The human parasites: a world very exciting ...

Haute Ecole Charlemagne, paramedical Category Devillé Christelle, PhD - Assista nt Teacher In biology, a parasite is an organism that feeds, shelters and breed in close in teraction with another organization called "host". There are different types of parasites, viruses, bacteria or unicellular protozoa (amoebae, Plasmodium, Toxop lasma, ...) worms (nematodes, Taenia, ...) insects (lice, fleas, ...) arachnids (ticks, ...) of fungi (ringworm, ...) algae, .... In addition, there are different types of association between the parasite and i ts host. We speak of symbiosis that is life in close association of two or more dissimilar organisms. We are talking about when ectosymbiose body remains extern al to the other and endosymbiosis when a body is present within another. There a re different types of symbiosis, commensalism, mutualism and parasitism. The commensalism is a relationship where one organism, the commensal, takes an a dvantage, while the other, the host, is not affected, nor helped. Often, the hos t and the guest "eat at the same table." In many cases the guest will "win" as a shelter by living on or in the host. It is not directly dependent on the metabo lism of the host and cause no damage in the latter particular. Mutualism defines the relationship in which one is for the mutual benefit of two partners. In this relationship, the mutual and dependent host metabolically fro m each other. If the symbiont affects or lives at the expense of another organism, it is a par asitic organism and the relationship is called parasitism. A possible consequenc e of parasitism is the pathogenicity, but most higher animals have defense mecha nisms that provide resistance to the relentless attack of pest organisms. The ho st on which or in which the parasitic organism reaches sexual maturity and repro duces is called the final host. While serving as a host environment temporary bu t essential for the development is an intermediate host. By contrast, a host vec tor Sciences ... Make the Docks Know! www.ulg.ac.be / Sciences 19> March 25, 2007 in the Spring of Sciences Sector Mos an Higher Education and University 1 is not necessary for the performance of the reproductive cycle, but it serves as a vehicle to reach the final host. When a host infected by a parasitic organism is able to infect other humans, it is known as reservoir host. 1. Bacteria The world of bacteria is a highly complex world in terms of both: their forms an d aspects of their microscopic structure their lives in their cultural aspects. Health - look under the microscope - The structure of bacteria may take differen t forms: shells: round rod or spiral bacilli vibrios filaments ... The bacteria can be isolated or assembled in various ways: in pairs in clusters (tetrads, grapes, ...) in chains (streptobacilles - streptococcal). Some bacteria have no fixed form and are called pleomorphic. Moreover, some of t hem have related structures (capsule, pili, cilia, flagella, ...) playing a role , for instance in their pathogenicity, their mobility, ... To better visualize the microscope and better study, researchers have developed techniques of staining, the most common is the Gram stain. This staining techniq ue allows some bacteria stain purple, when we speak of Gram + and other pink, ar

e the Gram-. This stain is very useful to determine their form and their mode of grouping, but has mostly helped microbiologists to classify them. Do Science ... at the Pier Knowledge! www.ulg.ac.be / Sciences 19> March 25, 2007 in the Spring of Sciences Sector Mos an Higher Education and University 2 Living conditions there are four main methods of breathing in bacteria: aerobic bacteria standards (Pseudomonas, Bacillus ...) who do not grow in the presence o f O2, that is to say that the final acceptor respiratory chain is O2 which is pu rely oxidative metabolism strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium, Bacteroides) that grow in the absence of O2,€that is to say that the final acceptor of the respiratory chain is an inorganic compound other than O2 and whose metabolism is strictly fermentative bacteria aerobic facultative anaerobes (Enterobacteriacea e, Pasteurellaceae, Streptococcus) grow both in presence and absence of O2, that is to say that the final acceptor of the respiratory chain may be either the O2 or another compound. They can use all the energy pathways microaerophilic bacteria (Campylobacter, Helicobacter) which are grown only under a reduced pressure of O2. Some bacteria can grow at very low temperatures (even in our fridge, as the bact erium Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium very annoying in pregnancy), others to very high temperatures, ... Bacteria that prefer low temperatures ( of 0-25 ° C) or psychrophilic cryophiles say, those who prefer temperatures between 10 and 45 ° C are called mesophiles and those preferring higher temperatures, warmer expressed thermophilic (40 to 90 ° C). Some bacteria prefer to live in an acidic, others in an alkaline environment as the agent of cholera (Vibrio cholerae) that grows well in alkaline (pH 9.2) and very salty. The aspect of culture bacteria are present in large numbers everywhere, includin g in water, air, on our skin, in our gut, but their size does not allow us to se e with the naked eye . In order to view them easily, to better recognize and inv estigate, the researchers have developed techniques to culture on nutrient mediu m (agar) in Petri dishes. Cultured on a nutrient medium in Petri dishes, bacteri a, multiplying form of bacterial colonies. Characteristically, these colonies is very useful for identification and diagnosis: size, shape, color, texture, smel l, ... Do Science ... at the Pier Knowledge! www.ulg.ac.be / Sciences 19> March 25, 2007 in the Spring of Sciences Sector Mos an Higher Education and University 3 2. Viruses The microbiologists were able to detect viruses indirectly long before being abl e to see them. Viruses are infectious particles of very small size that can be o bserved at electron microscope (smaller viruses have a diameter of 20 nm = appro ximate size of a ribosome). They have the genetic material (RNA or DNA) and only multiply in living cells using the resources of these. Like bacteria, the world of viruses is a highly complex world in terms of both: their forms and aspects of their structures by electron microscopy their lives their targets. Beauty - structure Viruses are infectious particles consisting only of genes (ge

