Comics The comic is one of the most expressive of contemporary culture at the end of th e last century acquired a weight

and aesthetic and expressive autonomy. His rela tionship with the mass-media (mass media) is one of the most privileged places i n the press. Historically we see history as the presence of figurative images, w hich were used to develop a story, pictures, manual and motionless, never multip le. Metz (Christian Metz, theorist and scholar of film) puts the comic in a spac e relationship with painting and figurative art with traditional film and photo (through multiple reproducibility of a given specimen) and the painting and phot ography (through a droop of his images). The comic provides links to the cinema to the extent that is generally made up of vignettes that relate to each other t hrough operations that keep a contact. Visual Communication and Visual Perception The human animal is a primarily visual, in fact, primitive means of communicatio n of the first groups of people was the image, the petroglyphs and pictographs w ere witness to this, they evolved into what today is known as the alphabet in th e West. Its importance is demonstrated by the many myths created by ancient civi lizations that refer to the view, these myths realize the power attributed to th e vision for all time. This is because the eye is the sensory organ that receive s as much information compared to any other sense, so much so that the informati on must be selected, simplified and processed before being transmitted to the br ain, which is why eye trajectories in the exploration of an image, are rarely ac cidental, the course is closely connected to motor activity. The physiology of t he eye unit, along with receiving capacity of the brain, influencing how they ar e decoded basic visual stimuli (shape, color and texture), then processed in sem iotic systems. The basic principles of the Gestalt school of psychology, devoted to the study of perception, indicate that the eye perceives in wholes or groups with any immediacy, avoiding the more effort, so, it is not a purely sensory bu t is an act of intelligence. In addition to the biological interpretation of eac h image is determined by individual experience, memory and finally the context, which gives very specific meanings that are not arbitrary but as in the language , relate to culturally established conventions, which allow to speak of a visual language consisting of signs. It is from this that what Donis Dondis born (in t he book the syntax of the picture) called visual literacy, which is eventually e stablished a series of structures as cultural needs, which have the property mai ntained over time, but not why are rigid and infallible (which do not occur in a ll cases), but are subject to change: The role of the sign is to communicate ide as through messages. This operation involves an object, a thing that is spoken o r referent, and thus signs a code, a transmission medium and, of course, a sende r and a receiver. (Giraud). The sign is a stimulus that causes the mental image evocative subject, which is related to another (related) by similarity or cultur al convention, making it as visual communication occurs. Peirce classifies signs according to the link having the reference in: symbols, icons and indexes. The symbols are related to its referent by convention and cultural experience. The i cons are similar to the stimulus that evoke, while rates have a physical connect ion to the object denoted. However, in the decoding of the sign, the relationshi p between signifier and signified is always going to be subject to conventions. Signif Icade Comics: narrative structure consisting of a sequence of pictograms likely to inc lude within it elements of phonetic writing. In the present structural comic is a multiplicity of codes (visual iconic, linguistic-verbal), with their interacti on, build the specific expressive comic. The comics are narratives with pictures , reproduced in series and placed on separate albums, or inserted into strips or pages in the newspapers. The comic, like the poster, is a media-icon Escript bu t structured in consecutive images (cartoons), representing sequential stages of

a story or action,€and which often include an element of phonetic writing. The names you get are different from country to country: USA comics or funnies, "ban des desined" or BD in France; quadrinhos gibi or in Brazil, cartoons or comics i n Spain. And manga in Japan. Are named "comics" or "funnies" to the content of t he first, as derived from the graphic joke or cartoon. They image is more import ant than the text, as there may be no words but not pictures. 