___________________________________________________________________________ CPM - Certification Program for Personnel Maintenance Instrumentation Tools and Materials for Installation of Instrumentation SENAI

Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 1 ___________________________________________________________________________ Tools and Installation Materials for Instrumentation - Instrumentation SENAI ES, 1999 Work done in partnership SENAI / CST (Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarão ) General Coordination Evandro de Figueiredo Neto (CST) Robson Cardoso (SENAI) R osalvo Mark Trazzi (CST) Fernando Tadeu Dias Rios (SENAI) Celio Lopes Marcio (CS T) Ulysses Barcelos Viana (SENAI) Alexandre Kalil Hanna (CST) athic Carlos Prate s (CST) Wenceslaus de Oliveira (CST) Supervision Preparation Approval SENAI - National Service of Industrial Learning CTIIAF - Technical Centre for In dustrial Instrumentation Arivaldo Sources Regional Department of Espirito Santo Avenida Marechal Mascarenhas de Moraes, 2235 Bento Ferreira - Vitória - ES CEP P hone: (027) Fax: (027) CST - Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarão Human Resources Department Avenida Brigad eiro Eduardo Gomes s / n, Lemon Tree Garden - Serra - ES CEP 29160-972 Phone: (0 27) 348-1286 Fax: (027) 348-1077 SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 2 ___________________________________________________________________________ Index Subject Page Introduction ................................................. ................ Pliers ................................................ 4 .................... 4 Compression Connectors ......................................... 9 Keys Grip .. ............................................ ........ 10 Arch Mountain ......... ..................................... ............. 17 Iron Welding ............ .................................. ........... 18 Torque Wrench ................ ................................ ............. 19 Bars ......................... ....................... ............... Files .................................. .............. 21 ....................... Drilling ............................. ................... 21 ................ Drills ................................. ............... 23 ...................... 26 Taps Screw ........................ ...................... ..... 28 Screwdriver .................................... ............ ........... 32 Cossinetes ......................................... ....... ................ 34 chisel and chisel .................................. ............ . Pointer ................................................ 36 ..... ............... 37 Stamp Nozzle .............................................. . ......... 37 Hammer and Macete .............................................. ..

..... 38 Serra Tico-Tico ............................................. ......... .. 39 Steps ................................................ ................... ... 40 Tools to bend metal pipes hard ....... Pipelines ........................ ........................ 41 ............... Top 42 material for tubes .......... ...................... 43 carbon steel tubes ................................... .......... . 44-alloy steels and stainless steels .............................. ..... 46 tubes of non-ferrous metals .................................. 47 non-m etallic tubes ............................................. ... 48 tubes of plas tic materials .................................... Top 50 plastics for pipes ... ..... Issue 53 overall selection of materials ................. 55 SENAI Regiona l Department of the Holy Spirit 3 ___________________________________________________________________________ Tools and Accessories Introduction The implementation of electrical installations, like the rest of ca rrying out any installation or assembly, relies heavily on the tools used and ho w it is used. Instruments and tools appropriate to the service that is performin g the job easier and provide security and fix the same. With proper tools to ser vice, you gain time, to perform the task in the best standard and is spending le ss energy. We describe the main tools used in studies of electricity, its correc t use and that are used most often. Pliers Description: hand tools are made of c arbon steel by casting or forging, composed of two arms and a hinge pin having a t one end of the arms, claws, cuts and tips, hardened and tempered. Usage: The p liers used to hold a tight, cut, fold, insert and remove certain parts in assemb lies. Rating: The main types of pliers are: 1. Universal pliers 2. Cutting Plier s 3. Beak Pliers 4. Compression pliers 5. Clamp Axis Mobile SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 4 ___________________________________________________________________________ The Universal Pliers used to perform operations such as holding, cutting and fol ding. The cutter used for cutting boards, wires and cables. Diagonal Cut Lateral SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 5 ___________________________________________________________________________ The Beak Plier is used in mechanical and electrical services. Round nozzle. Nosed. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 6 ___________________________________________________________________________ The locking pliers works under pressure and gives a firm grip on the parts, and its pressure regulated via a screw on end.

The pliers Axis Mobile is used to work with cylindrical parts, and its mobile ar ticulation, allowing for a higher opening. elongated tear articulation Wire stripper This is quite simple and resembles pliers. Governs the opening of the blades acc ording to the diameter of the conductor to be bare. Another type of stripper is the automatic tripping. In it there are holes with d iameters adjustable corresponding to the various drivers. Pressing their stems, cut both SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 7 ___________________________________________________________________________ As t he removal of insulation are executed. Terminal Press Pliers Manual Crimping Pliers manual to install non-insulated terminals and splices. It has fixed matrix for compression, cutter and stripper for wire and cable. Locking pliers, which operates under the principle of ratchet and is intended so lely for the establishment of terminals and splices pre-insulated. It has arrays that perform both compressions and the barrel of the terminal plastic sleeve. Hydraulics The hydraulic pliers pliers, has a swivel head, allowing its use at a ny angle. It has a manual feed, besides the hydraulic advance, which allows for quick adjustment to the opening of the cheeks, and is insulated with neoprene, e xcept the head. Usable with interchangeable dies for various diameters of termin als. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 8 ___________________________________________________________________________ Compression Connectors Crimping Pliers Riveters used to effect the fixing of parts with rivets. Rivets: SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 9 ___________________________________________________________________________ Procedure is hollow Riveting Col Reb ite in fur o. Reb ITAD or aga rra Chuck. The clincher pulls the mandrel and the head of this makes for riveting, which is complete with the final highlight of the stem.