netic material) enclosed in a protein shell (capsid =), and in some cases may be in an envelope studded with spikes (glycoprotein). The genome (genetic material =) virus may be of different types: DNA or RNA, single-stranded or double stran ded form. Viruses with DNA as the genome are called DNA viruses such as herpes v irus, hepatitis B, adenoviruses, ... Viruses with RNA as genome of RNA viruses a re known as Rabies virus (rhabdovirus), retroviruses such as HIV, the virus of m umps and measles (paramyxovirus), influenza virus (orthomyxoviruses), ... The protein shell that encloses the viral genome is called capsid. It can come i n various shapes (helical, polyhedral, ...). Some viruses have accessory structu res allowing them to infect the host. The coat of the influenza virus, for examp le, is covered with a membranous envelope. These envelopes are made from a porti on of the membrane of the host cell. They contain phospholipids and proteins in the membrane, as well as proteins and glycoproteins of viral origin. The capsid of some viruses also contains some viral enzymes. Some viruses are parasites of bacteria. They are called bacteriophages or phages: they have a complex structur e consisting of a genome, a head, a tail protein and fiber tail. Do Science ... at the Pier Knowledge! www.ulg.ac.be / Sciences 19> March 25, 2007 in the Spring of Sciences Sector Mos an Higher Education and University 4 Living - target Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites,€that is to say th ey can not multiply inside a host cell. An isolated virus can not replicate, it does not have the enzymes necessary for metabolism, or the ribosomes and other s tructures necessary for the manufacture of its proteins. Furthermore, each type of virus can infect a limited range of host cells, called its host range. This s pecificity results from the occurrence of recognition mechanisms in the virus. T he identification of host cells is through a correlation-type "key and lock" bet ween the proteins on the outer surface of the virus and the corresponding recept or molecules on the surface of the cell. The host range is broad enough to encom pass several species. For example, the swine influenza virus can infect the pig, but also to man, that of rabies can infect several species of mammals. By cons, some viruses have a very limited host range and can attack only one species, as some phages that infect only the bacterium E. coli. Viruses of eukaryotes are u sually specific to a tissue, and cold viruses infect only humans mucous membrane s of upper respiratory tract. The viral infection begins when the viral genome r eaches the inside of a cell. The mechanism of entry of the nucleic acid into host cells varies depending on t he type of virus. Once inside, the viral genome may take possession of the host cell and reprogrammed so that it copies the genes of the virus and produces the capsid proteins. Whatever the viral genome because a virus then diverts resource s from its host cell to produce more virus. Once manufactured, the viral nucleic acid molecules and capsomeres assemble, forming new viruses. The replication cy cle of the simplest viruses ends when hundreds or even thousands of viruses out of the infected host cell, which often die at this time. Viruses of the new gene ration can then interfere with other cells and spread the infection. 3. Protozoa Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotic organisms (that is to say having a core that unlike bacteria are prokaryotes) who conquered and have adapted to all walks of life. Some are parasites that can be very dangerous. Their reproduction is very complex and can be sexual or asexual. The phylum includes the protozoan ciliate s, flagellates, rhizopods (amoeba, radiolarian, ...), the sporozoites [agent of malaria (Plasmodium), toxoplasmosis (agent of toxoplasmosis)]. Do Science ... at the Pier Knowledge!

www.ulg.ac.be / Sciences 19> March 25, 2007 in the Spring of Sciences Sector Mos an Higher Education and University 5 Many diseases are caused by protozoa such as malaria or malaria, toxoplasmosis, ... 4. Metazoans Besides protozoa, there are metazoans. They are living multicellular eukaryotes whose cells are more or less differentiated tissues and form more or less specia lized. It divides the world into three kingdoms of metazoa: the vegetable kingdo m: plants, algae, ... the kingdom of fungi: parasitic fungi of the human animal kingdom various human parasites. Found among metazoans, helminths and arthropods. The helminth parasites are gene rally internal, gastrointestinal tract or other tissues. Among helminths, there is Nemathelminthes nematodes and flatworms. Some nematodes are oviparous (they l ay eggs) such as whipworm (Trichuris trichiura, agent of trichuriasis), the pinw orm (Enterobius vermicularis), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides roundworm respons ible for) .... Others are viviparous (embryos) as Guinea worm (Dracunculus medin ensis responsible for dracunculiasis) ... The plathelmintes (flatworms, uncoated chitin, segmented or not) are divided into sub unsegmented trematodes (flukes, schistosomes, ...) and segmented tapeworms (Taenia, Echinococcus, ...) The arthr opods are parasites that are usually external and include trilobites: Fossils on ly Chelicerata or arachnids (spiders, scorpions) Antennata (insects, crustaceans , myriapods, ...) Often they are parasites of other parasites. Among the class of insects (body di vided into 3 parts: head, thorax and abdomen with three pairs of legs on the tho rax),€found particularly lice (body louse, Pediculus humanus corpiris and pubic lice or "crabs" "or Phtirius inguinalis), bedbugs, fleas, flies, flies, mosquit oes, fleas ... Some can transmit plague. The flies are biting flies as flies tha t transmit the trypanosomes of sleeping sickness. Among mosquitoes, including An opheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and filariasis Culex transmit. Among the cla ss of arachnids (body divided into three parts: head, thorax and abdomen, four p airs of legs attached to the thorax in adults), we found that ticks are external parasites that can transmit various diseases such as borreliosis (illness Lyme) , rickettsial and viral diseases. Do Science ... at the Pier Knowledge! www.ulg.ac.be / Sciences 19> March 25, 2007 in the Spring of Sciences Sector Mos an Higher Education and University 6