2 Comics Therefore, humans have developed visual communication techniques based on manipu lation of signs for encoding and decoding messages according to a prior intent. Such techniques are tools that facilitate the uptake composition of the message, because "the content of visual communication is never separated from the form" (Dondis), and each works for a specific format or medium, adapting to it, since code that the function (sign) is closely related with the environment that susta ins it. When building an image are general guidelines governing the syntax visua l perception, these are basic elements that all human beings can learn and under stand. In the process involves visual and kinesthetic perceptual forces, it is n atural responses such as orientation, how to stand, balance, reaction to light o r darkness among others. To play with these conventional behavior there is what Dondis (1987: 28) calls the "toolbox" of all visual communications, these are th e basic elements of the composition of any visual message: the point as the mini mum unit vision, the line is the fluid and indefatigable articulating the shape, contour (circle, square and triangle), address, color, texture, dimension and m ovement. According to the design purpose of the message handling all these eleme nts into consideration changing and changing in order, one of the most widely us ed visual techniques is the contrast in direct opposition with another technique known as harmony, and you two come from others As opposition such as exaggerati on and the reluctance, spontaneity and predictability, the focus and the neutral ity, asymmetry and symmetry, and balance instability, among others. The cartoon and comics are image vehicles, ways of iconic representation that symbolize a re al or imaginary referent through structures that give very specific communicativ e potential. Hence, the media escriptoicónico par excellence: The cartoon is stated in those parts of its indeterminacy and its mixture as a genre hybrid of narrative and gr aphics, is the purity of the point of maximum contamination, words are pictures drawings that were previously loaded words and textual weight yet. So the comic studies have sought, where before there was nothing but adventure and humor, cod es and symbolic systems, like a separate language. At the time you read a vignet te, the former becomes the past and is sensed as a future post. The sequencing i s clearly dominant in the comic. The line marking between temporal progression, the reading frame is indicated by the left-right tracking, coordinated with the reading of up-down as complementary. This vector is called reading. In the West there is a convention comics reading from left to right, while the East is read from right to left. Significant units As in any narrative structure, the comics are analyzed in a number of units endo wed with meaning. Gubern Roman is a Spanish scholar, President of the Spanish As sociation of Film Historians, professor, member of several academies and directo r, is also a researcher, has won awards and written several books, which are hig hlighted in this case "The language of comic books. "According Gubern can distin guish between various units: 1 .- macrounits significant. They refer to the tota lity of the aesthetic object and thus have a synthetic character. This category of publication structure adopted (comic page, half page, daily strip, etc), colo r, and the stylistic and graphics of the artist ... 2 .- Significant Units. Are the bullets or pictograms. 3 .- Microdrive significant. All the elements that de fine, compose and integrate into the bullet. In these micro-units would include framing, balloon, onomatopoeia and kinetic figures. This will explain a little m

ore closely. The iconic narration with still images: comics and caricature The image refers to a reality, represented through the construction of an implic it or explicit speech, which is mediated by its producer interests and experienc es of the recipient, has become the iconic image to represent also bears a relat ionship resemblance to its referent, which may be preserved in time and space to be transformed into a model of that reality. A succession of iconic images stil l can be a story, to the extent that they are linked by visual characteristics, symbolic, formal and content. Among the ways of telling stories through these im ages popularized by the mass culture are the comics and cartoon. The cartoon and caricature not only consist of images, but most times they are accompanied by w ritten elements of utilitarian character, making the sequencing of the narrative and give meaning to history. Units - The bullet: Since the comic is a structured communication system for still pic tures to be temporally related, space-time is defined by the bullet from the sel ection of significant moments in the story. The function of the bullet not only define each table where the action is, but his stroke is significant in the stor y, that is, gives clues to the story depending on its intensity, the continuatio n or not of the line and even Sometimes his disappearance, "(...) if the charact er dreams, the lines that define appear in a broken line, if the character point s out, the line will be more tenuous in relation to the intensity of the other, etc." (Arizmendi). 3 Comics The cartoon is one of the preconditions of any story, near the residence of at l east one character and linguistic articulation in the form of balloons and snack s. It distinguishes the bullet a continent and a content. Continent .- is formed usually by a series of lines that define the total space of the comic page. Inc lude three aspects of the continent of bullet: 1 .- The characteristics of the c onstituent lines, straight, curved, slightly wavy, etc. 2 .- The shape of the bu llet, the most common is rectangular, although there are square, triangular, etc . 3 .- Size of the bullet. Contents .