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Core Generator: Environment and Sustainability (AS)

DR3 - Natural Resources (NR)

Collection of documents (citations with small indication of the links directing
to the original page), drawn from surveys in the search engine "Google" and it i
s intended to help decode the theme Waste and Recycling (RR) Core Generator Envi
ronment and Sustainability (AS) of Referential Skills-Secondary Level Switch on
the RVCC process of the New Opportunities Initiative.
[Note: All Adults / Trainees should include in its PRA sources of all readings t
hat have made and can not copy or plagiarize, risking expulsion from RVCC.]
Good Reads ...
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Natural Resources Any issue with socio-economic interest that can be obtained di
rectly from nature, as is the case of groundwater resources, mineral deposits, f
orests, etc.. May be renewable or nonrenewable. Renewable Resources Resources th
at can be renewed by natural or artificial, in a relatively short period of time
. Nonrenewable Resources Resources that are depleted or when operated and exceed
ed a certain threshold, it is unfeasible to renew within the limits of human lif
e. Read on:
A useful link from a blog on Education and Training of Adults, which addresses t
his issue:
Society, Technology and Science
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The future of renewable natural resources The over-exploitation was often the cause of the extinc
tion or exhaustion of economic resources. Knowledge of population dynamics and m
onitoring of exploited species is essential for their conservation by wise use.
Bruno Pinto
Renewable natural resources must be managed in a sustainable manner to correspon
d to their description and renew themselves over time. However, we are witnessin
g today the risk of depletion of some of these due to their over-exploitation. T
his text addresses some of the factors that are crucial to proper management of
these resources. Renewable natural resources include living organisms such as fi
sh or trees, but also inanimate systems such as water and air. Once these are in
common, have found ways of sustainable management with the aim of maintaining t
he long term. However, their over-exploitation has not always been avoided, whic
h resulted in the past in the extinction of several species. This concept of res
ource exhaustion of free access has affected, for example, the fishing industry
worldwide. In the short term, it is more profitable to exploit than over-do a pr
oper management of a resource over time. Thus, the consequence of over-exploitat
ion is sometimes the extinction of species. (Continue reading)
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European Charter on Water
The European Charter on Water appears in order to respond to one of the major pr
oblems currently of concern to humanity: the need for freshwater due to growth o
f populations, contamination of water resources and climate change. This concern
prompted the Council of Europe to proclaim, on May 6, 1968 in Strasbourg, the s
o-called Charter of Water. This is based on 12 points. As the Earth known as the
Blue Planet, as the waters of the oceans cover over 70% of its surface, and als
o because they play a key role in the survival of virtually all existing species
, the European Water Charter seeks to combat the major problems associated with
their use. This letter was proclaimed by the Council of Europe on May 6, 1968 in
Strasbourg, and is based on 12 points: 1. There is no life without water. Water
is a precious resource essential to all human activities. 2. The fresh water re
sources are not inexhaustible. It is essential to preserve them, manage them and
, if possible, increase them. 3. Change the water quality is harming the life of
man and other living things that depend on it. 4. Water quality must be maintai
ned at levels appropriate to use that is contemplated and must in particular sat
isfy the demands of public health. 5. When the water after use, returns to the n
atural environment should not compromise the subsequent uses of it that will be
made, public or private. 6. Maintaining an adequate forest cover, preferably for
est, it is essential to
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conservation of water resources. 7.€Water resources must be inventoried. 8. Good
water management should be subject to a plan promulgated by competent authoriti
es. 9. The safeguarding of water implies an increasing effort for research, trai
ning of specialists and public information. 10. Water is a common heritage, whos
e value must be recognized by all. Each has a duty to conserve and to use carefu
lly. 11. The management of water resources must register within the natural basi
n, rather than being inserted in the administrative and political borders. 12. W
ater has no boundaries. It is a common resource that requires international coop
eration. How to cite this article: European Charter for Water. In Infopédia [Onl
ine]. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003-2008. [Consult. 03/09/2008]. Available at www:
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"Tap water"
Eng Carla Sá Fernandes
Advisor to the Board of Water Cávado, SA
When you open a faucet, you probably already have asked: "My water is safe to dr
ink? From where does my drinking water and how to get to my house? How is it tre
ated? "When we opened the tap, we want to be sure that we get clean water and re
liable high quality. This is the fundamental objective of a system of water supp
ly: to provide consumers on tap drinking water with some characteristics such th
at the risk to health because their consumption is zero, apart from being pleasi
ng to the palate and the consumer. Drinking water with respect to the Portuguese
legislation (and EU) is generally safe to drink because it has an adequate trea
tment, according to their quality at source and regularly analyzes its quality,
according to the legislation. (...) To achieve an efficient supply system, not o
nly in terms of water quality but also their quantity, there are several aspects
to be considered, among which are:

adequate capacity in the uptake and transport system, a quality in accordance wi

th the law at the delivery points, tied mostly to the quality of the origins and
the treatment process applied;
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a system integrity to prevent leakage and unaccounted for water, adequate econom
ic and administrative management. Water management includes the actions provided
for the protection of water quality at source, to finalize the treatment of was
tewater after use.
