closed The complete separation of the surfaces of gear teeth meshing during implies the presence of an oil film thick enough for the microscopic bumps these surfaces d o not touch. The oil is applied to the gears by means of speckle closed or moved . CLASSROOM 31 The selection of gear oil depends on the following factors: type of gear, pinion rotation, degree of reduction, operating temperature, power, nature of cargo, d rive type, application method and contamination. Lubrication of open gears It is not practical or economical to close some types of gear in a box. These ar e called open gears. The open gears may be lubricated intermittently and often o nly at regular intervals, providing film lubricants minimum thickness between th e teeth, the prevailing boundary lubrication conditions. By selecting the open g ear lubricant, it is necessary to consider the following conditions: temperature , method of application, environmental conditions and material gear. Lubrication of geared motors The choice of an oil for lubricating geared motors should be made considering th e following factors: type of gears, engine speed, operating temperature and load . Overall, the oil must be chemically stable to withstand oxidation and resist o xidation.








CLASSROOM Lubrication of machine tools Currently, there is a considerable number of machine tool with a wide variety of models, the most rudimentary to those more sophisticated manufactured to the mo st advanced technologies. Given such a wide variety of machine tools, it is reco mmended that you carefully read the manual of the equipment manufacturer, which will be found precise lubrication and products to be used. For older equipment a nd there have been no more precise information, the following general statements can be followed: Forced circulation system - the first line of lubricating oil with viscosity number of S 215 (ASTM). Intermittent Lubrication (oleadeiras, gla ss dropper, etc..) - Mineral oil with viscosity number of S 315 (ASTM). High spe ed spindles (above 3000 rpm) - lubricating oil primarily paraffinic base, with n umber of viscosity S 75 (ASTM).€Zones of moderate speed (below 3000 rpm) - lubri cating oil primarily based paraffin with a viscosity number of S 105 (ASTM). Gui des and buses - lubricating oils containing additives for adhesion and corrosion and oxidation inhibitors, viscosity number with S 1000 (ASTM). Gearboxes - For light can be used with oil viscosity number of S 1000 (ASTM) silages convenientl y with antioxidants, anti-caking agents etc.. Heavy-duty, are recommended oils w ith extreme pressure additives and viscosity number of S 2150 (ASTM). Lubricatin g grease - at all points of lubrication grease you can use the same product. We suggest the use of greases based on lithium soap of multiple application and con sistency NLGI 2. Notes: S = Saybolt, ASTM Testing = American Society of Material s (American Society for Testing Materials). NLGI Lubricating Grease Institute = National (National Lubricating Grease). In summary, for a machine more complicat ed than it seems, there are only three elements to lubricate: 1. Support of vari ous types, such as sliding or rolling bearings, guides etc.. 2. Spur gears, heli cal, screw-worm etc.. That may be discovered or closed in closed boxes. 3. Cylin ders as those found in compressors and all kinds of motors, pumps or other machi nes with pistons. 31 Answer. As an exercise is the lubrication? Exercise 2 In practical terms, what a re the lubricants most frequently used? Exercise 3 The origin, are classified as lubricants? Exercise 4 What is viscosity? Exercise 5 What are grease? Exercise 6 A sleeve bearing that operates under high pressure and low rotation should be lubricated with oil or grease? Warranted. Exercise Lesson 31