I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Network Topologies A network topology is a network map.

The physical topology of the network descri bes the layout of cables and jobs and the location of all network components. Th e choice of how computers will be connected in a network can be a critical issue , a bad choice of the physical topology can lead to unnecessary costs later as a poor use of network resources. Here are the most common physical topologies: th e LANs the Bus (Bus), the Star (Star), the Ring (Ring), the Mesh (Mesh) Wireless (Wireless). the MANs, WANs or the Backbone (Backbone) The Tree (tree or star hi erárqica) Hybrid (Hybrid) Bus Topology (Bus) In bus topology all computers are connected to a continuous cable that is termin ated at both ends by a small plug with a resistor connected between the center w ire mesh and cable (terminators). The function of the "terminator" is to adapt t he line, ie making with a view of the impedance inside and outside of the cable is the same, but it appears that there is signal reflection, and consequently, l oss of communication. In this type of topology the communication is done by broa dcast, ie the data is sent to the bus and all the computers see these data, howe ver, they will only be received by the addressee. 1 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology Advantages to the Ease of the insta llation is relatively cheap the Uses less cable than other topologies the Disadv antages Difficult to change or move us. hardly the fault-tolerant, if one node f ails the whole network goes down. the difficulty of diagnosing faults or errors. Star topology (Star) Unlike the previous topology, in the case of star topology connecting the statio ns are all in a central point, which is a device that can be a hub or switch, in which case the device acts as a hub. A concentrator has the function to receive signals from multiple computers and send them to the destination computer. 2 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology Advantages to the ease of changing the system, since all the cables converge at one point. A device for the deriva tion, if it fails only that device is affected. Easy to detect and isolate fault s, as the central node is directly connected to all others. Simplicity in the co mmunications protocol. Boils down to select which device node that at one time i s connected to the central node. Disadvantages to the Greatest length of cable t o make connections. The maximum distance without amplification is only 100 m. De pendence of the central node, if this fails, the network becomes inoperative. Th e number of ports on a hub is limited and when it reaches the limit of available ports you need to buy another and connect it with the existing one. Compared to the bus topology, their costs are higher. 3 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Topology Ring (Ring) In ring topology each station is directly linked to two other stations network. The data flows in one direction from one post to another, each post includes a d evice for reception and transmission, which allows you to receive the signal and pass it to the next station, where the information will not be assigned. The fi

rst computer network will store the token that is a license for the computers co mmunicate. The computer that you wish to make a statement will request a token a nd only after obtaining it is going to implement the transmission of data to the destination computer. Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Topology in the Little Advantages length of the cable are not necessary cable distribution cabinets since the connections a re made in each of us. The design of the wiring is fairly simple. Disadvantages to the failure of a node causes the network failure. the difficulty of locating faults (failure of a node causes the failure of all others). the difficulty in r econfiguring the network (installation of multiple nodes in different locations) . 4 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Difficulty in establishing the network access protocol since each node will have to ensure continuity of information and only then can submit their own informat ion after certification that the network is available. Mesh Topology (Mesh) In mesh topology there is a direct physical connection between each of us, that is, all communicate with everyone. The previous figure shows the complexity of this topology. We have an example of four nodes and has become relatively complex,€but it increases exponentially a s we add more nodes. If we had about 10 computers would have something like 45 l inks that would bring a big headache to those who had to manage a similar networ k. The only advantage of this network is fault tolerance, at least as regards th e wiring, as compared to computers depends more on them than the network. Topology Wireless (wireless) Wireless networks are vulgar to the day, both being used in corporate networks a s in home networks and Internet connections. The simplest example of a wireless network is Ad-Hoc network. This type of network is established when two or more devices with wireless transmitters and receivers are within range of each other. The devices send 5 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies signals to each other and both acknowledge the existence of another device with which to communicate. This type of network is widely used in communications betw een laptops or PDAs and allow data transfer between devices quite easily. Topology Backbone (Backbone) A very complex network, eg a university campus or a large company, you need a sm art way to identify which part of the network is what we want. For this general, "breaks" the network into segments. These can be different network topologies, although the reporting is done as if it were a single topology. A backbone is th e part of the network to which all segments and servers are connected. He provid es the structure for the network and is considered the main part of the network, usually uses high-speed links such as FDDI. All segments and servers connect di rectly to the backbone so that any segment is only a distance of one segment of the servers that backbone. Since the segments are close to the servers, it makes the network more efficient. A thread is the general term for any part of the ne twork that is not part of the backbone, only the servers connect directly to the backbone, all other posts linking to a thread.

6 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Hierarchical star topology or tree Typology based on a physical hierarchical structure of various networks and subn etworks. There are one or more hubs that connect each local network and there is another hub that connects all the other hubs. This topology facilitates the mai ntenance of the system and allows, in case of failure, more easily detect the pr oblem. 7 I.C.O.R.L.I. - Network Topologies Hybrid Topology In a hybrid topology, the final design of the network is a combination of two or more network topologies. The combination of two or more network topologies allo ws us to enjoy the benefits of each of the topologies that integrate this topolo gy. Although little used in local area networks, a variant of the mesh topology, a hybrid mesh is used on the Internet and in some WANs. The hybrid mesh topolog y may have multiple connections between multiple locations, but this is done for the sake of redundancy, and that is not a true mesh because there is no link be tween each and all of us, only a few for the sake of backup. 8