Continue to read:
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Technologies for Treatment of Urban Wastewater contamination of surface and groundwater by domestic wa
stewater discharges is not justifiable, not only by issues of environmental ethi
cs, but also the diversity of technologies available to treat these waters.
Rita Teixeira d'Azevedo
An Introduction Station Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is certainly the most
appropriate target for public health promotion and preservation of water resourc
es, to avoid contamination. Thus, treatment plants aim at the final treatment of
wastewater generated by the population, allowing for possible reuse of these, t
hrough a long process and phased. Choice of Treatment System Choosing a treatmen
t system is determined by several factors: quantitative and qualitative characte
ristics of wastewater, system location and quality objectives that are intended
- of imposing musical treatment. Treatment Technologies Treatment of wastewater
in a wastewater treatment plant consists of four stages, called primary treatmen
t, primary, secondary and tertiary. Tertiary treatment is indispensable in the c
ase where the receiving environment is made of the discharge of treated wastewat
er to be a sensible way, that is, subject to eutrophication (excessive algal enr
ichment due to the introduction of nutrients - nitrogen and phosphorus from wast
ewater ), then needing to be done to remove nutrients from wastewater. Continue
to read:
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Impacts of Urbanization on the degradation of urban land ...
Rita Faria Antonio Pedrosa
This text is based on a paper presented at International Symposium in Land Degra
dation and Desertification, organized by the Geographical Union and COMLAND,€hel
d in May 2005 in Uberlandia (Brazil) Abstract uncontrolled construction is one o
f several consequences of population growth in recent decades. This population g
rowth has generated a strong urban pressure, seemingly unaccompanied by institut
ions and urban planning rules. The lack of planning in relation to soil resource
s and hydrology, has been increasing conflict between the natural and physical d
evelopment - urban. With increasing urbanization are witnessing the deforestatio
n, occupation of areas unsuitable for building infrastructure and the proliferat
ion of industrial activities in urban areas, factors that have serious consequen
ces at the level of soil degradation: during the urbanization assistese to soil
compaction, which is a direct consequence of the decrease infiltration and incre
ase runoff, which can lead to the occurrence of flooding in downstream areas. In
dustrial activity in urban areas has serious consequences, both in water and in
soil, due to contamination caused by the discharge of wastes and effluents, whic
h are to be transported to agricultural fields, promoting the contamination. The
sealing, inadequate occupation of land, deforestation and construction of pipel
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rainwater runoff from an empirical and, therefore, without adequate technical co
nditions, generate an increase in magnitude and frequency of flooding. With tech
nological progress emerged in the last decade, coupled with hydrologic modeling
GIS technology has decisively contributed to the elaboration of an environmental
assessment. Continue reading
MAIN RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH NATURAL HERITAGE http://www.desenvolvimentosustentave the geographical location, geological features, climatic conditions in the
country, now more uncertain and exacerbated by the context of climate change wh
ich we live, as well as socio-economic activities can generate natural disasters
or calamities, which may lead to heavy loss of lives and property and cause har
dship for the environment and cultural heritage. The precautionary principle sho
uld be duly taken into account in the future strengthening of national legislati
on because it is a fundamental approach in risk management. An overview of major
environmental hazards in Portugal, with natural causes, anthropogenic, or in co
mbination, allow us to make the following cast: The seismic risk in Portugal is
a latent threat, remains unpredictable, with potentially very serious repercussi
ons in the SW part of the territory, particularly Lisbon and Tagus Valley, in th
e Algarve and the Azores. In the Algarve coastline and the western coast south o
f Peniche, compounded by the danger of tsunami.
