The UU AL AL 75 Folding and bending lesson you will learn a little of the process by which objects are made

of folde d aspect cylindrical, conical or prismatic in shape from sheet metal. Let us con sider the machines to bend and bow, care should be taken during these operations and how to do these operations on a large scale. 75 The In this Deformation by bending Folding is the operation that is done by applying bending the material. Fold is the part of flat material that is bent on a base of support. In the illustration we see a plaque attached to a vise-grip being folded with the aid of a mallet. Bending operation is done by applying the curve to the material produced. Curve is part of a rolling plan that presents a buckle or sag. In the figure we see an operation of bending of a plate with the aid of a cylindrical device attached t o the walrus. The bending of the plate is obtained by means of hammer blows. In the operations of bending and folding, bending stress is done with intensity, so that causes a permanent deformation in the material. Our class Folding The folding can be done manually or by machine. When the operation is done manua lly, they use tools and templates. In operation done to the machine, they use th e so-called press brakes or brakes. The brakes choice of using either type of op eration depends on production needs. CLASSROOM 75 The bending operation is done in most cases, the cold. Can still be hot, in spec ial cases. The plastic deformation and elastic bending operation causes a perman ent deformation of the material being processed. The deformation is made in part through the folding is called plastic deformation. Prior to this deformation, h owever, there is another, called elastic deformation, which is not permanent. Wh ole deformation process occurs as follows: let us take as example a spring. When towing with little effort and let go, she returns to its original position. Thi s type of deformation is called elastic deformation. If elastic, however, drawn with much effort, the material transcends its resistance to deformation and no l onger returns to its original shape. Thus, the material is permanently deformed. This is called deformation, deforplástica, although training in this phase the plastic material may also have some elastic recovery. Therefore, when planning a bending operation, you must correctly calculate the angle of bend you want. Th e angle should be calculated with smaller opening than desired, so that the elas tic recovery after the piece is to fold in size provided. In manual folding manu al folding, bending stress is exerted manually by hand with the aid of tools and devices such as hammer, vise, corner protectors and pads, as shown below. In an operation of this type, the choice of impact tool such as hammer, must be suitable to the thickness of the material to be folded. Moreover, to avoid defor mations, protective pads should be used for the piece to be bent. The brakes bra kes manuals or handbooks viradeiras are manually powered machines and extensive use in industries that produce jigs, profiles, office machines, cabinets etc.. T

hese machines move by applying force to one or more operators. To operate these machines, the worker must have knowledge of calculating the ben ding of material preparation and adjustment of the bender. Depending on the work to be performed, the folds are made with the aid of special devices, existing o r adapted to viradeira. This operation is widely used in the manufacture of prof iles, tabs, etc. bodies of processors. CLASSROOM 75 Folding Machine Folding Machine is usually performed in a press bender bender. I t is a machine that performs operations folding in plates of different sizes and thicknesses, with predetermined measures. It is usually a large machine, formed by a pressure bar which is coupled with vertical movement of the stamp, and an array located at the bottom of the machine table. Large number of presses brakes table below shows the fixed and movable pressure bar. However, one can find mod els that have the flat bar and table less mobile. Many brakes grow to over 6 m i n length. The work is done by selection of punches and dies, according to the steps and fo rmat that you want to give the plate. The press brake is used in the production of profiles, tabs, etc. bodies of processors. The press bending can move by hydraulic or mechanical energy. Some newer models are driven by computer commands that let you do a number of different folds in o ne piece, reducing handling and manufacturing time. The following figure shows d ifferent types of folding, made from the selection of punches and dies according ly. CLASSROOM 75 The folding folding hot hot is always done by hand, when the thickness of the ma terial being bent is large, above 5 mm. When you fold the machine, the process i s always cold, regardless of material thickness. When bending the material with application of heat, it's the same phenomenon that occurs when you fold the cold . The structures of the fibers on the outside of the bend are stretched and fibe rs from the inner side of the fold, compressed. The heat sources used for heatin g of the part are: the forging, electric oven gas or oil and blowtorch. The heat ing temperature varies depending on the material with which it will work. In the case of steel, copper and brass, there is a color chart for comparison with the material being worked. Each color corresponds to a temperature. As the temperat ure changes the color of the metal, so it is possible to know when the plate is ready for operation. Thus one can have more control over the work we do. For a g ood result, it is necessary to observe all that the job entails, as the metal pl ate that is made, the plate thickness, the amount of heat needed, the pressure w ill be placed in the fold, the right devices etc. . Bending The bending operation is performed manually by means of devices manually, and to ols, or machine with the aid of calendar that is a machine machine, rolling mach ine, bending plates, profiles and pipes. The manual bending bending stress for t he bending operation is done by hand, with the aid of a hammer, wrench and fixtu res, always according to the radius of curvature desired. This operation allows you to make small cylinders, brackets, flanges for pipes etc. In the next pictur e we see the bending of a bar with the aid of fixed grifa walrus prey to where e fforts are applied fixes to achieve the gradual curvature planned, with the help

