Brazilian historical comics in the late 50's. Valença Alexandre Alves Barbosa

br Professor at the Faculty of Art s and Communication at the University Santa Cecilia, Professor at the Faculty of Social Communication at the University Monte Serrat in Santos, MSc student in t he School of Communication and Arts, University of São Paulo, Cartoonist and cri tic of comics in the newspaper "Tribuna" de Santos for 13 years. Summary The aim of this study is to analyze the interpretation of the country and its hi story by reading the writers and artists of comic Epic, the publisher Ebal, from the end of the 50s. The article draws a comparison with the end of this period and the language employed by artists to tell the history of Brazil influenced by the historical moment that they experienced. Using as a basis for thinking the sight of Mikhail Bakhtin, Pierre Bourdieu, Marc Ferro and Joseph Luyten, we draw a line that shows the influence of different cultures in order 2 narrative, creating a hybrid language in contrast to the strong patriotic appeal of political parties seeking a national unity. Juscelino Kubitschek, Quadros, J oão Goulart, the coup of 1964, resulting in a process which modifies the form of comic artists interpret Brazil. The review proposes to show how we were express ions before the military coup, so we can understand the positioning of the cultu ral industry which is part of the comic this time. Keywords: Comics, History, mi litary coup, Epic, hybrid language. Abstract The goal of this paper is to Have an analysis of the interpretation of the count ry and Its History Through Out the view of the tracer and scriptwriter of the co mics "Epic," Ebal Editor, from the end of the 50's. The paper draws a comparison Between the end of this historical period "and the language Used by the artists to tell Brazil's History influenced by the historical period" They Were living in. Using the base of the though the vision of Mikhail Bakhtin, Pierre Bourdieu, Marc Ferro and Joseph Luyten, we draw the line That shows the Influence of Diff erent Cultures on the narrative form, Creating an hybrid language in Opposition proud of the strong person call Which of the political parties Were searching th e national unit. Juscelino Kubitschek, Quadros, João Goulart, the blow of 1964, and result in a Process That modifies the way the artists read comics Brazil. Th e AIMS analysis to show how we express ourselves before the military blow, in or der to Understand the position of the cultural industry in Which Was part of the comics on the moment. Key Words: Comics, History, Military Blow, "Epic" hybrid language. 3 Introduction The late 1950s in Brazil has brought a number of modifications sensitive to people's daily lives. To begin the megalomaniac dream of President Juscelino Kubitschek of building in the center of the country's capital was the car chief all this change. In his program targets the phrase "next 50 years by 5" country ends up embracing the ideology of modernity, progress at all costs. This way of thinking spreads and see guardhouse in the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeir o, where the cultural and industrial unrest is apparently larger. Volkswagen, Fo rd, Scania-Vabis, Mercedes and many other industries settle in Brazil. Are U.S. $ 2.180 billion of foreign investment, where only the auto industry has built mo re than 321 000 vehicles between 1955 and 1961, this would mean a 90% increase i

n the target range. The word "new" is on everyone's lips from north to south, as she labels exactly the spirit of the season. In 1955 the director Nelson Pereir a dos Santos uses the movie "Rio 40 Degrees," giving the game "New Cinema". In S ao Paulo the "Manifesto of Concrete," devised by Decius Pgnatari and the brother s Augusto and Haroldo Campos, is proposing nothing less than a poetry of export. In the theater, renewal movements such as workshop groups and Arena put on stag e scenic radical proposals. The Higher Institute of Brazilian Studies (ISEB), in tellectuals formulate a program of national modernization from an analysis of Br azil grounded in the opposition between old and new society. It lives in all 4 land, the awareness of this passage, triggering not only hopes but also of wides pread euphoria. Some said that in those golden years there was none, chatting wi th friends by telephone, not listen, too, tlintlim ice cup uísque.1 This aspect of Brazilian society of this period combined with new media that gripped the cou ntry, Television has transformed the image, the visual appeal, the focus of atte ntion of the population. A language different from earlier decades were loosenin g.€This search for identity stirred questions in the area in sociological and pu blic opinion. We were in the Cold War, Cuba sees emerging civil war and revoluti on, the U.S. exports its culture through movies, tv, music and comics. Young peo ple are the main focus of this conflict of ideologies. Amid this turmoil comes t he Brazil-America Publishing Limited, or just Ebal, founded by Adolfo Aizen. Bor n in Juazeiro, Bahia, in 1907, he moved to Rio de Janeiro with 15 years of age. In 1945 he founded the magazine publisher with The Hero. Aizen addition to publi shing in Brazil characters in American comics, opened space for designers throug h national Wonderful Editions series (later published as Illustrated Classics), Great Figures of Brazil History of Brazil and Epic. These magazines were a respo nse to Aizen criticisms that were being made about the comics. Sociologists and scholars put the comic as the one responsible for delinquency juvenil2 in this w ay the editor wanted to show that we could participate in the cultural life of t he country positively. February 1 "São Paulo, 110 years of industrialization," the Three Editorial, 1992 "For a lo ng time comic strips were taken and subliteratura viewed as detrimental to the i ntellectual development of children. Sociologists pointed them out as a major ca use of juvenile delinquency. "From the book" Boom! The explosion of the comics c riticism "of the teacher Moacy Cirne. 5 The artistic language of the 50s C ow cited Brazil lived a moment of agitation in various areas, and this could be noted explicitly in the artistic and cultural sector. Marc Ferro tells us the to ols to control the past and legitimize the domination and rebellion are: movies, television, books and comics. Brazilian cinema gave an important st ep in seeking a realistic language in the New Cinema of Nelson Pereira dos Santo s. The country wanted to modernity, or so they thought of the great centers. We do not fell the most popular movies of Atlantis and Vera Cruz. Those were times of neo-realism and the embryo of this thinking was no doubt this movie. It was a reflection of the Brazilian intelligentsia. Besides movies, the theater was a v ery important factor for this new awareness of Brazilianness. Guarnieri, Oduvald o Vianna Filho, Augusto Boal who searched the pieces such as "They Do not Wear B lack-Tie," show the truth of everyday workers. Search for an authentic style and

