Low average age The process of decay of feudalism Prof.

Telma Souza General Background The From the eleventh century, Europe began to live a period of relative social tran quility and population growth. The economic expansion has become inevitable. The limits imposed by the feudal system began to be broken. Continuing ... The reopened cross the Mediterranean to Europeans, trade gained momentum and cities grew. Even the crises of the late medieval stopped the transformations that we re occurring. The phases of the Middle Ages First stage (XI-XIII centuries) - characterized by the expansion process in various se ctors of life in Western Europe. Among the transformations that reveal this expa nsion, we can cite: the expansion of agricultural crops, commercial and urban re naissance, the emergence and strengthening of the bourgeoisie. Second phase (XIV and XV Centuries) - a process marked by depression (or contraction) i n Western Europe, resulting from economic, political and religious will be studi ed in the next class. In conclusion ... The events and transformations occurring in these two phases unleashed the process o f decay of feudalism, determining the transition to a new society from the late Middle Ages. New tools used in agriculture: PLOUGHS: Machine shoveling dirt (plowed) pulled by oxen or horses Horseshoe Instrument used to protect the hull of the horse in rough terrain. Water mill Equipment used for grinding cereals and olives, fire bellows, etc. break ores. Thousands o f watermills were built in Europe, thereby replacing human power by hydropower Revival of trade and crafts In expansion scenario, there was population growth throughout Europe. Observe in th e table below population growth among European XI and XIII century in the area t

hat now includes Italy, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Holland, Fran ce, Britain, Spain and Portugal. FACTORS THAT EXPLAIN THE IMPROVEMENT OF TRADE Improvement means of transport. ean peoples. Development of urban crafts Increased contact with Europ

The major international trade routes Route Commercial - North accomplished through the North Sea, passing cities like Danzi g, Lubeck, Hamburg, Bremen, Bugres, London and Bordeaux. The trade route that wa s headed by the Hanseatic League, asocial German traders established in the thir teenth century Southern trade route Performed mainly through the Mediterranean Sea, and as the most important ports of Barcelo na, Marseille, Genoa, Venice, Tunis, Tripoli and Constantinople. Traders were th e most active of Genoa and Venice who were devoted mainly to imports of spices a nd luxury goods from the East. Medieval cities ASSOCIATIONS OF ARTISANS AND TRADERS Corporations Craft: craft production units marked by the hierarchy and the contr ol of the technique of producing the goods by the producer. Were made by the Mas ters Apprentices and Newsstands. MEDIEVAL FAIRS