San Marcos - Lima PROJECT: "Optimization of a ram pump RELEASE VALVE USING TWO" AUTHORS COLLADO FIGUEROA, Samuel

Edwin Rivas, Diego Ivan Antaurco MONTES, Robert Lucio OLORTEGUI LEON, Tony Dietrich ADVISORY PhD. Michelangelo Valeriano Ormeño robert27 ACADEMIC VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS PHYSICAL SCIENCES UNIV ERSITY SCHOOL OF MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS NATIONAL - LIMA Ciudad Universitaria. Av Ve nezuela Cuadra. 34 / Av University - Lima 1 Telephone: 619-7000, e-mail: ABSTRAC T or ram pump hydraulic ram is a machine that uses only the en ergy of a small waterfall to part of the flow increase at a greater height, is u sed in rural areas where low income of the residents are difficult to access con ventional pumping systems because of the high cost of operating them. The princi ple is simple, water flow through the body of the mechanism with a kinetic energ y sufficient to close a valve abruptly, causing a violent blow on the stroke pro duces a pressure able to raise a certain amount of water to a considerable heigh t , although these pumping systems have many advantages (they are economical, su stainable, easy design and installation, require minimal maintenance and operate 24 hours a day 365 days a year), yet are not very efficient, is ie the amount o f water pumped is limited, in relation to the amount of water lost. In this work we have optimized the design of ram pump valve leakage using two instead of one , thus achieving significantly increase the lifting height and the flow of water pumped, reducing drastically the amount of water loss (note that by increasing the number of valves, stroke tend to increase, but the reverse is true) thus ach ieving a significant increase in the pump performance. ABSTRACT The Pump or hidr aulic hidraulic ram ram, Which is a machine only uses the energy from a litle st ep off water to elevate part of the flow to the Highest Place, is common to use this pump in Some Rural Economic Sectors Where the resources from the Lowest Pop ulation are, and to make the acces to conventionals hard pumping systems, Becaus e the expensive cost from themselves. The Principle of function is simple, fluid trough of water to the cross with a kinetic energy Mecanismes Greenwich is suff icient to close a valve Suddenly, this causes a stroke hard avobepression That W hich dog makes an elevate Some Water volume to a considerable height of elevatio n , if this pump is Un certain systems Have a lot of Vantage (economics, sustain able Ways, easy to install, requiring low hours/365 maintance and works 24 days a year), Even tought There are very efficients, to mean, respecting the capacity of elevated the water is low Comparing with the water lost. This paperwork HAD an optimized the design of ram pump, leakage using two valves, making Better the height of elevation of water and the pumped volume, Decreasing the leakage wate r (note That If There are an increment of the leakage of water valves will stret ch out to But hap Increase the Oposit) Increase With That way the PERFORMANCE of the pump. ACADEMIC VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS 1 San Marcos - Lima INTRODUCTION In developed countries, ram pumps are pumping an alternative that has been negle cted because its performance is far below the performance of conventional bombs, so the development has stalled the same although still remains an economical al ternative pumping developing countries like ours. Facing the need for an alterna tive economic pump, to improve the quality of life of rural populations while ef fective, undertook the search for a new device that operates on the same princip le, which employed essentially the same parts and to keep the same benefits but introducing a variation to allow the pump repowering thus increasing performance