- can be specified as iconic and verbal con tent. The iconic dimension can be studied in its substantive and adjective. The substantive means it represents and the adjective are features such as movement, expression derived from the iconic information. The verbal content can be divid ed as we have previously pointed out, contextual or transfer, balloons and onoma topoeia. - Figures: The iconic part of a bullet could be analyzed in figures (pe ople and objects) and scenes or background. Within this code gestural characters , which allows certain forms of expression relating to the characterization of s ome moods. Bremond classifies gestures in the comics in functional (those that a re made in similar fashion by any character that is in a given situation) and in dexical (that characterize the non-central characters). Is detectable in the pre sence of a comic series of iconic lines represent ideas or situations difficult to express in the static structure of comics. Kinetic figures are a special case expressing the illusion of motion, can be placed next to them expressing ideolo gical artifices moods, feelings, ideas and even non-verbal sound demonstrations. - The setting: two-dimensional definition that relates the surface of the paper on which space is drawn and figuratively represented. Taking as reference the h uman figure, we can distinguish various types of plane (foreground, middle groun d, the American plane, and space shot off). You can also apply angulation: angle chopped contrapicado, zenith and nadir. The Grand Floor Plan: describes the env ironment where the action takes place. In this type of plane the characters bare ly perceive, or are merged into the background. Also offers information on the c ontext where the action takes place. The General Plan: it has similar dimensions to the figure of the character, it falls from head to feet and provides informa tion on the context, although the

references to the environment are lower than in the previous case. The human fig ure takes center stage, especially in the emblems of physical action. The genera l plan is also called: entire plane or a group. American Plan: framing the human figure to the knees.€It is an intermediate level and serves to show the physica l actions of the characters and their facial features. The Map Detail: select a portion of the human figure or an object which otherwise would have gone unnotic ed. In some cartoons, a detail can occupy the whole image. The Plano East: cut t he space to the waist of the character. It features more action that the environ ment and, in turn, becomes important expression of the character. The Focus: Sel ect the area from the head to the shoulders of the figure. On leaving the expres sive features and we know the psychological, emotional, etc., The character. "Vi ewing Angles is the point of view from which to watch the action. The viewing an gle can give depth and volume to the bullet as well as feeling of greatness or s mallness from the point of view adopted. The choice of a flat or a viewing angle will produce certain expressive effects. In the normal viewing angle or the ave rage angle, the action occurs at eye level. In the viewing angle dive action is represented from top to bottom. This type of angle gives the feeling of smallnes s. In the angle of vision is represented contrapicado action from the bottom up. This type of angle gives the feeling of superiority. The zenith angle is the an gle absolute dive and offers a totally perpendicular to the reality. The nadir a ngle is the angle contrapicado all. -Format format is called the way of represen ting the frame on paper. The format can be rectangular (horizontal or vertical), circular, triangular, square, etc.. The format involves a very different choice of size. The relationship between space, the bullet and the actual time it take s to read it is very important to create the pace in the comic. - Virtual space: space in which elements are distributed at different distance from the axis to obtain a composition in depth. Internal composition of the bullet. The elements of the composition are the scenery and characters. Just as the shape is necessar y for objects to look real, it also needs the perspective that all credible mult iple objects. Perspective is the art of drawing three-dimensional objects in a t wo dimensional surface to recreate the depth and the relative position of object s. It is also the visual illusion, perceived by the observer, helps determine th e depth and location of objects at different distances. In the picture 4 Comics and other areas, the prospect simulate the depth and the effects of dimensional reduction and angular distortion, as we appreciate the naked eye. Within what is the space is the horizon line is the height which are the eye of the beholder. Ie height, within the drawing, which would meet our eyes if we were there watchi ng the scene. The vanishing point in a conical projection system, is the place w here all the lines parallel to one direction is a point at infinity. There are m any vanishing points and directions in space. The perspective with one vanishing point is one in which the lines converge at a single point. The perspective lin es that converge at two different points, both in the same horizon, is called pe rspective with two vanishing points. Significant microunits Specific conventions. Are unique to the comics but not essential for its express ion. - Balloon, Balloon or bubble enclosing the dialogues of the characters, the ir presence is of utmost importance as it defines the intervention of one or ano ther character, in addition to their position within the vignette sets the order of these interventions and therefore the joint time. To indicate that a balloon belonging to a particular character uses a sort of arrow pointing to it, and li ke the bullet, the line graph of the sandwich has several meanings. The shape of the globe will give the text different meanings: 1 .- The contour in the form o f clouds means words intended by the character. 2 .- The contour lined with tabl es shaking, trembling voice and expresses mean weakness, fear, cold, etc. 3 .- T he contour in the form of saw teeth, expresses a cry, irritation, pop, etc. 4 .-

