Ecosystems Ecosystems are complex systems such as forest, river or lake, formed by a networ k of physical elements (the biotope

) and biological (the biocenosis or community of organisms) Ecosystems The ecosystem is the level of organization of nature in the interest of ecology. In nature, atoms and molecules are organized in these cells. The cells form tis sues and those bodies that meet in systems such as digestive or circulatory syst ems. A living organism is composed of several anatomical and physiological syste ms closely linked together. Levels of organization in nature The organization of nature at levels above the bodies is of interest to ecology. The organisms live in populations that are structured communities. Levels of organization in nature The ecosystem concept is even broader than the community as an ecosystem, in add ition to the community, the environment does not live with all the features of c limate, temperature, chemicals, geology, etc. Levels of organization in nature The ecosystem studied closely the relationships themselves living things that ma ke up the community, but also relations with non-living factors. Study Unit of Ecology The ecosystem is the unit of work, study and research of Ecology. It is a comple x system in which living things interact with each other and with all non-living factors that make up the environment: temperature, chemicals, climate, geology, etc. Study Unit of Ecology

The ecology studies nature as a large set in which the physical and living thing s interact in a complex web of relationships. Sometimes the ecological study foc uses on a very local area of work and specific, but in other cases is concerned with very general questions. An ecologist might be studying how they affect the conditions of light and temperature on oak trees, while other studies how energy flows in the rainforest, but the specifics of ecology is that you always study the relationships between these agencies and with the environment I do not live, ie the ecosystem. Study Unit of Ecology

Examples .- The ecosphere ecosystem as a whole is the larger ecosystem. Spans th e globe and unites all living beings in their relations with non-living environm ent of the entire Earth. But within this large system are subsystems that are de fined ecosystems. For example, the ocean, a lake, a forest, or even a tree or an apple is rotting are ecosystems that have patterns of operation where we can fi nd fundamental similarities that allow us to group them into the ecosystem conce pt . Ecosystem functioning The functioning of flows through the ater, minerals and n source of energy all ecosystems is similar. Everyone needs a power source that various components of the ecosystem, sustains life and move w other physical components of the ecosystem. The first and mai is the sun.

Ecosystem functioning In all ecosystems there is also a continuous movement of materials. Different ch emical elements pass from soil, air or water bodies and other living beings, unt il they return, closing the cycle, soil or water or air. Energy cycle of the ecosystem In the ecosystem matter is recycled in a closed cycle and the energy passes - fl uyegenerando organization in the system. Ecosystem Study By studying the ecosystems are more interested in understanding the relationship between the elements, that how are these elements. Living things specific inter est the ecologist for the role in the ecosystem, not in themselves may be of int erest to the zoologist and the botanist. For the study of the ecosystem is indif ferent, in a way, the predator is a lion or a shark. The role they play in the f low of energy and material cycle is similar and what is of interest in ecology. Ecosystem Study As a complex system that is, any change in a system component will affect all ot her components. Why are so important s relationships established. Example of food chain

Ecosystems are studied by analyzing the food relationships, the cycles of matter and energy flows. a) Foreign alimentarias.La life requires a constant supply of energy that reaches the Earth from the Sun and passes from one agency to anothe r through the food chain. Example of food chain

Food webs (meeting of all food chains) begins in the plants (producers) that cap ture light energy in photosynthetic activity and convert it into chemical energy stored in organic molecules. The plants are eaten by other living beings that f orm the trophic level of primary consumers (herbivores). The shortest food chain would be formed by the two links above (eg elephants feeding on the vegetation) . But often fall prey herbivores generally of carnivores (predators) are seconda ry consumers in the ecosystem. Example of food chain

Examples of food chains of three links are: grass man algae ß ß ß cow ß krill wh ale. Food chains usually have at most four or five rings - six are already an ex ceptional case. Eg long chain would be: algae tardigrades ß ß ß nematodes rotife rs shrew ß ß jay Example of food chain

But not just food chains in the top predator (eg tawny owl), but like all living things die, there are scavengers, such as some fungi and bacteria that feed on dead waste and debris in general (decomposers or detritivores) . This is fixed i n nature, the problem of waste. The detritus (organic remains of living things) are often the beginning of new food chains. Eg., The deep-sea animals feed on de bris that descend from the surface. Example of food chain

The different food chains are not isolated in the ecosystem but form a network a mong themselves and often talk about food web. A very useful representation for studying whole arrangement trophic pyramids are the biomass, or number of indivi duals. They put several floors with surface width or proportional to the magnitu de represented. On the ground floor are situated the producers over consumers fi rst order (herbivores), then the second order (carnivores) and so on. Energy pyramid of a aquatic food chain Cycles of matter. The chemical elements that are alive (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus, etc.) Are from other trophic levels. The plants collected from the ground or the atmosphere and convert them into organic molecules (carbohydra tes, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids). The animals were taken from plants or other animals. Then go back to the earth, the atmosphere or water by respiration , feces, or the decomposition of the bodies when they die. Thus we find in any e cosystem cycles of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc. whose study is essen tial to know its operation. Energy flow

The ecosystem is maintained in operation through the energy flow that goes from one level to the next. Energy flows through the food chain in only one direction is always from the sun through producers to decomposers. The energy enters the ecosystem in the form of light energy and comes in the form of heat energy that can no longer be reused to maintain other ecosystem functioning. For this is not possible an energy cycle similar to that of the chemical elements.