The riveting is completed and the parts tightly secured. Grip Keys Description tools are usually steel or steel chrome vanadium extra hard, using t he principle of the lever to tighten or loosen nuts and bolts. SENAI Regional De partment of the Holy Spirit 10 Comments _______________________________________________________________________ ____ keys grip characterized by their types and forms, performing in various siz es and with the cable (or arm) proportional to the mouth. Classification Keys gr ip classified into: a single open-end wrench 2. Key Combination (oral and stretc h marks) 3. Spanner wrench Snap 4. Adjustable wrench 5. Allen wrench 6. Key or R adial Pin 7. Strap or Key Chain 8. The key socket spanner wrench comprises two s imple types, such as a mouth and two mouths It uses the principle of the lever to tighten or loosen nuts and bolts. Combined key SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 11 ___________________________________________________________________________ Neste. model combining the two basic types exist: the mouth and ribs. The streak s are best used for "breaking" the grip and the mouth to extract completely the nut or bolt. The open-end wrench Snap Key (Lines and Glass Key) is found in many types and styles The key grooves fits around the nut or bolt, with greater firmness, providing a more regular grip, greater security to the operator, generally used in places of difficult access. The Key Adjustable e key, by means of nd wrench. To open ator. Known as the Beam is one that lets you open or close the movable jaw of th an adjusting screw or nut. There are two types: pipe wrench a and close the movable jaw of the key, by means of a nut regul pipe wrench. More used to service pipes.

SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 12 ___________________________________________________________________________ Allo ws you to open and close the movable jaw of the key, by means of a screw regulat or. Known as the wrench. The Allen wrench or key is used for fitting in Hexagonal screws whose head is a hexagon. It is found in game six or seven keys. Key chain (or belt) SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 13 ___________________________________________________________________________

Used for service pipes; unique design allows for easy use in hard to reach place s. Socket wrench SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 14 ___________________________________________________________________________ Suit able for electronic and electro-mechanical light. Capacity use in areas of diffi cult access. The sockets or box keys, may be included among the key grooves. Als o known as "key pipe." Replace the keys and grooves of mouth. They also allow op erations in assembly and maintenance of bolts or nuts embedded in places of diff icult access. Recommendations Some measures should be observed for the use and c onservation of key grip, such as: 1. The keys must be fair tightening bolts or n uts 2. Avoid giving blows with three keys. Clean them after use 4. Store them in appropriate places screwdriver Crack A screwdriver slot is a tightening tool co nsists of a cylindrical rod of carbon steel with one end forged wedge-shaped and the other in the form of prismatic or cylindrical spike striated, where cable a ttaches to a wood or plastic. It is used for tightening and loosening bolts whos e heads have slots or grooves that allow the entry of the wedge, Angle or force Characteristics The screwdriver should have the following charact eristics: 1. Have your wedge quenched and tempered 2. Having the end of the wedg e faces in parallel planes SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 15 ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. H ave the cable slotted lengthwise to allow more firmly in the grip, and well clam ped to the stem of the key. 4, Have the shape and dimensions of clout commensura te with the diameter of the stem of the key. For cross-slotted screws, it uses a wedge-shaped cross, called Phillips screwdriver. Angle or force key Bench with Vise It fixture consisting of two jaws, one fixed and one mobile, which there by means of bolt and nut. • • • The jaws are provided with grooved cheeks and tempered for maximum safety in the setting of the pieces. Walruses can be co nstructed of steel or cast iron in various shapes and sizes, there are walruses to swivel to facilitate the execution of certain works. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 16 ___________________________________________________________________________ Oper ation The moving jaw moves through bolt and nut. The grip is given by the handle located on the edge of the screw. The sizes of the walruses are identified by numbers corresponding to the width o f the jaws. N0 Width of jaws (mm) 1 80 February 1990 3105 4115 5130 Condition of Use The vise must be securely fastened on the bench and at the time convenient. Conservation should be to keep it well lubricated for better movement of the ja w and the screw, and always clean at the end of the work. Saw frame It is a handy tool for a range of carbon steel, which must be mounted a steel bl ade or carbon steel, tempered and bite

SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit Butterfly stretcher 17 ___________________________________________________________________________ The saw frame is characterized by being adjustable or adjustable according to th e length of the blade. The saw blade is characterized by the length and number o f teeth per inch Length: 8 "- 10" - 12 ". Number of teeth per inch: 18 -24 and 3 2. Sierra 1. A handsaw is used to cut materials, to open cracks and tears. 2. The t eeth of the saws have locks, which are lateral teeth in alternate fashion in ord er to facilitate the sliding of the blade during cutting. 3. The saw blade shoul d be selected, taking into account: a) the thickness of the material being cut, which should not be less than two tooth pitches. b) the type of material, recomm ending greater number of teeth for hard materials. 4. The tension of the saw bla de on the bow should be enough to keep it steady. 5. After using the bow saw bla de must be destensionada. Soldering Iron It is for the implementation of tin solder, usually used in electrical installat ions.€And a tool that stores the heat produced by a flame or electric resistance and transfers it to the parts to be welded and the welding itself, so I was goi ng to blow, the molten solder adheres to the parts together, solidifying itself as it cools. The soldering irons are the main types: gas and electric. Irons are used for larger welding of large parts that require greater amounts of heat. Th e electric soldering irons are available on the market with various forms and po tencies. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 18 ___________________________________________________________________________ Normally they are 20, 60, 100, 200, 450 or more watts of power. Torque Wrench The torque wrench is a special tool for measuring the torque (or grip) of the sc rews according to manufacturer's specification of the equipment. This prevents t he formation of tension and therefore deformation of the parts when in service. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 19 ___________________________________________________________________________ The unit of measurement of the torque wrench is the Newton meter (Nm) and is direct reading on the graduated scale, allowing the conference to the crunch, according to the value preset by the manufacturer. There are several types of fasteners: The torque meter can be used to screw right or left, but only to make the final moment. To hold the bolt or nut, it uses a common key. For more accurate measure ments, it is necessary to lubricate the threads before previously and tighten th e nut or bolt. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit

20 ___________________________________________________________________________ Compasses They are instruments of carbon steel for scribing. They consist of two legs that open or close via a hinge. The legs can be straight, ending in tapered tips and hardened, or one straight and o ne curved. Cautions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Articulation well adjusted; Tips and sharp; protection against bl ows and falls; Cleaning and lubrication; Protection of the tips with wood or cor k Files It is a handy tool carbon steel, denticulate and SENAI Regional Department of th e Holy Spirit 21 ___________________________________________________________________________ Temp ered. It is used in the operation of wear of materials. They are classified by s hape, size and chopped. The most common forms are: Files can be shredded or simple cross, and are classified as illegitimate, basta rd and cape SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 22 ___________________________________________________________________________ Drills They are machine tools for the carrying out of drilling, expand, and lower threa ding with males. The movement of the tool operation is received from the motor through pulleys an d belts or a staggered set of wheels enabling a range of rpm. The advancement of the tool can be manual or automatic. Bench Drill SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 23 ___________________________________________________________________________ Are mounted on wooden benches or steel. His ability to drill is on average up to 12 mm. Drill Column This drill has the characteristics of the column length and capacity is generall y higher than the bench. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit

24 ___________________________________________________________________________ Radial Drill A radial drill is intended for drilling in large parts in several places, given the possibility of displacement of the head. It has automatic advances and cooli ng of the tool by means of a pump. Portable Drill Can be easily transported and can operate it in any position. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 25 ___________________________________________________________________________ Feat ures 1. Horsepower 2. number of 3 rpm. capacity 4. maximum displacement of the m ain axis Conditions of Use 1. The machine is clean 2. Chuck in good 3. Drill sec urely attached and centered Note periodic lubrication with lubricant itself. Drills Description The drills are cutting tools, cylindrical in shape with straight or spiral ending in conical tip and are edged with an angle. Comments drills are ch aracterized by measuring the diameter and shape of the rod and manufacturing mat erials are produced, in general, carbon steel and high speed steel. HSS drills a re used in jobs that require higher cutting speeds, providing greater resistance to wear and heat than carbon steel. Classification The drills come in various t ypes,€depending on the nature and characteristics of the work to be developed. T he main types of drills are: 1. Helical Taper Shank Drill • • Cylindrical shank 2. Drill Center 3. With drill holes for Cutting Fluid 4. The Drill Staged or Mul tiple Helical Drill is the most used, and has the advantage of preserving its di ameter, although they do regrinding of the edges several times. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 26 ___________________________________________________________________________ The twist drills are differentiated only by the construction of the stems, since those having cylindrical rod are fastened to a mandrel, and the tapered rod, mo unted directly on the machine shaft. Helical conical drill stem. The angles of twist drills are the conditions that i nfluence their court. The angle of the drill tip should be: a-118 to work the mo st common b-150, for hard steels c-125 for treated steel or forged d-100, for co pper and aluminum-90, for iron soft and light alloys f-60, for bakelite, fibergl ass and wood. The cutting edges must be rigorously equal lengths, or A = A 'Step s must be observed for the smooth operation of drills, such as: 1. Drills should be sharp, with the rod in good condition and well secured. 2. The cutting edges must have the same length. 3. The angle of incidence off or should have 9 to 15 ; SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 27 ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. P revent falls, crashes, clean them and store them in proper place after use. Screw Taps are cutting tools, made of carbon steel or high speed steel, for the removal or deformation of the material. One of its extreme ends in a square head

, which is a continuation of cylindrical rod. Among the construction materials c ited, high speed steel is what gives better toughness and wear resistance, basic characteristics of a cutting tool. Males of threading - Manual are presented in sets of two or three parts, with the input variables and the effective diameter of the thread. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) presents the male p arts in game three, varying only in the lobby, known as full profile. The DIN (D eutsche Industrie Normen) introduced the male in game two or three parts, with a variation of the groove and the effective diameter of the thread, known as show . SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 28 ___________________________________________________________________________ NOTE : Effective Diameter - For threaded cylindrical, the diameter of the cylinder is imaginary, its surface intercepts the profiles of the fillets in a position suc h that the width of the aperture at that point is equal to half the pitch. The t hreads, which are filets perfect profiles, the intersection occurs at a point wh ere the thickness of the fillet is equal to the width of the span. The machine Males, for threading the machine, are presented in one piece, and it s standard format for use, ie, has total length greater than the male manual (DI N). Featured are six (6) characteristics of male threading: • System thread. • Y our application. • Step or number of fillets per inch. • External diameter or no minal. • Diameter of cylindrical spike or rod. • Direction of the thread. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 29 ___________________________________________________________________________ The characteristics of the male screw are defined as: The System of screw threads of the male are of three types: metric, Whitworth and American (USS). The males of their application threads to screw parts are manufactured internally. Step or n umber of fillets per inch This feature indicates whether the thread is normal or thin. Outside diameter or nominal refers to the external diameter of the thread ed part. Ear diameter or cylindrical rod and a feature that indicates whether th e male serves to thread or not to make screw holes deeper than the threaded body , as there are males who have threaded rod diameter cylindrical equal to or less than the thread diameter the threaded body, Sense of the thread refers to the direction of the screw, ie, whether it is righ t (right) or left (left). Types of male screw grooves straight, for general use. Helical grooves on the right, for threading blind holes (no exit). SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 30 ___________________________________________________________________________ Yarn alternating. Less friction. Facilitates penetration of the refrigerant and lubr icant, Helical entry for holes. Pushes chips forward, during the tapping. Short helical grooves,€for screwing the plate and through holes. These males are also known to screw conformation as males, because they do not r

