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to this theorem Prof. A. C. Barriga Thales Theorem Some data Born: around the year 640 BC in Miletus, Asia Minor (now Turkey) Thale s was a man who excelled in several areas: trader, working in engineering, astro nomer, geometer Thales was considered one of the Seven Sages of Greece Excel in particular to: Geometric theorems that appear in the early concept demonstration and one might say that is the starting point in the process of rational organization of mathem atics. An anecdote told by Plato â ¢ Thales was watching the night sky and stumbled. A se rvant it up and said: how to pretend to understand what happens in heaven, if yo u can not see what's at your feet. It is said that comparing the shadow of a stick and the shadow of the pyramids, Thales measured by similarity, their respective heights. The proportionality bet ween the segments that determine the parallel lines in other lines gave rise to what is now known as Thales' theorem. Since the sun's rays affect the Earth parallel on right triangles determined by the height of the pyramid sun and its shadow and that determined by the height o f his stick and are similar We can therefore establish the proportion S H = h. Hence H = h â ¢ S sh (height rod) s (shadow) H (height of the pyramid) Pyramid (Shadow) S Now the famous theorem "If three or more parallel lines are intersected by two transverse cross section s of the determined by the parallel proportional In the drawing: If L1 / / L2 / / L3 , T and S transverse segments a, b, c and d are proportional words: a = c bd OK? B T S c d L1 L2 L3 An example: Figure L1 / / L2 / / L3, T and S cross-estimated the extent of the s troke x L1 sort the data in proportion, according to the theorem of Thales S wor ds: T L2 L3 x 15 8 X 24 = 15

August 1924 And solve the ratio x = 24 â ¢ 8 â ¢ 15 X = 8 â ¢ 15 24 Easy X = 5 Another example: in Figure L1 / / L2 / / L3, T and S are transverse, xy calculat es the stroke CD We formed the ratio L2 L3 D x T x +1 +4 C 3 2 = x +4 x +1 L1 Resolve the proportion 3 (x + 1) = 2 (x + 4) 3x + 3 = 2x + 8 3x - 2x = 8-3 X = 5 S Then, as CD = x + 4 3 2 CD = 5 + 4 = 9 Again thinking of the pyramid ... .. TRIANGLES OF THALES Two triangles are said of Thales or are in the position of Thales, that: They ha ve a common angle and the angle opposite sides are parallel. We can see this if we move the triangle formed by the cane, its shadow and sunlight to the pyramid formed by the H (height of the pyramid h (height rod) s (shadow) S (Shadow) Thales' triangles Thales In two triangles, their sides have the same ratio of similarity According to this, in Figure BC / / ED, then, with the sides of the triangles AE D and ABC occurs: ED = AE AB BC Or ED AE = AB BA BC thus making the strokes, is called double L "CDA E Applications of this idea Calculate the height of the building following the proportion Why write 3 +12 = March 15, 1915 = x 5 and solve the proportion 3 â ¢ x = 5 â ¢ 15 x = 75 3 X = 25 3 1 2 5 x Another exercise In the triangle ABC, DE / / BC, compute x and the line AE August 1912 We are the ratio X = 2x +3 +3 +3 Because x + x = 2x +3 C

Resolve the ratio 8 (2x + 3) = 12 (x + 3) 16x + 24 = 12x + 36 16x - 12x = 36-24 4x = 12 X = 12 = 3 4 D 8 12 A x +3 E x B Therefore, if AE = x + 3 = 3 + 3 = 6 I would appreciate to send me contributions or comments that may help improve th e material for other students. A. C. Barriga

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