Brazilian goal was also the theater. In painting, the great name was Portinari. Her paintings reflect aspects of Brazilian culture, such as temporary rural wor kers. In literature, Joao Cabral de Melo Neto and Guimaraes Rosa gave voice to t he hinterland and the constructivist literature. Modernism reborn in 1922 at the turn of the 50 to 60. Pignatari, Haroldo and Augusto de Campos's poetry sought through international exposure to Brazilian culture, but rather it sought a "Bra zilian culture". Comics, as mass art, were not far from this participation in th e Brazilian scene. But how could this sort of mass art? Would this same comic ac ting as mass art? According to the definition of Pope Pius XII in his Christmas Radio Message of 1944, "people is formed by individuals who move through the act ive ingredients. He said the people, is active consciously act according to cert ain fundamental ideas, which stem from defined positions on the various situatio ns. Already mass, in contrast, is just 6 amalgamation of individuals who do not move, but are driven by passions. The mas s is always and necessarily passive. She does not act rationally on their accoun t, but it feeds on enthusiasm and ideas not stable. It is always a slave of the influences of the most unstable, and the whims of fashions that are "3. The comi cs of Aizen wanted to show another possibility as mass art that is not a cultura l byproduct. Professor Cirne in his book "Boom! The explosion of the creative co mic "shows us that the comic Brazilians always raised significant questions of c ulture, society and behavior. 3 Professor of History of Usp, Orlando Fedeli, president of Associação Cultural Mo ntfort, quoting Pope Pius XII, Radio Message on Christmas 1944, the site www.mon 7 Epic and its role in the comic scene in Brazil E sta magazine was undoubtedly the main tool for Aizen to try to reverse the cultu ral status of comics. Admittedly, the other series published Ebal for this purpo se, as is the case of the comic series Sacred responsible for counting the Biographies of Saints of the Catholic Church. It would be a common strategy in a Catholic country like ours,€For this reason we can not stop thinking that all r eleases of the publisher were well planned. Epic No. 47 in the magazine, publish ed in June 1956, we see a story in the second layer on the visit by the new Mini ster of Education Dr. Clovis Salgado. The article says: "In the last days of Mar ch, Editora Brazil-America was pleased to live for a few hours with the Minister of Education, Dr. Clovis Salgado. Had S. Eg the opportunity to visit all the wo rkrooms of the Magic Kingdom of Comics, where he stayed in a lecture at length w ith many of our employees, collecting direct source in the necessary information . " In this photo we see S. Eg when leafing through "Science Comics, one of this Publisher publications for all ages. On that occasion, our Director has had occ asion to hear the Minister Clovis Salgado words of praise for the work we perfor m and the head of the Ministry of the Government of President Juscelino Kubitsch ek considers "high 8 future for education of the people. "