emove scrap and used materials that deform plastically. Slightly helical grooves left for threading through holes in the manufacture of nuts. Selection of males for threading, drills and lubricants or refrigerants for thre ading is important to select males with males and drill with which to do the dri lling. It must also select the type of lubricant or coolant that you will use du ring the opening of the thread. In general, we chose males for threading accordi ng to the specifications of the design of the piece you are working or in accord ance with the instructions received. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spiri t 31 ___________________________________________________________________________ We c an also choose males for threading, with reference to the screw that we use. The nominal diameters (OD) of males used to thread more, and the diameters of the d rills to be used in drilling, can be found in tables. Conditions for use of the male screw to be used, they must be very sharp and with all the fillets in good condition. Conservation To conserve the male screw in good condition, you need t o clean them after use, avoid falls or collisions, and keep them separate in you r case. Description wrench hand tools are generally carbon steel, formed by a ce ntral body, with an accommodation of a square or circular, which established mal es, reamers and cossinetes. Use the wrench serves as a key, which enables print the rotation necessary to the action of the tool. Classification wrench may be: 1. Fixed at T 2. T-nuts with adjustable 3. For males and reamers 4. For cossinet es Types SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 32 ___________________________________________________________________________ Scre wdriver Fixed "T" has a long body that serves as a protractor to pass male or re amers and in places deep and inaccessible to ordinary wrench. T-nut wrench with adjustable and has a knurled, seasoned nuts, adjustable, for m ales up to 3 / 16. " SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 33 ___________________________________________________________________________ Scre wdriver reamers for males and has a fixed arm, with knurled edge, seasoned nuts, one adjustable through the existing bolt. Screwdriver for cossinetes It has handles with knurled edge, cossinete box for housing and fixing screws. Cossinetes are cutting tools, constructed of hardened special steel with threade d center hole. The cossinetes are similar to a nut, with canals prepared technic ally peripherals around the threaded center hole and outside diameter varies wit h the diameter of the screw channels form the peripheral cutting edges and allow for chip ejection. They usually have a crack in the direction of thickness, all owing the adjustment of the depth of the cut through the tapered screw, installe d in the slot, or adjusting screws of the door-cossinete. Characteristics of cos sinetes • • • • Step System thread or the number of threads per inch Nominal Dir

ection of screw SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 34 ___________________________________________________________________________ Use of cossinetes are used to open external threads on cylindrical parts of a ce rtain diameter, such as bolts, pipes etc.. Choice of cossinetes' choices cossine tes is taking into account their characteristics in relation to that thread if y ou want to run. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 35 ___________________________________________________________________________ Chisel and chisel Description Notcher and chisel cutting tools are made of a steel body, round, re ctangular, hexagonal or octagonal, with one end forged wedge fitted, tempered an d sharpened properly, and another called beveled head. Chisel Chisel (front view) Chisel (side view) They are to use cut sheets, removing excess material and open tears. Features 1. The bevel of the wedge is symmetrical or asymmetrical 2. The cutting edge must be convex and wedge angle varies with the material being cut, as, table below: SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 36 ___________________________________________________________________________ CUNHA 50th 60th 65th 70th 3. The sizes are between 150 and 180 mm MATERIAL Copper Stainless Steel Hard Candy Cast iron and cast bronze hard 4.€The head is beveled and tempered Comments The head of the chisel and the chis el is beveled and tempered soft to prevent formation of burrs or cracks. The too ls should be tailor wedge angles of convenient, well-tempered and sharp, to cut well. Tip It is a similar tool will chisel, but with the cutting edge in the form of a rou nded tip to make holes in concrete and masonry. As the chisel is a tool widely u sed by electricians and plumbers to make tears or holes for embedding the condui t or water pipes, sewer, gas, etc.. Puncture Nozzle Description It is a tool carbon steel with hardened conical tip and body usually octagonal or cylindrical knurled.

SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 37 ___________________________________________________________________________ Hammer and Macete Hammer The hammer is an impact tool, consisting of a carbon steel block attached to a w ooden handle, whereby parts that go with the punches, spiced. Use The Hammer is used in most industrial activities, such as general mechanics, con struction and others. Comments For its use, the Hammer, the cable must be in per fect condition and securely fastened through the wedge. Moreover, one should avo id strike with the hammer handle or use it as leverage. The hammer's weight rang es from 200 to 1000 grams. • • Used to work with thin sheets of metal, but also in the setting of nails, staples, etc.. It is intended to general services as an example, riveting, drawing pins, etc.. Widely used in heavy duty such as sheet metal, etc.. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 38 ___________________________________________________________________________ • It s structure allows the execution of sheet metal, etc.., But does not damage or m ark the material being processed. The trick is to trick an impact tool, consisting of a head of wood, aluminum, pl astic, copper, lead or other, and a wooden handle. Used to hit parts or materials whose surfaces are smooth and can not become defo rmed by the effect of blows. To use, you should have your head firmly attached t o the cable and free of burrs. Comments The weight and material of the head, cha racterized the ropes. Serra Tico-Tico Applied services cut in steel, nonferrous metals, wood (solid or plywood), Formica, plastics, acrylics. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 39 ___________________________________________________________________________ Stai rs Often, the professional needs to work on high in a tower on the roof, a balco ny or a roof. The ladder is an auxiliary equipment of the player and will help a lot if it is appropriate for the service. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 40 ___________________________________________________________________________ Tools bending metal pipes hard Small diameter pipe (1 / 2 ", 3 / 4" and 1 ") may be curved on site without much difficulty, especially if you use appropriate tool.