The dashed contour indicates that the characters speak in a low voice to expres s secrets, secrets, etc. 5 .- When the yellowfin tuna bite marks a place outside the box indicates that the character speaking is not on the label. 6 .- The san dwich included in other snack breaks indicates that performs the character in hi s conversation. 7.- A series of balloons that surround the characters express fi ght, aggressive acts. 8 .- The balloon with several tails indicates that the tex t is spoken by more personal. - Typography. Customize the text by stylized graph ics more or less elaborate. The text used in comics to represent all kinds of so und has the following functions: - To extend the dialogue and thoughts of the ch aracters. - Entering information on the bulletin board support. - Evoking the so unds of reality through onomatopoeia "The Color: an element that plays an important role in the composition of the bu llet, page, etc.. The color can have different functions: figurative, aesthetic, psychological and significant. The meaning of color is not standardized and eac h situation can be combinations that lead to new interpretations. The same color can be used to mean different things. Many times the color disappears absorbed and treated as background against which change the figures. In the modern comic landscape comes to the fore and the characters are often a pretext for the deplo yment of an atmosphere. Many times, an arbitrary color code which emphasizes dra matic intentions of the author or simply aesthetic. Also in this area the comic has more degrees of freedom where photography or film, but linked, in principle, mimetic practices. Just to think of these cartoons cut the figures of the chara cters on a black or white, not a decoration but pilfering of the beach by color decor. - Metaphors viewed. Own graphic convention of comics that expresses an id ea through an image or the physical state of the characters through iconic metap horical signs. Example: question mark indicates perplexity. "The bracket and the cartridge The cartouche is the voice of the narrator. This text is part of the image, is located at the top of the label and its shape is rectangular. The cart ridge is a type of poster that serves as a link between two consecutive bullets. In this case the space is occupied by the bullet text. - Onomatopoeia. Phonemes with graphic value suggesting noise audible to the reader of an action or an an imal. It is an imitation of a sound and may be outside or inside the balloon. Wo rds such as Bang, Boom, Plash, etc. whose purpose is to highlight some nonverbal sound, but that is expressed by a verbalization of the noise by a kind of phone tic transcription of it. These are indicated on the surface of the bullet, witho ut being specific to a particular type of presentation. - Figures kinetics. They are graphic responses to the stationary nature of the still images that try to show a dynamic reality. -Assembly and continuity. The joint assembly and the sel ection of spaces and times within the cartoon gives rise to the story. Can easil y be traced back to the comic assembly practices similar to the film (and litera ture, from which both): linear or parallel assembly, for example. The comic show s a marked tendency to ellipses to omit transitions and the presence of situatio ns through issues and strongly essentialized singled. In recent years, through t he questioning of the bullet as the unit of expression, either through its explo sion and expansion to fill the entire page, or even surpassing, or through a 5 Comics fragmentation so thorough that you can put in question whether the reading order to generate new forms of assembly. The temporary connection between cartoons or groups of them hinges on the succession, which automatically implies the existe nce of a reading tour that superimposes a time of the apprehension of the narrat ive while the story itself. By common to all the comic narratives articulates a story time and narrative time. Therefore, the comic is a remarkable ionic compon ent expression and rewriting narrative, with a high degree of freedom, a good nu mber of significant features it shares with other iconic forms (painting, cinema ). According Gubern, comics have to have the following characteristics: 1-A sequ ence of consecutive bullets to articulate the story. 2-The prevalence of at leas t one stable character throughout the series. 3-Globe and snacks with utterances of the characters, which, although not essential, it is essential to elaborate

