EXPERIMENTAL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EXPERIMENTAL SOUTH LAKE SOUTH LAKE "JESUS MARIA Semprum" COORDINATION OF AGRICULTURAL

EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION COORDINATION COORD INATION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ADDRESS EXTENSION EXTENSION DIRECTION Prop Propiiedades Botania ages ca Botan Uses Uses Recipes Handbook of Medicinal Plants 1 Handbook of Medicinal Plants Universidad Nacional Experimental Sur del Lago "Jesús Maria Semprum" Dr. Maria J. Parra Director of OPSU Dr. Gabriel De Santis UNESUR Rector Zoot. Renato Carruyo Secretary UNESUR Nelduby Mr. Gonzalez MsC. Agricultural Extension Coordination of Production and Performance Atty. Rafael Cardozo Chief (E) Extension UNESUR Erick J. Br Montiel R / Eng Albanio Alcántara Layout and Graphic Design Handbook of Medicinal Plants 2 Contents Page Foreword .............................................. .......... ........................................ ....................................... ........... General Criteria for Medicinal Plant Collection .................... ....................... ....................... Wormwood (Artemisia absynthium ) ............................................. .................................. ................ ................... Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... Calendula (Calendula officinalis ).................... ......................... .................................................. ... ........... Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus )................................... .......... .................................................. ................ P eppermint (Mentha sativa L. )........................................... ....... ........................................... ................ Lemongrass (Cymbopo gon citratus Stapf .)........................................... ............... ................................... ... Plantain (Plantago lanceolata )......... .................................... ........................................... ....... .................. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla )................... .......................... .................................................. .. ........ Noni (Morinda citrifolia )............................................. .................................................. ............................ . Oregano (oreganum vulgare) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Paic o (Chenopedicum ambrosioides L. )........................................... ... ............................................... .... Rosemary (Rosmarinus offici nalis) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Rue (Ruta graveolens L.) ... .

.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Salvia (Salvia officinalis )..... .................................................. ............................ ...................... ................ Tea (Thea sinensis L.) ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis )........ ..................................... .......................................... ........ ............... Yuquilla (Curcuma longa ).............................. ............... .................................................. ............. ........... Aloe (Aloe vera )............................................. ..... ............................................. .................................. .. Recipes and Uses of Medicinal Plants ........................................ .... .................................................. ... Other recipes ... .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... Bibliography ................................................. .............................. .................... ........................................... 3 4 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 20 24 Handbook of Medicinal Plants 3 Prologue The plant, which in any way affect human health through ingestion or co ntact absorption, and its effects are classified as medicinal, aromatic, poisono us, narcotic and spices. Medicinal plants are plants whose implementation is der ived from a result set that corrects a condition present in the human body. The ancient use experience teaches that the effectiveness does not depend solely on the product, that is, not only of their active as chemistry, but also€and with e qual importance, their preparation and possible combinations. Unlike laboratory product, applied indiscriminately, without taking into account the conditions of time, place and person, which has allowed even the inadequate practice of selfmedication, therapeutic management of herbs or medicinal plants requires careful management and a close relationship between the patient and the formulator, whi ch could and should lead to a scientific renaissance of the modern specialty her bs. The intent of this publication is not to confuse users of alternative medici