4 For this article we realize how important assumes that this type of publication, not the publisher but also to the Ministr y of Education of Brazil, Adolfo Aizen wanted or so we thought. In the same maga zine we read other materials that give us this statement. One says: "Mr Ranieri Mazzili lunch in our company (title). Figure of the most exponential in Brazilia n culture, Mr Ranieri Mazzili here arises when one of canicular days last March, had lunch in our Company, together with the Canon Antonio de Paula Dutra. After lunch held in the greatest intimacy, as is usual for lunch quartaferinos this H ouse, Mr Ranieri Mazzili toured all our facilities, welcoming environment for th e healthy direction of work found here. " In the photo of this matter we can see the MP, Aizen and Canon, showing a clear idea of cordiality between the three. For we have there a way to formalize the novelization of Ebal, and present the p olitical and religious, a factor cited in the text by Marc Ferro. The author pro poses that are the dominant powers, the State and the Church, political parties or private interests that own or finance books or comic books, movies and televi sion programs, forces that can control the story and therefore legitimate -CL.5 But we would be frivolous to judge the position of Aizen this moment in history, after all the country and the world were experiencing serious social changes, b ut mainly ideological. In the U.S., leading provider of this kind of artistic ex pression, began to "witch hunt of Senator Joseph McCarthy on communists artists. Compared to other comics Senator, Robert C. Hendrickson, based on the theories of the book "The Seduction of the Innocent", the German doctor Frederic Wertham, tried to censor all the magazines that he believed to contain terror, violence, sex, prejudice and ideologies comunistas.6 May 4 Epic Magazine number 47, editor Ebal, 1956. Marc Ferro, "The Manipulation of His tory in Education and Media", publisher IBRASA, 1999. 6 gubernias Román, "Litera ry Image," Salvat Editores, 1979. 9 The publisher tried to depart from Brazil in this way the specter of censorship of comics artists who were suffering Americans. We can note this concern also ap pears in the magazine Epic No. 47, talks about the publications of comics in the United States. The text says: "What sayeth our other magazines ... The hero of this month published its second cover the news that the United States, where edu cational methods have already reached the maximum development, the comics are ga ining acceptance among high schools. Various theses on this subject have been pr epared by professors from prestigious Carver School, North Carolina and one of t hem recommends the comic to the enrichment of the curriculum. "This certainly wa s a different strategy to put Aizen comics as an integral important in the forma tion of Brazilian culture, the dissemination of targeted topics relevant to comi cs. We can perceive these attitudes manipulation of rhetoric. 10 The appropriation of language and aesthetics C s we noted, the magazine Epic sought approval in several ways. An attempt to fra me the national model, a form of cultural reference for those seeking history. The covers of the magazine were often hand painted by artist Antonio Eusebio and

cover could always find a reproduction of a famous Brazilian artist or importanc e to art history in the country.€But the interior of the magazines was not alway s done by national artists, but one more part of the production of Epic and was well applied, it was Gutenberg Monteiro. He, along with some elected Aizen, crea ted a school, a Brazilian style of comics in that period. At that time many arti sts had a similarity in the trait, because they sought inspiration in the work p ublished in the United States. André Le Blanc, Nico Rosso, Wash. Ivan Rodriguez, Eugenio colonies, forming the production line of Ebal and influenced by the Nor th American market. If we compare the work published in Sergeant Rock, also from Ebal, designed by American Joe Kubert, we see the similarity in the traces of s everal Brazilians. This American artist began as an assistant in the studio of W ill Eisner, creator of the character "Spirit" at 12 years of age. At that time, Eisner had a studio project of making stories for the U.S. Army, and Kubert embr aced this idea as well. He was responsible for several titles and textbooks on h istorical forces 11 Armed. Kubert has a mix of influences, from creator Alex Raymond's "Flash Gordon " and the very Eisner.7 The design of this artist plays with shadows and light, using crosshatching to create plots, but not the middle tones of gray, this is a lso a characteristic of Eisner. Alex Raymond in the care we can see visually nar rate the story, the film frame. In decision making and angles used in stories li ke "The withdrawal of Laguna" published in August Epic No. 42 of 1956, we can se e a framework similar to Kubert, but the trait itself is quite different. Gutenb erg Monteiro responsible for this adaptation, seeking a national aesthetic, sear ching for faces that remind Latinos, but in some moments, his design was somewha t ridiculous. This in no way discredit his work, only denotes the effort to mark well the differences. These works were well appreciated by publisher Ebal. In e ach magazine we found we could see a Brazilian designer "designs national ...". This was a way to draw national attention to the comic, as in the work usually d one by foreigners could not find the credits. As we can see, there by the artist s a search of modernity, with what was successful in so-called first world count ries and in the case of comics, the U.S. was the reference. But what about the w ritten language, which the speech? Was this a speech integrated this idea of mod ernity as well as in painting, cinema, literature and theater? Apparently not. A s Bakhtin in his book Marxism and the Philosophy of Language: "In the realm of s igns, ie in the ideological sphere, there are profound differences, because this sector is at the same time, the representation of religious symbol, the scienti fic formula and legal form, etc.. Every creative field has its own ideological o rientation mode 7 Interview with Brazilian Octavio Cariello, professor at the Joe Kubert School of New York to the site 8 Epic Magazine # 42, publisher Ebal , 1956. 12 refracts to reality and the reality in their own way. Each field has its functio n in the whole of social life. Is your character semiotic that puts all ideologi cal phenomena under the same general definition. " 9 The text not found in Epic consistent with the sphere of change that was in the artistic field. His speech is well integrated into the State, consistent only with the ideological pursuit of stability in relation to the official story that it was seeking at that momen t. Although the magazine Epic No. 42, which speaks of the war with Paraguay, on