. As such, our pump consists of a pressure pipe, a bypass valve, a compression c hamber, a tube lift and unlike ordinary ram pump, a device that allows the place ment of two spill valves, which doubling the hammer and likewise, increase the e fficiency of it. FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES The main objectives outlined in carrying out this work are: Design and build a ram pump for high performance.€ Provide an alternative to pump efficiently and scope of the economy of the inhabitants of rural areas. Provide a solution to the problem of water supply for irrigation and for direct consumption in rural areas. Contribute to the development of clean technology and environmental imp act. HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION The abrupt closure occurs in the valve stroke causes a pressure wave that carrie s the fluid through the bypass valve, into the compression chamber with sufficie nt pressure to compress the air volume, which drives the decompressed fluid into the riser. Continuous waves that occur with each stroke has the effect of const antly raise a given flow rate. In turn, the effects that two valves placed in pa rallel, synchronized and evenly spaced separately generate waves that subsequent ly found in the same conduit, become a single pressure that generates the equiva lent of two waves, doubling the pressure. Thus the greater the flow returning to the compression chamber, the greater the pressure that compresses the air withi n this and the greater flow and lift height. The device was used to install the valves in parallel is: STUDY APPROACH Given that the major disadvantage of these pumping systems is the poor performan ce of the same and that this performance is a function of the overpressure produ ced by the ripples from the abrupt closure of the valve stroke, we considered th at the best way to optimize this device is to replace the valve, for installatio n of two valves in parallel with what the pressure is doubled by doubling produc t also waves simultaneously closing the valves. The design and construction of t his pump optimized, retains all the advantages of the classic designs (they are economic, ecological and simple design and installation) which will allow the re sidents of rural areas of our country, have access to a pumping system efficient and affordable to their budget with what is expected to provide a solution to t he problem of water supply for irrigation and direct consumption, thereby improv ing the quality of life for residents of these areas. Figure 1: Piping in "Y" for the installation of the valves in parallel. ACADEMIC VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS 2 San Marcos - Lima THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The water hammer water hammer phenomenon, also called transitional, consisting o f alternating depressions and overpressure due to the oscillatory movement of wa ter inside the pipe, that is, basically is a variation of pressure, and can prod uce both in drives and in supplies by gravity. Ram pump hydraulic ram or a ram p ump is a pump that uses cyclic potential energy of a fluid to raise a portion of that fluid at a higher level. Therefore do not need another external power supp ly. This and its simplicity make it suitable for re remote or poor areas where a ccess to electricity or other engines. Operation The operating principle is as f ollows. The liquid, usually water, from a supplier warehouse is accelerated by a tube bending load with its potential energy becomes kinetic energy. When the sp eed reaches a certain value, the discharge valve closes suddenly cutting off the

flow which creates an overpressure in the bottom of the filler that forces the water to open the check valve and go up the spout to the upper level of the rese rvoir. The valve is designed so that it only reopened and the cycle begins again , closing every time the flow acquires a certain value. At the top level of the deposit is placed a compression chamber filled with pressurized gas, usually air , which absorbs water hammer and maintains a more constant fluid flow through th e pipeline. Performance Lift ( h) The lift performance as we called the quotient of the ratio of height on power l ifting height (h / H) of the hydraulic ram us represents the percentage of water can be pumped in relation to total channeled through the ram. H h .........( 1) H The table below shows how performance varies in elevation, as it reduces the hei ght of power. 1 2 3 4 5 6 0,193 0,187 0,179 0,171 0,162 0,151 Table 1: Performance of elevation. h / H Where: H = height of elevation. h = height of power. Volumetric Performance ( v) The volumetric efficiency as well have called the ratio of the volume ratio of e levation on the feeding volume (v / V), the hydraulic ram gives us an idea of ho w varied the volume that can be pumped in relation to the total volume channeled by the ram. V v .........( 2) V CALCULATION PROCEDURE Performance The table below shows how changes the volumetric efficiency decreases as the hei ght of power. 1 2 3 4 5 6 0,094 0,063 0,065 0,058 0,051 0,040 Table 2: Yield strength. ( ) v / V The performance of the hydraulic ram represents the percentage of water can be p umped in relation to total channeled through the ram, we have taken into conside ration that we can get two yield coefficients, the first in terms of the ratio H / h and heights second in terms of volumes, high and stroke. Where: V = Volume of food. v = volume elevation. ACADEMIC VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS 3 San Marcos - Lima

Lifting Flow (q) depends on the feed flow rate (Q), power height (h) of the lift ing height (H) and experimental lift coefficient (k). The equation by which they relate is: q k (Q.. H) ....( 3) H Where: Q power flow.

H lifting height. h Height supply. k experimental lift coefficient. Feed flow rate (Q) The angle of inclination of the feeding tube ( ) must be betw een 10 º and 45 º to the horizontal. The feed rate depends on the diameter of th e ram tube of the attack. In the next chart you can see these parameters related to galvanized iron pipe, which is recommended to feed hydraulic rams. Q (L / min) 30 60 90 120 250 500 100 Inch / mm. 1 ¼ ° / 35 1 ½ ° / 41 2 ° / 52 2 ½ ° / 70 3 ° / 80 5 ° / 8 ° 125 / 200 Table 3 pipe diameters according to the feed flow rate (Q).

FLUID MECHANICS BIBLIOGRAPHY Author: Pedro Fernández Díez. MECHANICS OF FLUIDS A uthor: Victor Streeter. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines Author: Claudio M ataix. b / MecanicaFluidos / PDF ACADEMIC VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS 4