ne, by contrast aims to facilitate knowledge and use of medicinal plants can be obtained. It submitted its properties, common uses, suggestions to make some rec ipes, preparations and combinations, in short allow users to benefit in terms of improvements in their quality of life. The plants described in this manual, are plant species for medicinal purposes to cultivate and develop agro-climatic con ditions present in the University nursery of the Universidad Nacional Experiment al Sur del Lago "Jesús María Semprum." Handbook of Medicinal Plants 4 GENERAL CRITERIA FOR COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS Although each species has it s specific recommendations for collection, there are common general criteria for medicinal herbs should be taken into account. Preferably, the collection will b e done in a clear day with no wind, never to be carried out after rain. Must cho ose the best and most vigorous specimens and distinguish the mechanical action t hat have been torn or showing damage by animals or by water damage to the wind. The stems and leaves should be collected fresh and tender, that is, at the time when the plant has not produced flowers. The collection of higher plants and flo

wers will take place before the fluoridation has begun, making sure the buds are not turgid or closed. The fruits and seeds collected should be fully ripened. T he roots are harvested during the summer, freeing them from the earth, Espill, n ever being washed unless they are to be used immediately. Herbs can be dried in the sun, the shade and also outdoors, taking care of environmental hygiene and a voiding pollutants, dirt and dust. Sometimes they can be dried in warm oven. If there are no metal brackets or straw racks that allow a more rational aeration, it is advisable to extend the plants and leaves on wooden supports clean and fli p often for a quick and complete drying. If you pick the leaves, flowers, seeds, stems, fruits or roots of a plant, all must be dried and stored separately in s eparate containers. For long storage used ceramic or glass, but may be useful ti n drums. These containers must be clean and dry inside and out, dust, heat and h umidity can destroy the active principles of medicinal plants, or worse, alter. Storage is not recommended for more than a year, which generally defines the mai ntenance of plant efficiency. Some plants, like rosemary and sage, which have st ems, leaves and flowers are rich in essential oils; of these plants will have to pick up the flower ends. On the other hand, if the plant jealously hides its ac tive principles in the roots, the collector must make a distinction between bien nial and annual plant floor. In the first case the root must be collected in spr ing, a time of awakening, when it is plump and full of humors. If instead it is an annual plant or a bulbous plant, root and bulb must be collected in autumn af ter leaf fall, when the nutritious juices from the plant back down to the base b efore that the arrival of winter make it die. As regards the plants from which t he branches are used, because they are rich in active ingredients, the time of c ollection varies from one species to another. The leaves are carefully selected and cleaned, dried in the air and shade, spread out on mats, hurdles, etc. Bulbs , flowers and flower ends are dried in the sun, covered by sheets of paper that will not fade. The roots and rhizomes, previously selected and separated several rootlets and fragments, exposed to direct sunlight. In the evening, you should put everything at home, away from dampness of the night. The products, completel y dried and kept in tin boxes or glass jars cleaned before use, each with its la bel to avoid confusion,€and finally stored in a dry place. These are, in short, the general rules to be followed by the person wishing to collect medicinal plan ts for personal use. However, it should be borne in mind, anyone can not suddenl y become a collector or a herbalist; is essential to have some notion of botany and certainly know the plants you want to collect. It is very easy to get confus ed. Many plants are so similar to each other that, if you are not a connoisseur, you run the risk of cutting a poisonous plant. Medicinal plants can be treated by three different methods: Decoction. The operation is to cook the rich in acti ve ingredients (flowers, leaves, fruits, seeds, roots or whole plant) for a few minutes. To prepare the decoction or infusion, it becomes part of the Handbook of Medicinal Plants 5 selected plants in boiling water and cook over medium heat in a covered containe r, for the time indicated in each case in the recipe. When using roots, wood and bark, is required prior soaking in warm water for 12-24 hours. Maceration fluid was used for the decoction. Infusion. Is usually applied to those plants whose active ingredient may be altered by boiling. The infusion was obtained by pourin g the solvent over the plant vino, <agua, vinagre, etc.> at boiling temperature. It should immediately seal the container to prevent plant essences evaporate. I t is left to fire during the time specified in the recipe. When using bark, wood and roots, it is advisable to maintain the infusion for 10-15 minutes a water b ath in order to facilitate the extraction of active ingredients. Maceration. The operation is to leave the plant submerged in a solvent for a period shorter or longer. Maceration is usually used when the plant contains active principles tha t would be lost or modified by heat or by altering the solvent with heat. A prod uct of the maceration is the dye, which is preparing for a few days left in rubb

