Hepatitis C, drug-induced hepatitis and chronic hepatitis Hepatitis It is characterized by hepatocyte necrosis and inflammation, resulting in reduce

d functional capacity and abnormal liver function test. Types of hepatitis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis drug poiso ning Chronic Hepatitis Background The NANB was identified in the 70's when we V that allowed for more effective screening the number of cases of hepatitis caused by lementation of the screening procedure, but had serological tests for HAV and HB of blood donors. It is expected that transfusions decreased after the imp not achieved the expected results.

Hepatitis non-A, NO-B (Hepatitis C) It is an inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis C viru s Causes and Risk Factors Received a blood transfusion. Received blood, blood products or solid organs fro m a donor who has hepatitis C. Inject street drugs or shared needles with someon e who has hepatitis C. Have regular contact with blood on their work (for exampl e, workers in the health field) Have or have had sex with multiple partners. Have or have had sex with a person who has hepatitis C. They share personal items like toothbrushes or razors with someone who has hepatitis C. They were born to mothers infected with hepatitis C It identifies two types of NANB hepatitis transmission Enterica or epidemic transmission (ET-NANB) Transmission by transfusion or intra venous (PT-NANB) ET-NANB It causes a sporadic disease of similar nature to HAV infection. Mild disease wi th few complications except in pregnant women, which produces a high mortality r ate. All aspects of the disease are consistent with HAV, except without any dete ctable serologic evidence of exposure to HAV. PT-NANB Similar to HBV infection, in regard to type of transmission and clinical laborat ory aspects. It is associated with blood transfusion. We know of other mechanism s of infection, such as via parental drugs. Symptoms Jaundice Abdominal pain (upper right abdomen) Fatigue Nausea Vomiting Loss of ap petite Low fever clay-colored stools dark urine or pale Ascites Generalized itch ing Diagnosis Antibody test for HCV viral load test HCV genotype test liver function tests, li ver biopsy Diagnosis Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ALT levels are constantly elevated in approximate ly two thirds of people with chronic hepatitis C, reflecting ongoing damage to l iver cells. ALT levels remain normal in one third of people with chronic hepatit is C, despite having a detectable HCV viral load. Most of these people will live with HCV infection without suffering problems with the liver.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) AST levels usually are elevated in people with hepatitis C virus. AST levels are usually lower than ALT levels. But if you deve lop cirrhosis, AST levels rise more than those of ALT, this is a sign that the l iver damage is getting worse. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT or GGTP) Usually, th ese levels remain normal. Can be raised if developed cirrhosis. Treatment The method of treatment for this type of hepatitis is the same as that of hepati tis B: interferon alpha interferon alpha Ribavirin Combination of Interferon Alf a and Ribavirin Combination of Pegylated Interferon Alfa and Ribavirin HEPATITIS AND HEPATITIS INDUCED TOXIC PORFARMACOS What is it? Inflammatory and necrotic liver cells that can be produced by toxins and a varie ty of drugs and chemicals. Various toxic substances or therapeutic drugs injure the liver and result in a process of swelling and necrosis which is called hepat itis cholestasis. Drugs and toxins that cause liver damage. Anesthetic drugs immunosuppressive drugs antibiotic drugs Food Toxins heart drug s based steroid hormone drugs psychotropic substances and industrial and agricul tural Analgesics Anticonvulsants. Symptoms Fatigue Jaundice Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Headache Di arrhea Pale Dark urine or clay-colored Diagnosis Elevated liver enzymes liver Enlarged abdominal tenderness in the right upper qu adrant Treatment There is no specific treatment for drug-induced hepatitis other than stopping th e causative drugs. CHRONIC HEPATITIS It is defined as inflammation of the liver that lasts more than six months to on e year Causes Hepatitis C is a frequent cause of hepatitis B virus with hepatitis D virus, cau ses less frequently. The hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis Wilson 's disease causes chronic hepatitis in children and pregnant or toxic hepatitis induced by drugs Symptoms Lack of appetite, fever and tiredness Some slight discomfort in the upper abdome n or jaundice may not appear Diagnosis â ¢ surface antigen of hepatitis B (may be positive) â ¢ Hepatitis C antibody (may b e positive) â ¢ Hepatitis D antibody (may be positive) â ¢ Tests for lupus or other autoimmune disease (may be positive) â ¢ Liver Biopsy â ¢ Liver enzymes (slightly hi gh) Treatment

No treatment is always needed and depends on the underlying cause of hepatitis. It should review each case to determine whether treatment would be helpful. New therapies for chronic viral infections are now able to stop or reverse some live r damage caused by certain viruses.