of mobile grifa. CLASSROOM 75 Bending the hot work of bending bars becomes easier when the material gets warm. Parts such as rings, flanges, etc. links. run successfully when carefully obser ved the hot components of the process as heat applied in the correct place with a burner or forge the appropriate thickness of the piece, pressure exerted durin g the bending and devices for each type of work. Bending machine The machine use d to bend sheet called The ironer ironer ironer. are curved plates, profiles and pipes. The parts can be bent according to the desired radius. In this type of m achine is that bodies are produced or back of tanks, boilers, heat exchangers, d istillation columns etc.. Elements of the ironer The calendar consists of a set of rollers or cylinders with cylinders, swivel an d adjustable pressure. The material to be bent is placed between rollers that ro tate and push until the bend is consistent with the desired dimensions. CLASSROOM 75 The fixed and movable roller ironer can bend parts according to the desired radi us. The bending is done by means of rollers, which can be fixed or movable rolle r that is fixed furniture. which has only rotary motion. Mobile roll is one that , in addition to spin, it can also be moved up and down. Thus, the radius of cur vature varies with the distance between the rollers. In calenders can be curved plates according to the desired radius. When it wants to produce a cone, whose radii of curvature are different, it resorts to a spec ial kind of calendar. It has bottom rollers moving inclined to each other, verti cally. Types of calendar There are presses for sheet and tube benders and profiles profiles. Calenders fo r plates have usually 3 or 4 rolls. The 3-rolls are the most commonly used in in dustry and in them the rolls are arranged in a pyramid formation, as illustrated below. Presses for plates with four rollers have the advantage of facilitating the work of pre-bending. 3 rolls in calenders, the pre-bending is done manually. Calenders for tubes and profiles presented sets of rollers or cylinders overlap, made of tempered steel, with approximately 200 mm in diameter. Can bend any typ e of profile bars, squares, angles, tees etc.. CLASSROOM 75 As for the drive, presses can be: a manually operated hand wheel or crank to spi n the reels,€mechanical or electrical mechanical motor and gearbox to move the rollers. Mechanical presses can present, besides the electric motor, a hydraulic system that prints more or less pressure to the rolls. The latter type is used for large jobs. Calandra manual Calandra mechanical

Calandra mechanical hydraulic system All types have, at one end, a device for releasing the cylinder to remove the up per part calendered. CLASSROOM Stop! Study! Answer me! 75 Let's see now if you learned. Do the following exercises and check their respons e to the feedback. Exercise 1 In the operations of bending and flexing occur: a) () elastic deformation and plastic deformation, b) () elastic deformation and d eformation due to rupture c) () plastic deformation and permanent deformation, d ) () plastic deformation and elastic recovery . Exercise 2 Manually powered mach ines for folding are: a) () presses brakes b) () walruses viradeiras c) () virad eiras d) () brakes. Exercise 3 bending machines are called: a) () curvadeiras b) () walruses c) () calenders d) () lathes. Exercise 4 The calendar consists of: a) () set of rollers or cylinders, b) () moving parts arranged in a pyramid form ation, c) () Housing and grifa d) () tapered roller bearings and rollers paralle l. Exercise 5 There are special types of calendar: a) () hardened steel and copp er; b) () plates and tubes, c) () materials with elastic recovery, d) () hot and cold deformation.