narratives. He also believes that the story in the comic or comic strip comes fr om human consciousness of temporality, based on: 1. The sequence of events in Fe bruary.€The duration of the events in March. The interval between the events fro m the above is the phenomenon of ellipsis, binding and insulation between them. The special comic book is that it allows to account for the changing weather mom ents on the whole while, but to confusion regarding their management: "On one pa ge we follow the story, yet look at the pages as a whole harmonic: the story is the narrative, but is also the story map. " (De Santis). In comics the story is expressed by drawings fixed sequence of vignettes, drawings and two-dimensional stationary. The temporal sequence is resolved by changing the space in the next frame. Between two bullets has been spending time, then we can speak of ellipses as in the movies. The ellipsis, also called hiatus is a way of articulating tim e. Is to remove or cut the unnecessary, may be indefinite as well, when it is un certain how much time passed and the viewer is helped by a title or clock. Suppo rting material and snacks, with the dialogues of the characters is central to th e narrative. In the West there is a convention comics reading from left to right , while the East is read from right to left. The comic used the simultaneous rep resentation of images and sound, before the advent of talkies. Translated into v erbal language symbols ("have a bright idea" or "see the stars", can be drawn). Includes onomatopoeia (imitation of a sound by word), kinetic lines to express t he movement and also the shape of the balloon and calligraphy acquired a symbolic value added (eg a cry will be drawn with huge le tters, incomprehensible dialogue can be drawn with vertical dashes). As for the components of both the comic as iconic of the cartoon, used codes of symbolic co des: of conduct, etiquette, gestures, of clothing, scenic, action indicators, am ong many others that have become conventions from use, repetition and social exp erience. The comic is indebted to the cartoon in format, yet these terms should not be confused and used indiscriminately, as it does not refer to the same. The cartoon preferably (though not by law), captures an instant of time and space t hat contains the complexity of the message, there is a sequence of images as in the comic, but rather an abstraction of the idea, there is no room for Details: (...) the cartoon image is connoted by definition (...) By ridiculed distortion, caricature is the significant figure and become stylistic mark of the narrative genre parody. (Gubern, 1987: 215) Contents: The contents are varied: some cast a critical eye on the usual routine s of family environment, presenting situations where the reader recognizes. Many family members read, first of all newspaper comic strips and some only that, th e comics are popular and can help increase newspaper sales. Some comic adventure s included primitive dream, in the case of "Little Nemo", contemporary with the investigations of Freud's subconscious, whose book "The Interpretation of Dreams ," appeared in 1901. Also in the late twentieth century are drawn sometimes drea m scenes ("Valentina" by Guido Crepax and "If I were a man" of Julie Doucet, for example). Their study has attracted the attention of artists like Picasso, film makers like Fellini and several intellectuals (Roman Gubern, Umberto Eco, Javier Coma, among others). Cartoon Studies have sought it codes and symbolic systems like a separate language. The comic can be considered art is varied and complex. Includes creativity and beauty and also quite vulgar, the scripts often lack of interest, some even on the sole pretext of drawing beautiful bodies of young wo men in sexy outfits more imaginative or suggestive. Often accompanying text is a lmost illegible typography or too large, it is difficult to synthesize and only a few succeed. But playing to find the rare pearl is worth and why this medium h as real specialists, and devoted fans. There are authors as great novel findings with both formal and literary. Some arguments or situations are original or spa rkling and downright fun. The authors recreate in any text and images 6 Comics motive that inspires, from their dreams or fantasies to literary works and of co

urse, the real world.€It is therefore not surprising that portray the unjust ine quality between races, classes and genders and violence against the weak or wome n. The comic has influenced the pop-art and in film, yet is permeated by what ha ppens in art, cinema, literature and even on television. Artists like Warhol and Lichtenstein own bullets rise of comics in the category of pictorial, using tex t balloons and patterns of dots (or points "bendei") the graphics industry. Anot her artist influenced by the comic and erotic Japanese naturalist is Hajime Sora yama. According to writer De Santis, who has published books of criticism, comic s can bring on a sheet of paper all the trends of his time. The comic is often l iable for the cinema, some actors recreating famous characters and environments, frames the cartoons, costumes and scripts of adventures inspired by the movies. Many (Superman, Spiderman, Asterix eg.) Have been brought to the screen, and fi lm pays homage or copies thereof sets and costumes. You can cite as examples the films Blade Runner, Delicatessen, Mutant Action or The Fifth Element, reminisce nt of the sinister cities of the future (with various levels and labyrinthine pi pes), or remember the fabulous scenery designed and drawn by Moebius. Also some Quentin Tarantino films seem inspired by the comic "Sin City" by Frank Miller. A dvertising also uses characters from famous