There are special machines that perform the bending pipes, even with a diameter larger than 1 ", with effort produced by hydraulic press, the tube may be heated , so that the curve is made without deformation of the pipe section. These machi nes are only facilities employed in very heavy and large. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 41 ___________________________________________________________________________ PIPING Tubes are closed conduits, mainly for the transport of fluids. All tubes are of circular section, presenting itself as hollow cylinders. Most of the pipes serve s as penstock, ie without free surface, with fluid taking all cross-sectional ar ea They save only the sewer pipes, and sometimes the water, working with free su rface, such as canals. It is called the "pipe" to a set of tubes and their various accessories. The need for the existence of the tubes is mainly due to the fact the point of g eneration or storage of the fluids being, in general, far from their point of us e. They use pipes to transport all materials capable of disposing, ie all known flu ids, liquids and gases as well as materials with viscous fluids and solids, all in all variation range of pressures and temperatures usual in industry: from the absolute vacuum up to about 600 MPa (~ 60 kg/mm2), and from near absolute zero until the temperature of the molten metal. The importance of the tubes in the industry is huge,€equipment and industrial us e more widespread. The value of the pipe represents, on average, 50-70% of the v alue of all equipment of a processing industry, and 15-20% of the total cost of installation. In practice, usually called tubes (or commonly the "pipes"), only the rigid cond uits. The flexible conduits, although sometimes called "hoses" are more commonly called hose or hoses. In the American nomenclature tubes are called "pipe" or "tube". Between these tw o SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 42 ___________________________________________________________________________ Term s there is a distinction too rigid. In general the term "pipe" O used for the tu bes whose function is to conduct proper fluids, while the term "tube" It applies to pipes intended primarily for other functions, such as heat exchange tubes (t ube bundles and coils boilers, furnaces, heat exchangers, etc..) forward pressur e, driving signals (instrumentation tubes), function as structural elements as b eams or so. MAIN MATERIALS FOR PIPES Are employed today a very large variety of materials for the manufacture of tube s. Only A.S.T.M. (American Society for Testing and Mate'rials) specifies more th an 500 different types of materials. Below is a summary of the main materials us ed:

Ferrous Metal Pipes Carbon steels (carbon-steel) alloy steels (low alloy, high alloy steel) stainles s steels (stainless-steel) Wrought iron (wrought iron) Cast iron (cast iron) Iro ns linked (alloy cast iron) Ferronodular (nodular cast iron ) Nonferrous Copper (Cooper) large (brass) Copper-Nickel and Nickel Aluminium alloys Monel Me tal Lead (lead) Titanium, Zirconium SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 43 ___________________________________________________________________________ Non-metallic pipes Asbestos cement (transit) Reinforced concrete Clay glaze (clay) Elastomers (rubb ers) Glass Ceramics, porcelain etc. Plastic Materials Poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) Polyethylene Acrylic Acetate Polyester Epoxy Phenolic cellulose etc.. The choice of material appropriate for a given application can be a problem, dif ficult, whose solution depends mainly on pressure and temperature of the fluid d riven work (aspects of corrosion and contamination), the cost of greater or less er degree of security required, the external loads that exist, and also in certa in cases, the resistance to fluid flow (load losses). CARBON STEEL PIPES Among all the existing industrial materials, carbon steel is due to a lower cost mechanical strength, and is a material easy to weld and to conform, and also ea sy to find in the trade. For all these reasons, carbon steel is called "material commonly used" in industrial pipes, ie, only cease to employ carbon steel when some special circumstance that prohibits it, and thus all other materials are us ed only in some special cases of exception. In an oil refinery, for example, ove r 90% of all piping is carbon steel; in SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Sp irit 44 ___________________________________________________________________________ Othe r process industries this percentage may be even greater. It uses carbon steel f or fresh water, low pressure steam, condensate, compressed air, oil, gas and man y other little corrosive fluids at temperatures from - 450C, and any pressure. S ome pipes are galvanized carbon steel, ie with an inner lining and external zinc deposited hot, with the aim of providing greater resistance to corrosion. The m echanical strength of carbon steel begins to suffer a sharp drop in temperatures above 4000C, due mainly to the phenomenon of permanent deformation by creep (cr eep), which begins to be observed from 3700C, and should be considered mandatory for any service at temperatures above 4000C. The creep deformations are much la rger and faster the higher the temperature, the greater the tension on the mater ial and longer the time during which the material was subjected to temperature. At temperatures above 530 ° C carbon steel undergoes severe surface oxidation (s caling - "scaling") when exposed to air, forming thick crusts of oxides, making it unacceptable for any service continues. Note that in contact with other media such oxidation can be initiated at lower temperatures.€Prolonged exposure of ca

rbon steel at temperatures above 4400C can still cause a precipitation of carbon graphitization), which makes the material is brittle. For all these reasons, we recommend the following maximum temperature for carbon steel pipes - Pipes majo r, continuous service: 4500C - Pipes secondary continuous service: 4800C - Maxim um possible temperature, short duration and not consistent with Large mechanical stresses: 5200C. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 45 ___________________________________________________________________________-ALLO Y STEEL AND STAINLESS STEEL Known as "steel-alloy (alloy-steel) all steels that have any number of other ele ments than those used in the composition of carbon steels, depending on the tota l amount of alloying elements are distinguished steels low alloy (low-alloy stee l), with up to 5% of alloying elements, alloy steels intermediate (intermediate alloy-steel), containing between 5% and 10%, and high alloy steels (high-alloy s teel) over 10%. The stainless steel (stainless steel) are those that contain at least 12% chromium, which gives them the property of not rust even on prolonged exposure to a normal atmosphere. All tubes of alloy steels are more expensive th an carbon steel, which generally cost much higher the greater the amount of allo ying elements. Moreover, assembly and welding of these pipes are also generally more difficult and more expensive. Like all industrial facilities are subject to becoming obsolete in a relatively short time, is not in general economic or recommend the use of alloy steels just to make it much longer the life of a pipe. The main circumstances in which it justified the use of special steels (stainles s and alloy steels), are: a) High temperatures - temperatures above the limits of use of carbon steels, or even below these limits, when it is required greater mechanical strength, creep resistance and corrosion resistance. b) Low temperatures - temperatures below-4 50C, for which the carbon steels are subject to brittle fracture. c) High corrosion - Services with corrosive fluids, even when within the range o f SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 46 ___________________________________________________________________________ Temp eratures employment of carbon steels. In general, alloy steels and stainless gra des have better corrosion resistance than carbon steels. However, there are nume rous cases of exception: the salt water, for example, destroys most of the speci al steel as fast as carbon steel. d) Requirement of no contamination - Services for which can not be allowed to contamination of the circulating fluid (food and pharmaceuticals, for example). The corrosion, although only capable of destroying the tube material after a lon g time, can cause contamination of the circulating fluid, when wastes are loaded from corrosion by flowing current. Therefore, in cases where there can be no co ntamination, it is often employ special steels, although from the standpoint of corrosion were not strictly necessary.