ing alcohol (not denatured) or wine (red wine), dried plants and reduced to coar se powder in a sealed glass container. It is worth mentioning in this regard veg etable juices and fruit (real high energy cocktail-vitamin) of herbs and medicin al plants that can be prepared easily at home. With the plants can also be prepa red: in poultices, which are obtained by mixing flour with a liquid plant could be water, a decoction, an infusion or a saline solution. Can be used hot or cold and are applicable only outside, in liniments, which are drugs or semi-liquid c onsistency and external use, consisting of a combined fat emulsion excipient for medicinal substances are prepared ointments whisking vigorously in a container fresh-squeezed juices of the plant or plants required (whole plant, leaves, frui ts, roots) or the corresponding fluid extracts and tinctures, all according to t he dose given in the various recipes. Ointments can be simple or compound, as if they are made of one or more medicinal substances in ointments, which, like eye ointments are intended for external application on the skin or mucous membranes and contain various types of excipients, such as Vaseline petroleum jelly oil o r lanolin. Ointments are prepared beating strongly in a suitable container (soup bowl, fountain, etc..) Listed the ingredients in the recipe, until a homogeneou s emulsion, in sufumigaciones, incense burners that allow you to enter into the airway by suction, vapor obtained by burning parts of plants or putting in hot w ater a few drops of essential oils, fluid extracts, which must be purchased at t he pharmacy, since its preparation requires special equipment. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 7 Wormwood Artemisia absynthium Basil Ocimum basilicum L. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Compositae Genus: Artemisia Species: Botanical Description absy nthium Perennial erect stems with alternate leaves pinnate. The whole plant is c overed with a fuzz. The stems are topped with panicles of yellow flowers. The fr uits are achenes. The active properties of this plant are very bitter, the main one is an essential oil (oleum absinthii) that contains thujone, absentina, tann ins. It is known that a bitter aperitif generates a reaction in the body uses in fusion is used to stimulate appetite,€secretion of gastric juices and bile and t o eliminate intestinal parasites at a rate of one or two teaspoons of chopped st ems per cup of water. Also powder can be consumed at a rate of 1 g three times d aily. Prolonged use of wormwood causes addiction manifested by cramps, unconscio usness and seizures. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Labiatae Genus: Ocimum Species: basilicum L. Botanical Descript ion herbaceous plant that reaches about 50 cm tall, semi-ligneous, perennial roo t, erect and branched stems. Leaves opposite, ovate, stalked, slightly toothed, green and very aromatic. Flowers white or purple, in racemes axillary and long a t the top of the stem or branches. Cultivation must be renewed each year. Proper ties essential oil, up 1.8% in the dried plant contains mucilage, eugenol, thymo l, linalool, estragol, others. Uses Widely used as a condiment. Stimulant, carmi native, antiemetic, antispasmodic, used in treatment of uterine tract, colitis a nd intestinal disorders, in the form of fresh juice or tea. Applied directly, ma ceration, is used to treat salpución, otitis, wounds. Respiratory ailments. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 8 Calendula Calendula officinalis

Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Fa mily: Genus: Calendula Species: officinalis Botanical Description A striking and beautiful plant with orange flowers, which grows spontaneously in nature. Prope rties essential oils, flavonoids, saponins, mucilage and bitter substances such as calendina are some of the active ingredients that give the marigold the vario us therapeutic properties: anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, healing, detoxifying, fungicide. Uses Used as a remedy to relieve skin discomfort combines with other allied plants of the skin such as horsetail, dandelion, aloe vera and witch haze l, among others. To relieve digestive problems can be combined in infusion relat ed plants such as fennel, anise, chamomile, ginger, pennyroyal and mint. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: My rtiflorae Family: Mirtaceae Genus: Eucalyptus Species: globulus Botanical Descri ption green tree, over 100 m high trunk smooth, ash-colored, with strong thick s tem and branches. Evergreen and different ways. Flowers large, solitary or in gr oups of 2 or 3. The fruit is slightly bigger than the flower, woody, flat on one side and can be opened by 4 or 5 teeth. Properties essential oil has an importa nt antiseptic of the respiratory tract. Anthelmintic, astringent, deodorant, soo thing and bronchodilator, expectorant and febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, mucolytic an d sudorific. Infusion Uses: dry, fluid extract, syrup, essential oil and capsule . Alone or with other plants Different cough expectorants and as hyssop, lavende r and oregano, rosemary and mint, lemon balm, poppy mallow and outdoor use, wet spraying and inhalation. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 9 Peppermint Mentha sativa L. Lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus Stapf Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Subclass Agiospermae: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tub iflorae Family: Labiatae Genus: Mentha Species: sativa L. Description of plant s tems, somewhat pubescent lively, pulled, reddish-purple, with long stolons, leav es oval, oblong lanceolate, unequally serrated, hairy, strongly aromatic. Flower s small, in spikes, calyx of five sepals acute tubular and villous, corolla purp le with limbo divided into four lobes nearly equal. Properties The essence that defines the odor and flavor of peppermint is mainly made up 50% and 5% menthol e sters, in the form of butyrate, methyl acetate and valerian. The essence is extr acted by distillation from the leaves and flowers. Uses It is used as active soo thes the nervous and digestive systems. Its leaves are used in decoction, infusi on, syrup and essence. It is widely used to soothe stomach pain and toothache, i n the worm attacks, insomnia, headaches. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Subclass Agiospermae: Monocotiledoneae Order: G lumiflorae Family: Graminaceae Genus: Cymbopogon Species: citratus Stapf. Botani cal Description perennial herb, perennial, has a short branched rhizome giving r ise to numerous tillers. Leaves long and flat, hairy and green, give off a smell similar to lemon. Properties The main components are the essential oil, yellow and intense lemon scent with 80% citral, geraniol, linalool,€metilheptenona, cit ronellal, limonene and dipentenol. The distillation produces oil known as lemong rass lemongrass oil. Uses The essence is used to obtain metiliononas ionone and in the synthesis of vitamin A. Widely used in perfumes, soaps and detergents for the preparation and separation of chamomile citral with a taste for the beverag e and digestive tonic. After obtaining the substance is used as a diaphoretic, d igestive and stimulant and to combat colds. Relieves constipation and stomach se

veral weaknesses, and is excellent for bronchial affections. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 10 Plantain Plantago lanceolata Chamomile Matricaria chamomilla Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Plantaginaceae Genus: Plantago Species: lanceolata Botanical De scription A thick-stemmed perennial herb that barely exceeds the soil. From this stem a rosette of leaves born robust, ribbed, and comes amid a long stem topped by a flower nut. The fruits are dry and contain numerous black seeds. Propertie s mucilage, pectin, tannins, glycosides as aucubin and catalpol, and other subst ances. Given their active ingredients, plantain is astringent, expectorant and c leansing. Uses An excellent expectorant which acts very effectively to remove th e conditions of the airways, such as hoarseness, cough, hoarseness, throat affec tions, mucous in the lungs. They are also useful gargle made from the infusion t o reduce swelling of the mouth and throat and to relieve cold sores. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Ca mpanataleae Family: Tubiflorae Genus: Matricaria Species: Botanical Description chamomilla annual herbaceous plant strong aroma, lush and despicable that does n ot exceed 50 cm. high. Its stem branched, cylindrical, striate and downy, white is green. Leaves alternate and segmented. The yellow flowers in the center and s urrounded by white florets are arranged in solitary heads at the end of the stal k. Properties has antimicrobial properties. It is known to inhibit the growth of bacteria known as staphylococcus and streptococcus. Applications can be used bo th internally and externally. Modern research has shown that this plant used ext ernally has properties that make it effective in reducing inflammation and treat ing problems such as dandruff, eczema, and hemorrhoids. Can also be used as a ga rgle for sore