cartoons. The cartoon is a vehicle f or transmitting male and female stereotypes. Makes easy reading accessible for a ll audiences, making them significant in socializing, hence its political import ance. The comics are used in political propaganda and primary education: in its early stages and were used to support early childhood education and the differen tiation of social roles of children and girls in Spain, comics for children and youth during civil war and the postwar half were more than ideological propagand a of the press azulcatólica. Known in the case of "Arrows and Pelayos" extolling patriotic values and recreated the glorious Spanish empire. The targeting girls completed the educational pressure to make a Spanish woman to be pious, docile, selfless whose main destination was unique and sacred family and marriage. The cartoon uses irony and parody and the reader is directed to adults rather than c hildren. Styles: The comics can be classified into different types or genres. Ac cording to that target audience will be children or adults. Depending on the con tent or the type of story they tell, categorized them into satirical, comic, pol itical, epic, war, Indians or westerns, futuristic, police, romance, erotic, por nographic etc.. The reader recognizes the content at a glance the graphic style used. The realistic drawing is used in the adventure or erotic cartoon or comic drawing on the satiric or political. For some children were published in landsca pe long adventures, each about 20 pages number offered a piece of history and left the reader in suspense with the word continue, so had to buy the next. The prota gonist was a brave and handsome man with a passionate love usually impossible to perform, or with a girlfriend to fool had to be saved from dangers. Also for th e children were the superhero adventure or exotic or warrior (deeds of war, bomb ers flying air heroes of the Second World War for instance). For the girls were published in landscape that sometimes in the 60s included a picture of beautiful and famous actors. These were cloying, sentimental, roses (with stories of fair ies and princes, which ended in marriage and / or social advancement of the prot agonist). Other obvious genres are black or gangsters, with patterns and styles debtors of the novel and film black with realistic drawings of lumpen characters and seedy urban environments. The comic erotic or pornographic. The simple comi c or philosophical, with very simple drawing without shading and with repeated i mages of the character in the same body posture such as "Peanuts" by Charles Sch ulz, or Mafalda by Quino. Finally the comic holiday, or satirical cartoon, drawi ng non-naturalistic. History of the cartoon and comic There are several factors that led to the emergence of the iconic stories with s till pictures, among them: the proliferation of new modes of perception and inst antaneous dynamic images with new language that allowed to express ideas,€sugges tions and untreatable situations through other means and the emergence of numero

us technologies multiplication of images used by the culture industry able to re produce and disseminate messages on a large scale. In the nineteenth century the development of iconic reproduction techniques (etching), democratized and snatc hed the domain images of the Catholic Church. Among the background of the cartoo n can be seen the cave paintings, drawings of pre-Columbian civilizations, the s tories of Egyptian papyri and Greek pottery. The cartoon, as it is known today, emerged in Italy in the city of Bologna in the late sixteenth century in the art school of the Carracci family, the students made drawings of animal visitors lo oking for fun. This tradition spread rapidly throughout the country, however, th ese portraits were rarely malicious. A mid-eighteenth century began a caricature of social and political critique of widely distributed in England and France. T hanks to the developments mentioned above, among which is the lithography, were born in Europe and North America, the first illustrated satirical newspapers: Le Caricature, 1830 French newspaper, in England, 1841 Punch, Fliegende Blätter (1 844) in Germany and the United States, Harper `s Weekly (1857). The weekly Punch 7 Comics had a great worldwide recognition in the field of caricature, he satirized the c ustoms of English high society and events of national and international policy. From the consolidation of the cartoon, there were more specialized accounts whic h were called by the field that were the humorous, comics or funnies. There is n o consensus on the specific appearance of the comic, so you can say that birth h ad a parallel between Europe and the U.S.. According to Claude Moliterni, "the c omic first appeared in Germany in the late nineteenth century. The great classic of comics in that country is called Max und Moritz, Wilhelm Busch. " In turn, s everal authors claim that the comic was born in the United States within the new spaper industry in 1896, when it was created by the hand of Richard Felton Outca ult, the famous Yellow Kid character, which according to Gubern (1973) is the fi rst featuring three main features associated with this format. However, it is im portant to note that Yellow Kid at first consisted of a single cartoon that show ed a single scene, but Hearst, who was president of the New York Journal which w as published this