AU U L A LA 41 41 Milling The parts to be machined can have many different ways.

This could be a complicating factor in the machining process. But thanks to the milling machine and its speci al tools and devices, it is possible to machine almost any part and surfaces of all types and formats. The machining operation performed through the milling mac hine is called milling. In this book you will study the various milling operatio ns that can be performed with a planer machine. Our class What is Milling The milling is a mechanical machining process, done by milling machines and spec ial tools called milling cutters. The milling is the removal of excess metal or excess metal from the surface of a piece, to give this a desired shape and finis h. In milling, the removal of excess metal part is made by combining two movemen ts, performed at the same time. One such movement is the rotation of the tool, t he cutter. The other is the movement of the machine table, which is fixed to the part to be machined. It is the movement of the machine table or forward movement that takes the piece until the cutter and makes possible the operation of the plant-ing. See diagram opposite. CLASSROOM The forward movement can take part against the rotating movement of the cutter t ooth. It's called the dissenting movement. Or you can also take part in the same direction of movement of the cutter tooth. This is the case of motion consisten t. 41 Most routers work with the advancement of the table based on a nut and bolt. Wit h time and machine wear is a gap between them. See figure below. Concordant in m otion, the slack is pushed by the tooth of the cutter in the same direction of t ravel of the table. This causes the table to perform irregular movements, which damage the finish of the piece and may even break the tooth of the cutter. In th e dissenting movement, the clearance does not influence the displacement of the table. So the table has a forward motion more uniform. This generates a best fin ish of the piece. Thus, in milling machines equipped with advance system with nu t and bolt, it is best to use the dissenting movement. To do so, simply observe the direction of rotation of the cutter and make the piece move against the toot h of the tool. Like other processes, the milling allows working flat surfaces, c onvex, concave or special sections. But has the advantage of being faster than t he process of turning, filing, planing. This is due to the use of the cutter, wh ich is a tool multicortante. Milling The milling machines are usually classified according to the position of the spi ndle in relation to the desk. Work table is the place where the machine is fixed to the part to be machined. The spindle is the part

CLASSROOM 41 the machine where the tool is fixed. The milling machines are classified in rela tion to the spindle in horizontal, vertical and universal. The mill is horizonta l when your spindle is parallel to the machine table. If the spindle is perpendicular to the machine table, we say that it is a vertic al milling machine. Already a universal milling machine has two spindles, one horizontal and one ver tical. The vertical axis is located in the head, top of the machine. The horizon tal axis is located in the machine body. The fact that the universal milling mac hine equipped with two axes allows it to be used both horizontally as vertically . CLASSROOM Do not think however that there are only these types of milling machines! There are others that have taken as a model horizontal and vertical milling machines, but do not work the same way. One is the milling machine, copier, which works wi th a table and two heads: the head probe and machining. As the name says, the mi ll has the purpose of copying machine, copying a given model. 41 Another type of milling is the milling pantographic or pantograph. As the millin g machine, copier, pantograph allows the copying of a template. The pantograph, the mechanical transmission is coordinated manually by the opera tor. This enables details such as working channels and small radii, more difficu lt to obtain in a milling machine copier. As for models, they can be made of met allic material such as steel and aluminum, or resin. The choice of material depe nds on the number of pieces to be copied. Due to its strength, steel models are recommended for a high number of copies. If the model is used infrequently for c opying two or three pieces for example, recommends the use of the resin. Stop! AThis! ULA answer! 41 There is also the milling machine and CNC gear generators, of which we shall spe ak in specific classes in this same book. Mark X in the correct alternative. Exe rcise 1 The routers are often classified according to: a) () structure, weight a nd type of spindle;€b) () the position of the base in relation to Spindle c) () the position of the spindle in relation to the table d) () the position of the spindle in relation to the head. Exercise 2 Match correctly milling machines (co lumn A) regarding the position of spindles (column B). a) Horizontal and vertica l Column A to table B b) Parallel columned machine 1. () Horizontal c) Perpendic ular to the machine table 2. () Universal 3. () Angle, universal 4. () Vertical 5. () Flat, vertical Cutters The cutter is equipped with knives or teeth multicortantes. This gives it an adv antage over other tools: when teeth are not cutting, they are chilling. This con tributes to a lesser tool wear. Stay inside The lower wear, longer life of the t ool. The choice of tool is one of the most important stages of milling. It is ma inly related to the type of material to be machined. When choosing a router, you should consider whether it is resistant material to be machined. The materials

