AU U L A LA 71 71 Cutting and bending In this Introduction class, you will get an overview of how the manufacturing processes for

forming, by cutting and bending dies Initially, we see the principles of cutting and bend ing. fold. Then, the manufacturing processes using these dies. Will be presented the relationship between the strength of the material being cut and the mountin g of the cutting tool. We will see further general aspects that determine the qu ality of a product that incorporates the processes of cutting and bending. Shall we? Our class Principles of cutting and bending The cut is a manufacturing process in which a tool with two wedges cut, which mo ve against each other, causes the separation of a material by shearing. Shear de formation, which is a body suffers due to the action of cutting forces opposed. The wedges are also called cutting knife or punch and matrix array. The punch is pressed against the material and the matrix so that for the matrix, making the cut is necessary to apply a certain force. In this force is called the effort to cut court. During the cutting, when the punch presses the material against the array matrix , appear initially in the material elastic deformations. Soon after, plastic def ormations arise on both sides of the plate to be cut. Then, with the continued p ressure of the punch against the die, the material begins to bite. These broken rupture, unite, separate part of the plate. A feature of the court is that the s eparation of materials occurs without the formation of chips. A perfect cut with no burrs, is obtained when the cracks, which start on the wir es cut, intersect. For this to occur, there must be adequate clearance between t he punch and matrix, known as cutting off the court. It is calculated according to the material being worked, its thickness and its tensile strength. Notice a r epresentation of a cutting plate. CLASSROOM 71 The fold is a manufacturing process in which a tool consisting of a set of two o r more pieces exerts a force on a surface, changing it. The figure presents a se t of doubles. The plate, flat, is changed, resulting in the same form found in b oth the puncture as the matrix. The bending operations are used to form parts an d profiles. Cutting tool and bending The stamp is the tool used in the processes of cutting and bending. Council comp rises a number of pieces or plates, presses or associated with rockers, performs cutting and bending for production of parts in series. The figure below shows a stamp-cut. CLASSROOM

71 During the process, o be stamped, which at need, the useful ial is left over is the material is cut according to measurements of the parts t is called when we cut a strip strip strip. material forms th part obtained is called the part number. The remaining mater called the flap, flap as in the figure.

Parts of the stamp cut In general, the cutting dies are formed by two sets of parts: the upper and lowe r. The upper set is the mobile part of the stamp. It is attached to the machine, ma kes movements of "up-down" and the following components: ear, superior plate, sh ock, door-plate punches, punches and knife advance. The lower set is still part of the stamp. It is fixed to the machine and the fol lowing components: board-guide, side guides, board-matrix and baseplate. CLASSROOM 71 Tang is a superior set generally cylindrical piece of steel from 1020 to 1030 wh o introduced and secured in the housing of the press head, holds the top set. Top plate is a steel plate from 1020 to 1030 which aims to lay the cob and put t ogether, by screws, the plate shock and the plate holder puncture. CLASSROOM 71 Plate shock is a steel plate from 1060 to 1070, hardened and ground, which has t he function of receiving shocks produced by the heads of the punches when they p ierce or cut the sheet, avoiding its penetration into the top plate. The thickne ss of the plate shock varies with the material being cut. Card holder punctures is a steel plate from 1020 to 1030 located just below the plate shock or the top plate. It is fixed by screws and has the function of sustaining punches, cutter s and wedges. Stamp is a piece of steel with high carbon, quenched and tempered, which makes t he cut when it is inserted in the cavities of the motherboard plate, forming the product. The punch can be classified as simple when your form does not present difficulties in construction. simple, is classified as punch when presented with fake parts fragile parts that will undergo tremendous effort. single puncture puncture with fake parts Knife advance is a puncture width equal to the pitch of the array. Should be use d in progressive dies to get faster at work. The knives can be simple or double. The knife advance is a side cut the strip with the same measure of the pitch. Th is enables the displacement of the strip in steps in order to obtain standardize d parts. Set bottom plate guide is a steel plate from 1020 to 1030 that has the function of guiding the punches and pilots centering into the cavities of the cutting arr

ay. The thickness of the guide varies depending on the size of the stamp, the co urse and function of punctures. CLASSROOM 71 Side guides are two pieces of steel from 1040 to 1060 placed on the side of the plate-array. They can be hardened and tempered. Its function is to guide the str ip of material to be cut. Card array is a plate of steel with high carbon, tempered, tempered and rectifie d, with cavities that have the same section of punctures. Its function is to pla y pieces by the action of punctures. Note that the matrix presents the inner edg es of cut, a tapered portion to facilitate passage of a piece or flap. CLASSROOM 71 The plates, arrays can be whole when formed in a single-piece, piece, or split w hen incorporated in various parts used in the sectioned dies, large. Baseplate is a board that serves to support the board-matrix and fixed to it by screws and guide pins. It is constructed of steel from 1020 to 1030. When the pa rt comes already cut the bottom of the array, the motherboard is always one cavi ty with greater dimension to facilitate the departure. Parts of the stamp bending The stamp bending is also known as bender bender is formed. punch and matrix, an d generally guided by the head of the press or plate-guide. The punch is a piece of steel, quenched and tempered, whose bottom has a profile that corresponds to the inner surface of the part. Can be fixed directly on the head of the press o r through the ear. The matrix is made of steel and its top has the shape of the outer part of the piece. Can be set directly on the press table. Generally, the array is about setting out guidelines of the workpiece material, which elements are adapted to the stamp to give a proper position for work. Folding procedure Stamp with a simple fold can get multiple profiles, changing only the position o f the piece to obtain the desired shape. Due to elastic recovery, a piece that was bent tends to return to its original s hape. It is therefore necessary, to bend, to calculate an angle less than hoped for after the elastic recovery becomes the form with the dimensions provided. CLASSROOM 71 · · · · Other factors to consider in the process are: the play compresses on the inside of bends and stretches on the outside, there is a region where it bent in the de formation occurs by traction or compression. It is located where the call neutra l, neutral line that is used for the calculation of stamp bending. Observing fig

ure next to it is noted that there was a decrease in the region pulled the secti on, and in the region increased compressed section; when bending a plaque with a very small inner radius, it can crack, break, having a thickness reduction and, consequently, lose the strength you want. So there are calculations for the min imum radius to be observed, depending on the material with which it works. the a ction of bending, the force being applied is also calculated in order to define the press suitable for carrying out the work. Stamp mix: cutting and bending There are mixed dies whose structures are the result of the union of dies for cu tting and bending. The mixed dies perform the two operations, both cutting and b ending. In the figure, we see a cut in stamp and its corresponding product. CLASSROOM Stop! Study! Answer me! 71 Let's see now what you have learned. Resolve the issues and check their response to the feedback. Mark X in the correct answer. Exercise 1 cut in wedges dies are known as: a) () guide plate and knife advance b) () knife and cutting tool c) () punch and matri x, d) () card of shock and puncture. Exercise 2 In the process of cutting,) () t he array holds the material together with cutting tools, b) () produces the arra y chip into contact with the punch c) () the plaque pushes the tools in the same direction tools; d) () the punch presses the material against the array. Exerci se 3 clearance cutting is: a) () adequate space between punch and matrix, b) () space between the plate and guide the puncture c) () time between a cut and anot her d) () in the space left takes between one piece and another.€Exercise 4 A p iece tends to be bent back to its previous form because of: a) () permanent elas ticity b) () compression in stamping c) () elastic recovery, d) () surface tensi on. Exercise 5 is the neutral line region) () of the printing press that exerts less force on the material, b) () of the material where there is more effort and concentration of material, c) () of the punch located in the right and left, d ) () folded part shows no deformation of the material.