character Outcault asked to become unique in that cartoon a st rip of images to form a sequence, so that we can say that the intellectual autho r of the comic book format belongs to the employer Hearst. Thus, journalism and publishing industry, with its complex organization and its long runs, they appea r as the support that has made the comics and photo novels about mass media of g reat sociological interest. (Gubern). Then came a period of experimentation occu rred for the first time in the Sunday strip appeared: Happy Hooligan, Frederick Burr, Buster Brown, Outcault, the renowned Krazy Kat, George Herriman, and espec ially Little Nemo in Slumberland, Windsor McCay, 1905. The latter, marks a patte rn in the history of comics, and that from its protagonist, the little boy Nemo, it is an effective social criticism that goes almost unnoticed by the naivete o f the character and the action taken primarily from the dreams of it, so the aut hor can identify emotionally to the public with his story and reduce social prob lems to a child dimension while diminishing the impact of content through the at mosphere of the dream. Arizmendi (1975) states that Nemo's world is a reflection of that society comfortable, with a protagonist who can not or will not deal wi th reality, however, another character Flip Flap, is there to remind you that th e avoidance is not possible , through his strange hat that tells Nemo: "Awake." Little Nemo comic brings to the exploration of dream world, and is the richest f antasy character ever created, according Gubern, dreams are clearly presurrealis tas. Due to the reiteration of the theme of the first comics, originally designe d for an audience of children, began a process of specialization in which you ca n see three main trends: kid strip (strips children), girl strip (strips of girl s) and family strip (strips relatives), these in turn are diversified in many ge nres. Some examples of these were: Bringing Up Father, Blondie, Popeye, Betty Bo p and Cinderella.€The golden age of comic books starting from the Second World War, th

anks to the variety of themes, the emergence of professional schools of artists, who used the tool of comics to tell stories and stories that put aside, but not completely, its jocularity. At this time come the first comic adventure with a graphic closer to reality: Tarzan (1939), by Edgar Rice Burroughs and Prince Val iant (1937) Harold Foster. During this decade, had emerged the famous play detec tive Dick Tracy (1931), Chester Gould, inspired by the crime wave caused by the Mafia and gangsters that lashed the United States. Thereafter implemented three kinds of adventure: exotic, science-fiction and police. In the science fiction g enre noted the serial Mandrake the Magician (1934), Lee Falk and Phil Davis. The growing popularity of the comic, which is established as a product of mass cult ure, makes ready to become independent of the newspaper and other media of infor mation that had been his support. In principle there is the publication of colle ctions of stories that begin to be sold on newsstands in 1929, known as The Funn ies, and become the antecedent of the comicbook, self supporting new stories. Th is change is crucial, since they ignore the pressures and interests of the press briefing on the comic, affecting the format and content of comics, since the bo ok allow the serialization of stories and histories and should not necessarily b e self-contained. Other reasons contributing to the creation of the comic book w as the proliferation of stories, the loss of aesthetics that gave the day, lack of space which reduced the size of bullets and the emergence of stories based on superheroes. One of the superhero comicbooks that arises at the time and remain s to this day is the well known DC (Detective Comics). The superheroes emerge as a catalyst for social aspirations, and who possessed supernatural abilities and powers. The dual identity of most of the players, who were both a common indivi dual as being almost perfect, contributed to the easy identification of readers with the new heroes. Such is the case of Superman (1938) by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, who opened a large legion of extraordinary characters, some of the fir st imitators and other widely accepted as Batman by Bob Kane and Bill Finger, Th e Human Torch Captain America, The Flash, among others. After the outbreak of Wo rld War II due to lack of resources significantly reduced the possible evolution of the comics, so that only those published in some way served the opposing for ces, then turned into something functional and ideologizing, is how come the com ics of a political and propaganda weapons, the most representative of the new st yle was Captain America (1941), written by Joe Simon and drawn by Jack Kirby. Ev en a comic futuristic as the famous Flash Gordon, revealed a political tinge in the struggle of the hero for democracy against the totalitarian dictatorship of the Emperor Ming. Comics 8 Superhero comics arise in response to the human need to escape the anonymity and uniformity through the creation of heroic myths. Post-crisis period there is a revival from new aesthetic, the contents become moralistic, and teaching for whi ch there is a return to the humorous, retreating superhero stories, epic themes and war. At this time arises a phenomenon within the strip kid, it's Peanuts (19 50) of Charles