are more or less resistant. Thus, a cutter suitable for machining a material can not be used for machining other. Choosing the cutter So how to choose the right tool? To begin, you should know that the teeth of the cutter form angles. These in turn form the wedge-cut. Remember learning is the wedge angles are cutting the angle of departure (g), wedge (b) and off (a). Well , b are the angles of the teeth of the cutter to give this more or less resistan t to breakage. This means that the larger the opening angle b, is the toughest b it. Conversely, the smaller the aperture angle b, the cutter will be less resist ant. With it, you can sort the cutter in: type W, N and H. See the following figures. CLASSROOM 41 Realized that the angles a, b and g in every type of cutter is always equal to 9 0 °? So you may have noticed also that on each one, the opening of the angles v aries, but is the value of the ever increasing wedge angle. Well, from this obse rvation and in accordance with the material to be machined, you can now choose t he cutter appropriate to their work. The cutter type W, having an opening wedge angle lower (b = 57 °) is less resistant. Therefore it is recommended for machi ning non-ferrous materials of low hardness such as aluminum, brass and plastics. The cutter type N (b = 73 °) is stronger than the Type W cutter and therefore recommended for machining medium hardness materials such as steel up to 700N/mm2 tensile strength. Finally, the cutter type H (b = 81 °) is stronger than the c utter and cutter N. W Therefore, it is recommended for machining hard and brittl e materials such as steel over 700N/mm2 tensile strength. Still milling about th e type W, N and H, you must be wondering why one has more teeth than others. The answer has to do with the hardness of the material to be machined. Suppose you should machining a piece of steel. Being harder than other materials, lower it w ill be cut by the cutter tooth. So, fewer chips will be produced by tooth and le ss space for the output is needed. Even greater volume per tooth can be removed from softer materials like aluminum. In this case, more space is needed for outp ut chip. CLASSROOM 41 Stop! Study! Answer me! Be in One of the problems in machining soft materials with many teeth with cutte r is that the chip gets stuck between your teeth and they are not refrigerated p roperly. This causes wear on the teeth and can still generate a poor part finish . He saw how important it is to be connected at angles? They allow to classify the cutters according to the type of material to be machined. Mark with an X the al ternative that correctly complete the questions below. Exercise 3 What gives the cutter an advantage over other tools is that they are ......................... .. teeth .................. flexible and varied; a) () b) () endowed, multicorta ntes c) () multicortantes, varied. Exercise 4 The choice of .................... ....... is mainly related to the type of .................. to be machined. a) ( ) temperature, material, b) () tool, material, c) () machine component. Another concern is about the application you will be given to the cutter. Is what we see now, studying the various types of cutters and their applications. Profile mill ing cutters are constantly used to open channels, concave and convex surfaces be tween gears or generate other operations. See some types of mill and its applica

tions. biangular cutter / 'V cutter convex / concave profile cutter concave / convex profile cutter module / cogs CLASSROOM It is flat cutters cutter used to machine flat surfaces, tears and open channels . Below, cutters on flat work and its applications. 41 These are angular milling cutters used for machining profiles at angles, as tear s and holes on prismatic type swallow-tail. The milling cutters tears for tears Tears are used to make keys, straight groove s or T-profile, such as tables of routers and drills. CLASSROOM 41 Mills false teeth are also called milling head. It is a tool with false teeth. T hese teeth are carbide, fixed by bolts, pins or claws, and can be easily replace d. These cutters for roughing cutters are used for thinning of large amounts of mat erial from a workpiece. In other words, serve to heavy machining. This property of chopping large amount of material is due to the sectioning of teeth. See pict ures below. Stop! L Study! AU The Answer! 41 Exercise 5 Answer the following questions: a) What is the primary concern you sh ould have when choosing a router for the material to be machined? b) What type o f cutter suitable for generating concave and convex surfaces, gears and tears? c ) What type of cutter is recommended to remove large amounts of excess metal. d) What is the main advantage of the cutters of false teeth. e) That cutter is use d to open keyway, grooves straight and prepare T slots, as of polling machines. Exercise 6 Match the material (column A) with the kind of a cutter and angle. we dge, indicating 1, 2 or 3 in column B. Steel medium hardness steel comoColuna AA te Column B 2700 N / mmusinado material to be types of cutter wedge angle a) () H b) () W c) () N 2. Aluminum, bronze and plastics) () H b) () N) (c)) W) () N b ) () H c) () W b = 81 b = 57 b = 73 b = 73 b = 81 b = 57 b = 73 b = 81 b = 57 ° 3. Hard and brittle materials Exercise 7 Mark V for true statements and F for false. a) () The greater the num ber of teeth greater cooling of the teeth. b) () Machining cutters with soft mat erial to work harder material, the finish of the machined surface is improved. c ) () The harder the material being machined, the greater the number of teeth. d) () The softer the material, the smaller should be the number of teeth on the cu tter.