page 4 has the text of the 4th and 5th frames that say respectively: "In all Bra zilian cities to revolt was the same" and "A wave of outrage galvanized througho ut Brazil. It was not possible to leave unanswered so much insult, such indignit y. And everything was improvised. Criaramse Volunteer battalions of the Fatherla nd. Big cities in coastal villages to the modest interior, the heart beat Brazil in a single bar. And they all had to answer the call of the Fatherland. " Actua lly what we had in history was an active participation of the population of the South. The other states providing troops in the form of slaves seeking manumissi on or people seeking office without pay by the promise of a better life. Many we re deserted in the middle of caminho.10 The war with Paraguay was one of the his torical episodes Brazilians who created the idea of nation.€The newspapers of th e country tried to put to all the people that the conflict was an "insult" the h onor of Brazilians, thus creating a link between the regions that did not exist. The link between this idea of creating the concept of nation from the war of Pa raguay and this time the late 50s, is very clear. At that moment, in war, the st atement created a physical enemy, already in the 50s the enemy was invisible, bu t present. The idea of nation, with clear and solid cultural aspects, was the gr eat goal of artists and intellectuals, a battle that was fought with different w eapons and more visions of what would be the reality of Brazilian culture. A cul ture based on popular, as explained by Professor Dr Joseph Luyten: "Brazil is a good example of historic 9 10 Mikhail Bakhtin, Marxism and Philosophy of Language "Annablume Publishing, 1999. "The Paraguayan War" by Julius Joseph Chiavenato, Attica Publishing, 1999. 13 chronic deficiency of communication systems: from its discovery until 1808, no r egular press in the country. Much of the existing books had hampered their movem ent. Only in 1808 with the arrival of D. John VI, we have newspapers and printed forms. Our oldest university, USP, turned 50 in 1984. The most optimistic figur es put the illiteracy by 20%, but nobody bothers to check the content of educati on in the remaining 80%. In short, there was always a small elite active but a g reat deal of people remained perennially on the sidelines and, what is worse, he was deprived of the benefits of progress, "says a .11 Bakthins ideological crea tivity refracts reality, as that moment is necessary for the comic was to keep a way from possible failures of the state and society. It is worth remembering onc e again that economic growth and the ideology of modernity meant that the majori ty of Brazilians believe in the goals of government, not leaving much room for d isputes and even quoting Pierre Bourdieu: "... the free play of laws cultural tr ansmission makes the cultural capital back into the hands of cultural capital an d, therefore, is reproduced the structure of distribution of cultural capital am ong social classes, ie, the distribution structure of the instruments of appropr iation of symbolic goods that a social formation selects as worthy of being desi red and possessed ".12 What Adolfo Aizen wanted was nothing more than legitimate form of artistic expression, as well as other staff of the Brazilian culture. December 11 "Popular Communication Systems", Joseph M. Luyten, publisher Attica, 1988. "Econ omy of symbolic exchanges," Pierre Bourdieu, Perspective Publishing, 2001. 14 Bibliography Bakhtin, Mikhail. Max and the Philosophy of Language. São Paulo, SP. Publisher A nnablume. 1999. BORDIEU, Pierre. Economy of symbolic exchanges. São Paulo, SP. E

ditora Perspectiva. 2001. CHIAVENATO, Julius Joseph The Paraguayan War. São Paul o, SP. Publisher Attica. 1999. CIRNE, Moacy. Boom! The creative explosion of com ics. Petrópolis, RJ. Editora Vozes. 1970. FERRO, Marc. The history of handling e ducation and the media. São Paulo, SP. Publisher IBRASA. 1999. GURBEN, Román. Im age literature. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Salvat Editora. 1979. LUYTEN, Joseph Maria. Popular Communication Systems. São Paulo, SP. 1988. 15