Schulz, with its well-made characters Snoopy, Charlie Brown, Pepp ermint Patty, Linus, Lucy and achieved a successful social criticism: The protag onists of the series (...) composed a microcosm in which were projected daily an xieties and neuroses of the adult world, always absent in the series, with the c ounterpoint of the indolent, skeptical and mythomaniac Snoopy dog with a critica l eye looking at the behavior and rights of the human condition. (Gubern, 1973:1 18) are other characters also emerged aimed at children: The Flintstones, Tom & Jerry and Yogi Bear Hanna-Barbera's duet. Parallel in Europe, after overcoming t he difficult years, the adventure series received a major boost, as many differe nt subgenres. In 1957, the Belgian imagination of Pierre Culliford, born a very blue elves known as The Smurfs. It also comes a character that will become the m ain reference French comic strip, a little Gallic warrior named Asterix (1959)€c omic written by René Goscinny and illustrated by Albert Uderzo. This story prese nts a situation similar to the books of chivalry, but skipping the "norm" of nob le character and beautiful, still, Asterix along with his inseparable companion

Obelix, is prepared to free the oppressed and defend justice, almost Romans alwa ys, the main enemies of the Gallic people. Asterix is an idealistic character, o ften collides with everyday life, customs and common mentality, but at the same time to match these. In the sixties the case in France the phenomenon of the her oines, beautiful women erotic fantasies aroused while deployed intelligence and strength. The first of this series was Barbarella in 1962, creation of Jean Clau de Forest, inspired by the archetype of Brigitte Bardot. With the success of Bar barella, Eric Losfeld are encouraged to edit Jodelle, written by Guy Peelle. Aes thetically these works were directly influenced by the pop art movement of art. As a response against the invasion of comics by superhumans emerge antihero, tha t indicate the need for stories with protagonists "common", these "do not try to build obviously a role model, but carry out the analysis, sometimes ruthless, t he crisis of contemporary society "(Arizmendi, 1975: 136). One of the quintessen tial comic book that follows this guideline is Andy Capp (1958), the British Reg Smythe, this part of the wave of stories that led, after the war, the rebirth o f graphic humor. In Latin America there has been a resurgence of comics, despite being monopolized by United States and Europe, and there is a hegemony led by Argentina, which was de voted to the production of cartoons on the continent since the thirties. The int ernationalization of Latin American comics due to its popular Quino Mafalda iron ic (1964), which has similar plot with Peanuts, critically both raised. However, active Mafalda of the problems of the world, "has to defend tooth and nail beca use it integrated its nonconformity would cease to exist" (Arizmendi, 1975: 155) , one rebellious and revolutionary, while the concern of Charlie Brown is a sear ch for personal understanding, a reflection of being decadent, alienated. Today a new generation of avant-garde: Guido Crepax, Phillipe Druillet, Shinji Nagashi ma, Alex Niño, Art Spiegelman and Alejandro Jodorovski, among many others, have created doubt comics adult graphic and literary quality. In the 90s has appeared in manga. It is of Japanese origin, from "disposable" to read on the subway. Ma nga is the Japanese word for the story. It translates literally as "whimsical pi ctures" or "scribbles" outside Japan, it is used exclusively to refer to Japanes e comics. The manga covers all genres and reaches all audiences, also encouragin g adaptations to different formats: cartoons, known as anime, movies and real im age, video games or novels. The most characteristic features are often based on the line over form, how to tell the story and how to place the panels that diffe r primarily in Western comics. Panels and pages are typically read from right to left like the Japanese traditional writing. While art can be very real for the mangaka (manga cartoonists) are often seen as the Western features big eyes. Lar ge eyes have become a permanent feature of manga and anime since the 1960s when Osamu Tezuka, creator of Astro Boy and considered the father of modern manga, st arted drawing in this way, imitating the style of Disney cartoons United States. and 9 Comics bibliog raf ed Index February 2 Meaning Comics Com. Visual Perception Visual and iconic narration wit h still images: The Comic and Cartoon units Microdrive units Significant Signifi cant History of the cartoon and comic De Santis, P (1988). The cartoon at the age of. reason, Barcelona, Editorial Pai dós. Dondis, D. (1976). The syntax of the image; Barcelona; EditorialGustavo Gil i. Gasca, L. and Gubern, R. (1988). The discourse of comics Madrid: Ediciones Cá tedra Gubern, R. (1987). The look opulent, Barcelona; Editorial Gustavo Gili. Gu bern, R. (1987). The computerized ape, Madrid, Editorial Eudeba Gubern, R. (2002

). Masks of fiction, Barcelona, Editorial SA Anagrama Zunzunegui, S. (1989) Thin king about the image, Madrid, Editorial Chair Stan Lee€John Buscema (2003) How t o Draw Comics the Marvel style .. Ediciones Martinez Roca. March 2 March 3 July 5 10 Bibliography df 10 Comics Anabella Barbalace, Dellepiane Natalia, Karina Figueroa, Jessica Montal, Valeria Serques