e) Security - Services with hazardous fluids (very hot, flammable, toxic, explos ive, etc..), where required maximum security against possible leaks and accident s. Also in such cases, strictly due to corrosion, would not normally be necessar y special steels. With regard to corrosion, it should be noted that except when come into play also the requirement of non-contamination or safety, the problem is purely economic: the more resistant the material is, much longer tube life. T herefore, the decision will be made as a result of comparing the cost of various possible materials, the cost of operation and shutdown of the system. PIPES OF NON-FERROUS METALS Making a general comparison between the non-ferrous metals and carbon steel, we can say that the non-ferrous metals have better resi stance to corroção and higher price, most of these metals have in relation to ca rbon steel, lower strength and lower resistance to high temperature, presenting, however, much better behavior at low temperatures. Due largely to its high cost , metal tubes used nãoferrosos few. For many services the corrosive non-ferrous metals have been replaced by plastic, with advantages in price and corrosion res istance. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 47 ___________________________________________________________________________ 1 Copper and its alloys - They are manufactured tubes of a variety of materials, including commercially pure copper, and various kinds of brass and copper-nicke l. These pipes have excellent resistance to attack by air, water (including brac kish water), of alkalis, diluted acids, many organic compounds, and numerous oth er corrosive fluids. Copper alloys are subject to severe corrosion effect sobten são when in contact with ammonia, amines and other nitro compounds. All these ma terials can be employed in continuous service since-1800C to 2000C Due to high c oefficient of heat transfer tubes of copper and brass are used in coils and tube s of heating and cooling in small diameters (up to 2 ") , the copper tubes are a lso much used for water, compressed air, oil, low pressure steam, and refrigerat ion services for the transmission of signals from instrumentation. Copper tubes and their alloys should not be used for food or pharmaceutical because leaving t oxic waste by corrosion. The main specifications of the ASTM for these tubes are copper tubes: Tubes, Brass Tubes, Copper-nickel NON-METAL PIPES Tubes are manufactured from a wide variety of. non-metallic materials, of which the most important are: 1. Plastics - For industrial piping that is currently the group most important of the non-metallic materials, for this reason we will see these items separately in more detail. 2. Asbestos cement - pipes asbestos cement (transit) are made of cement mortar a nd sand-framed asbestos fibers. The mechanical resistance is small and can only be used for low pressure and where SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 48 ___________________________________________________________________________ Subj ect to large external stresses. The asbestos-cement has excellent resistance to air, soil, water neutral and alkaline sea-water to alkalis, oils and those with organic compounds in general. For most of these means the material is completely inert, enduring indefinitely. Acids, acidic water and strongly acidic solutions

attack the asbestos cement, which should not be used for such services. The mai n job of the pipes is asbestos cement pipes for sewers. The cost of these tubes is much smaller than others that could replace, for example, plastic or non-ferr ous metals. 3. Reinforced concrete - concrete pipes are mainly used for pipe major (large di ameter) of water and sewer. The corrosion resistance is equivalent to that of as bestos-cement pipes, and mechanical strength much higher. 4. Glazed ceramic - The Glazed ceramic tubes, also called "pipes" have excellent corrosion resistance and is inert in relation to soil, air and most co rrosive fluids. The mechanical strength is low, though slightly better than the tubes cimentoamianto. Shackles are used almost exclusively for sewer pipes, and are manufactured in short lengths (1 m approx.) With nominal diameters 50-500 mm , and nose tips and scholarship. Glazed ceramic tubes are standard in the standa rd EB-5 ABNT. 5 - Glass, Ceramics - tubes are used and manufacturing rare, used only in specia l services of high corrosion or when it requires absolute purity of the circulat ing fluid. Glass is the material that there is better resistance to all corrosiv e media. Tubes of glass and ceramics are used only in small diameters, up to 100 mm. 6 - Erasers - They are produced all the many types of rubber, natural and synthe tic tracks for various pressures and temperatures. Most are flexible rubber tube s (pipes and hoses), and employees just when 5e want this property. SENAI Region al Department of the Holy Spirit 49 ___________________________________________________________________________ For severe service, the tubes usually have one or more reinforcing plies, vulcanized rubber, and often also have the frame of steel wire wound into a spiral. There are numerous rubber, natural and synthetic, which receive the generic name of "e lastomers." Although these materials have different properties and often specifi c, all have as main characteristic, the extraordinary elasticity, causing them t o reach the break with a very large elastic strain (300-700%), who have no perma nent deformation, temperature limits service ranging from 500 to 600 to l000 ° C .€Some rubbers are good fuels, others burn slowly. Just as plastics, rubbers mos t suffer a deterioration as a result of long exposure to sunlight, becoming brit tle. The addition of black-quit-smoking improves resistance to light and also in creases the wear resistance surface. Natural rubber stands up well to water (inc luding acid and alkaline), to dilute acids to salts and numerous other corrosive media. It is attacked by petroleum products and various solvents and organic co mpounds. Among the most important synthetic rubbers are the neoprene and SBR (st yrene-butadiene). The neoprene resists petroleum products. SBR is a synthetic ru bber economical, general purpose, with properties similar to natural rubber. PLASTIC PIPES The synthetic plastic materials are currently the largest group of materials não metálicos use in industrial piping. The use of these materials has grown conside rably in recent years, mainly as a substitute for stainless steel and nonferrous metals. The steady increase in the prices of these metals and continuous improv ement of the plastics tend to become even greater expansion of employment of the latter. Generally plastics have the following advantages:

SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 50 ___________________________________________________________________________ Litt le weight, density between 0.9 and 2.2. High resistance to corrosion. Very low c oefficient of friction. Facilities manufacturing and handling (can be cut with h acksaw). - Low thermal and electrical conductivity. Color exempting itself and permanent painting, gives a good appearance, and allows. to adopt codes of colors for iden tification of pipelines. - Some plastics can be translucent, allowing a visual o bservation of the movement of fluids through the tubes. In contrast, the disadvantages are: Low resistance to heat and that's the biggest disadvantage. Despite significant progress that has been achieved, most of these materials can not work in tempera tures exceeding 1000C. Low mechanical strength, the limit of tensile strength is around 20-100 MPa (~ 2 0-10 kg/mm2) for most plastics. Some thermosetting plastics (see below), rolled in successive layers of plastic resin and glass fibers have better mechanical st rength, but always well below the açocarbono. Low dimensional stability and are subject to creep deformations at any temperatu re (cold-creep). Insecurity in the technical information on mechanical behavior and physical and chemical data. The margin of error that can be expected that information on plas tic materials is much higher than those relating to metals. High coefficient of expansion, up to 15 times that of carbon steel. Some plastic s are combustible or at least able to feed SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 51 ___________________________________________________________________________ Slow combustion. There are two general classes of plastics: thermoplastics (thermoplastics) and t hermosetting (thermosettings), also called thermosets. The first completely soft en with the application of heat, before suffering any chemical decomposition and can thus be repeatedly softened, molded and replaced .. The thermostable, howev er, can not be shaped by heat. Generally plastics resist very well to dilute min eral acids, the alkali (even when hot), the halogens, the acid and salt solution s, salt water and numerous other chemicals. There are hardly any attack with air

and water. The plastics can be used in direct contact with the ground, even whe n wet or acidic soils. Rarely there is contamination of the circulating fluid; p lastics do not produce toxic waste. Most plastic is attacked by the highly conce ntrated mineral acids. The behavior in relation to organic compounds is variable : hydrocarbons and organic solvents dissolve some plastics. - Important to note that, in general, plastic materials behave totally different on the corrosion of metals with plastics because there is the phenomenon of corrosion slow and prog ressive, characteristic of metals. For this reason, the plastic or indefinitely resist the corrosive medium, that is why he quickly attacked and destroyed, and thus did not effect the application of over-thicknesses for corrosion. The destr uction of plastics occurs by dissolution or by direct chemical reaction.€Almost all plastics undergo a process of slow decomposition when exposed to sunlight ov er time, due to the action of ultraviolet rays, becoming brittle (wheatering). T he addition of dark pigments to plastic greatly improves its resistance to this effect. It is recommended therefore that the plastics that are to remain permane ntly at the time have pigment lampblack. By its set of advantages and desvantaga ns, plastic materials are used primarily to service temperature or moderate, and low effort SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 52 ___________________________________________________________________________ Mech anics, concurrent with the need for high corrosion resistance, or nãocontaminaçã o fluid driven. Can not be used for pipes, whose damage or destruction by fire a round can cause serious damage or casualties, even if these pipes work cold. And if, for example, networks of fire, through which water circulates cold. The the rmoplastic materials, rigid and non-rigid, are very much used for pipes with dia meters up to 1.2 m, and also for anti-corrosive coatings, applied internally in steel pipes, the pipes are employed to thermostable any diameters and anti-corro sive coatings. ANSI / ASME, B, 31 .3 prohibits the use of tubes of thermoplastic materials and non-reinforced thermosetting services to highly cyclical, and onl y allows the use for combustible fluids in case of underground pipes. Except for services within the "Category D", the same rule requires that these tubes are m echanically protected from accidents. For tubes reinforced thermosetting, is req uired only mechanical protection against accidents to toxic or flammable fluids. PLASTIC PIPING TO MAIN The following are the most important plastics for pipes: 1 - Polyethylene is the lightest and cheapest of thermoplastic materials, having excellent resistance to mineral acids, the alkali and salts. And a combustible material with low mechanical strength 20-35 MPa (~ 2.0 to 3.5 kg/mm2), and whose limits of temperature range from -30 ° to 800C, depending on specification. The polyethylene tubing is used for low price, for moderate pressures. There are th ree grades of material, called low, medium and high density, the latter being be tter quality and more resistance. 2. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - One of the largest industrial thermoplastics. Resi stance SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 53 ___________________________________________________________________________ Corr osion is generally equivalent to polyethylene, but the mechanical properties are significantly better, the temperature resistance ranges from -40 ° to 650C. Alt hough this material can be burned, the flame is extinguished spontaneously forme d. The tubes are very rigid PVC pipes used for water, sewage, acids, alkalis and other corrosive products.

3. Acrylic butadiene styrene (ABS), Cellulose acetate - are thermoplastic materi als with similar qualities to those of PVC, used for rigid pipes of small diamet ers. Both are "combustible materials. 4. Fluorinated hydrocarbons - This designation includes a group of thermoplastic non-combustible, with exceptional qualities of resistance to corrosion and also wide range of temperature resistance from -200 ° to 260 ° C. These materials ar e however very high price and relatively low mechanical strength, which limits t he use of only small tubes without pressure. The most common is the plastic PTFE (politetrafluoreteno), better known under the trade name "Teflon", widely used for coating of steel pipes and joints in services of high corrosion. 5 Epoxy - a thermostable material of much use for large diameter pipes (up to 90 0 mm) with flat ends or with integral flanges. The tubes have a wall of laminate d construction, in successive layers of plastic resin and glass fiber wrapped, t o improve the mechanical strength tubes (called "FRP - Fiberglass reinforced pla sties). The epoxy is a plastic material with very good corrosion resistance, bur ns slowly, and can be used at temperatures up to 1500C. 6. Polyesters, phenolics - All these materials are heat-stable characteristics Similar to the epoxy. Phenolics may work up to 150 º C. The tubes of these mater ials also have wide range of diameters and laminated construction with frame of glass fibers SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 54 ___________________________________________________________________________ Tube s ("FRP").€These resins are also used to strengthen externally PVC pipes, as has been said. GENERAL PROBLEM OF SELECTION OF MATERIALS The selection and specification of appropriate materials for each service is fre quent mind one of the most difficult problems with which the designer sees the a rms of industrial piping. We give below the main factors influencing the selecti on of a material and in some cases may however be other factors in this selectio n. Note that some factors may be conflicting: for example, the material of bette r corrosion resistance can be very expensive and difficult to obtain, and vice v ersa. For this reason, the list below does not store any order of priority or re lative importance, which vary from one case to another. It is for the designer t o decide in each case, which factors predominate, and which should prevail when there is conflict. 1. Fluid driven: to be considered the following aspects of the fluid (or fluids) driven: Nature and concentration of the fluid, impurities and contaminants, pre sence or absence of dissolved gases and suspended solids, temperature, pH, oxidi zing or reducing character , flammability, flash point, toxicity, explosion or o ther deleterious effects of the fluid, corrosive attack materials, possibility o f contamination of waste fluid by corrosion, maximum tolerable of such contamina tion (impact on the color, taste, toxicity, or about other properties of the flu id). 2. Service conditions (pressure and operating temperature) the material mus t be able to resist pressure in the whole range of possible temperature variatio n. It is important to note that all factors relating to the service (fluids driv en, pressures, temperatures, properties, etc..), Are generally variable over tim e ie, it has often a range of values considered normal, or scheme, and a band, s ometimes broad, variation of these values, including any abnormal conditions or that may occur, so interested, for all factors, know the values of the regime an

d SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 55 ___________________________________________________________________________ Also the extremes, in many cases it may be necessary to know the probability of occu rrence and duration of these extremes. Note also that the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance materials as well as the properties of the fluid, under go major changes as a function of temperature. 3. Level of tension in the materi al - The material must resist efforts to applicants, and so its mechanical stren gth must be compatible with the level of stress you have, that is, with the magn itude of these efforts. For the thicknesses are reasonable, within the limits of normal production, they must be of high strength materials used when efforts ar e large, and vice versa should be noted that any pipeline there are often numero us efforts beyond the internal pressure (which sometimes it is not the dominant effort). 4. Nature of mechanical stress - Regardless of the level of tensions, t he nature of existing efforts (tensile, compression, flexural, static or dynamic efforts, sho ck, vibration etc..) also affects the choice of material. Brittle materials, for example, should not be used when there are dynamic forces, shock or high stress concentrations. 5. Availability of materials - almost all pipe materials (except carbon steel) with limited availability, ie, not in the trade in all forms (with out sewing, with sewing etc..), and in all diameters, and have greater ease of p roduction, including this respect the existence of inventories, the necessity of importing the minimum quantities required for the purchase, delivery times etc. All these points should be taken into account when selecting materials. 6. System links the material should be suitable to the system of connections tha t you want to use. The system links, in turn, depend on the necessity of dismant ling, tube diameter, cost, level of security, conditions of service, resources t hat are available for mounting etc. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 56 ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Cost of material - is obviously an important factor and often decisive. For e ach implementation there are always several possible materials: the best is what is most economical.€Should be considered not only the initial cost, but also th e lifetime (depending on the corrosion rate), and the resulting replacement cost s and downtime of the system. As prices for materials are usually referred to we ights, to make the comparison between the costs of various materials due to corr ection of the differences of the mechanical strengths of each. 8. Security - When the potential risk of the tubing or the place is large, or wh ere the service pipe is very important, there is necessity of using materials th at offer maximum safety, to avoid completely the possibility of ruptures, leaks or other accidents that may result in stoppage of the system or even damage or d isasters. Examples of potentially high risk pipes working with flammable fluids, explosives, toxic, or very high temperatures or pressures. Of greater or lesser degree of security required will depend on the mechanical strength and the mini mum time necessary for life. For example, the materials of low melting point (pl astics, rubber, lead etc..) Can not be used for major pipelines, where the fire risk should be considered.

9. Previous Experience - The decision by a material when forces to investigate a nd analyze the previous experience that may exist with this material in that dep artment. In important cases is usually very risky to decide on a material for wh ich there is no previous experience in similar service. More on that later. 10. Facilities manufacturing and assembly - All materials have certain limitatio ns on the possibilities of manufacturing and assembly, should be considered for the selection of materials. Among these limitations include the weldability, mac hinability, SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 57 ___________________________________________________________________________ Faci lity etc. conformation. Weldability means not only the possibility of the use of welding, but also the greater or lesser ease of welding, and the necessity of h eat treatment or other special care. 11. Fluid velocity - For some materials the velocity of the fluid can greatly in fluence the resistance to corrosion and erosion of the material. 12. Pressure loss - when, by the requirement of service tax is a limit to the lo sses, the material should be low coefficient of friction to meet this requiremen t. Should be considered the increase of pressure losses with the aging of the tu be. 13. Expected life - the minimum duration of the material must be compatible with the lifetime due to the pipe. In turn, the lifetime depends on the nature and i mportance of the tubing, the time of investment depreciation and obsolescence of the probable time of the pipe. To solve the problem of selection of materials, the experience of the designer (or the organization of projects) is indispensabl e and irreplaceable. Only experience as a result of the accumulation of solution s adopted in previous cases, is able to judge objectively the safety and degree of influence of each of the above factors. For most types of services most commo nly used materials already exist. consecrated by tradition, the practice of desi gners, or the rules and codes. Simply follow the tradition is the fastest and mo st secure solution, though not always result in better material and more economi cal. The designer should always have an open mind to accept new practices, as th e technology evolves rapidly, and are continually being launched new materials o r improved existing ones. Note that when considering the previous experience of a given material, the data of experience are related to a service just like the one you have, and not just similar, because many variable conditions (temperatur e, SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 58 ___________________________________________________________________________ Rela tive velocity, fluid concentration, impurities, pH, etc..) Can completely change the behavior of the material and corrosion. When the only previous experiences are available for a service is not exactly equal, even when they consist only in laboratory tests, it is important to study carefully the differences with the a ctual service, and its possible consequences on the behavior of the material. Da ta from catalogs of manufacturers and suppliers of materials, even if reliable, should be considered with caution,€because they are often greatly simplifies the . In important cases it is essential to consult a corrosion expert. SENAI Regional Department of the Holy Spirit 59