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The floods in mainland Portugal there are mainly in floodplains of major rivers
of the country (eg, Tagus, Douro, Mondego, Sado and Guadiana), but also in small
watersheds, which are subject to rapid or sudden floods in result of very inten
se rainfall of short duration, particularly in the region of Lisbon and west on
the Peninsula of Setúbal and the Algarve and the Autonomous Regions (Madeira, Ri
beira Brava and Sao Living in Madeira, and the settlements located deep in the v
alleys and on cliffs, in the Azores). The Alentejo is also a region prone to fla
sh floods occurrence. The potential damage resulting from flooding in major rive
rs are not too high and the human activities undertaken in areas prone to floodi
ng are, with few exceptions, reasonably adapted to the occurrence of floods. The
flash floods are potentially more dangerous, especially as most likely to occur
in densely urbanized. The droughts that occur mainly in regions with greater pr
essure on water resources, particularly in the Algarve, Alentejo and the rest of
the country, particularly in the interior. The phenomena of erosion in the coas
tal cliffs and degradation of severity are significant and are mainly three caus
es: (i) the decrease in sediment influx, especially from the 1950s, following th
e construction of dams, (ii) disorderly occupation of the coastal strip, with ho
using and infrastructure, (iii) rising eustatic sea level as a result of thermal
expansion of ocean. The stretches of coastline subjected to intense marine eros
ion in the continental correspond to areas of low sandy coast (such as dune syst
ems and wetlands). The soil erosion that is characterized by the removal of surf
ace soil material,€leading to degradation of their ecological and agricultural p
otential. The South and Central areas of the country are most likely due mainly
to the high erodibility of soils, degradation of vegetation and
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high rainfall erosivity. Desertification is a complex process of environmental d
egradation which, once started, is difficult to reverse. Its manifestations incl
ude increased water stress, salinization of soil, accelerated soil erosion, biod
iversity loss and reduction in agricultural productivity. More than a third of m
ainland Portugal is at risk of desertification (about 35% of the country suscept
ible to risks of desertification, there are already serious problems in 28%). Ar
eas prone to desertification are located in the Alentejo region, particularly in
the Guadiana basin, in the Algarve coast, in the Douro valley, in Trás-os-Monte
s and the streak zone in Beira Baixa. The forest fires which are the biggest ris
k to the Portuguese forests and the areas most susceptible to the risk of fire l
ocated north of the river Tagus and the Algarve mountains, on steep slopes and d
ominated softwood associated with high densities of vegetation. (Continue readin
On the eve of starting conference in Bonn Germany criticizes UN's failure in pro
tecting biodiversity
08.05.2008 - 11h57 AFP
The German environment minister, Sigmar Gabriel, has accused the UN of "16 years
of failure" in efforts to protect threatened biodiversity on the planet. The Ma
y 19 begins at Bonn on 9 th Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biologica
l Diversity, adopted in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. Continue reading
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THE OFFICE OF WATER, I. P., (ICN, IP), central body with jurisdiction over the e
ntire national territory, is a public institution included in the indirect State
administration, endowed with administrative autonomy and its own assets. The Wa
ter Institute, I. P., resumed the duties of the Ministry of Environment, Spatial
Planning and Regional Development, under the supervision and tutelage of their
minister. The Water Institute, I. P., and National Water Authority has the task
to propose, monitor and ensure implementation of national policy in the field of
water resources to ensure their sustainable management and ensure effective imp
lementation of the Water Act. The Portuguese Environment Agency
(APA) is an agency of the Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Regional
Development (MAOTDR) responsible for the pursuit of environmental policies, Por
tugal, the areas defined in its organic statute. APA resulted from the merger of
the Environment Institute and the Institute of Waste in 2007 under the PRACE (P
rogram for Restructuring the State's Central Administration). The Portuguese Env
ironment Agency (APA) is responsible for proposing, developing and monitoring th
e implementation of environmental policies, particularly in the following areas:
- climate change
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- Protection of the ozone layer - emission of air pollutants - noise - integrate
d pollution control - Environmental Impact Assessment - Waste - prevention of ma
jor risks - environmental education assignments APA include the office of Nation
al Waste Authority, and ensuring monitoring the implementation of the national s
trategy for waste, by exercising its own powers of licensing, the issuance of te
chnical standards for waste management operations, monitoring the activities of
waste management, the standardization of licensing procedures and subjects inter
national community and in the waste area. Continue reading
Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
Article. 9 (Core tasks of the state) e) Protect and enhance the cultural heritag
e of the Portuguese people, protect nature and the environment, conserve natural
resources and ensure proper planning;
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Article 66. (Environment and quality of life) 1. Everyone is entitled to an atmo
sphere of humane, healthy and ecologically balanced and the duty to defend. 2. T
o ensure the right to environment in the context of sustainable development, the
State must, through appropriate bodies and with the involvement and participati
on of citizens: a) Prevent and control pollution and its effects and harmful for
ms of erosion; b) To organize and promote regional planning,€aimed at a proper l
ocation of activities, a balanced socio-economic development and enhancing the l
andscape; c) Create and develop natural reserves and parks and recreation, and c
lassify and protect landscapes and sites, to ensure the conservation of nature a
nd preservation of cultural assets of historic or artistic interest, d) promote
the rational use of natural resources, while safeguarding their capacity for ren
ewal and ecological stability, respecting the principle of solidarity between ge
nerations; e) Promote, in collaboration with local the environmental quality of
settlements and urban life, particularly in terms of protecting the architectura
l and historic areas, f) Promote the integration of environmental objectives in
various sectors of policy; g) promoting environmental education and respect for
environmental values; h) ensuring that fiscal policy development compatible with
environmental protection and quality of life.
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