throats and gingivitis (gum inflammation). Handbook of Medicinal Plants 11 Noni Morinda citrifolia Oregano vulgare oreganum Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Rubiaceae Genus: Morinda Species: citrifolia Botanical Descript ion green shrub to 6 m tall, with smooth pale bark. Leaves opposite, narrow to b roadly elliptic, bright green, with large stipules. Fragrant flowers; have trunc ated calyx and the corolla tubular, white. Fruit mass nearly spherical, greenish , 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter, with the surface covered with small bumps Properties T he fruit and leaves exert antibacterial activities, the root removes lung infect ions and hemorrhoids, also shown natural sedative properties and lowering blood pressure. The leaf extracts inhibit the formation of blood clots. Applications S trengthens the immune system, inhibiting the growth of cancerous tumors, antioxi dant, protein and enzyme regulator, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, increases cell ular oxygen transfer increases the reserves of energy and improve mood, regulate s the body's physiological functions. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiosper mae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tubiflorae Family: Genus Labiateae: oreganum Species: vulgare Botanical Description herbaceous species, perennial, deciduous that can reach up to 1 meter in height. It produces flowers ranging from white to purple bracts in summer shows, the leaves are green to grayish green and can

be hairy or smooth. The species tends to be highly variable when obtained from s eeds. Properties Liquid Essence is a yellow to brown, containing various chemica ls. The leaves and flowers have a strong sink, but pleasant aromatic smell and t aste something bitter. Present Uses various medicinal applications, among which its capacity and digestive tonic, stimulant, spasmolytic, antiseptic, sudorífica , emmenagogue, among others. It is also used to prepare anti-rheumatic liniment for sciatica and arthritis;€and ointments against dermatitis. It is also used as an antiseptic and healing. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 12 Chenopedicum Paico ambrosioides L. Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Genus Quenopodiáceae: Chenopedicum Species: ambrosioides L Desc ription Botany erect herbaceous plant, perennial or annual, branched at the base , 50-60 cm in height and may reach 1 m, has glandular hairs. Globular fruit wrap ped in the remains of the calyx of 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter, pericarp thin. Their flowers are borne in clusters and cause black seeds. Essence properties in the leaves and flowers whose proportions range from 0.25 to 1.4%. The core contains 60 to 73% of Recommended Uses ascaridol to combat hookworm, pinworms, red worms and other types of intestinal parasites. It is often used for indigestion. In ch ildren, weak and no appetite paico infusion fasting gives good face and appetite Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Labiateae Genus: Rosmarinus Species: officinalis Botanical Desc ription Evergreen shrub. The plant reaches a height of two meters, is characteri zed by erect, thin blades narrow, glossy, strongly aromatic, resinous and slight ly bitter stems. Showy flowers of varying color to white, pale blue. Romero Prop erties The essence is composed of terpene derivatives, carbides pinene, camphene , borneol, camphor and other substances such as tannins, bitter principles, sapo nins acid, mineral elements, among others. The leaves have phenolic acids, flavo noids and about 2% essential oil. Uses It is used to control anemia and to stop the menstrual flow, strengthens the circulation (due to camphor), strengthens th e memory, it is encouraging (because of the essential oil), jerky and slightly d iuretic. It is also used for liver ailments, emotional, rheumatism, lumbago, cou gh, and many other conditions. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 13 Rue Ruta graveolens L. Salvia Salvia officinalis Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Subclass Agiospermae: Dicotiledoneae Order: Rut a Family: Rutaceae Genus: Ruta Species: graveolens L. Botanical Description poss esses secretory glands and oil-bearing odorants. Aerial stems erect herb with ma ny branches from the base and blue-green, cylindrical, with an average height of 80 cms. Their roots are pivotal. Pinnate leaves, acute, alternate, petiolate, f leshy, glabrous, can reach more than 6 cm long. Inflorescence axillary or termin al, corymbose, flowers small, greenish yellow. The fruit is a capsule penta lobu lar, a seed is kidney-shaped, rough and brown. Properties whole plant contains e ssential oil in abundance, but leaves it is in higher concentration. The essence is obtained by steam distillation. Uses Rue is an excellent enemagogo, invigora

ting, soothing nerves and anthelmintic. It has curative effects for eye diseases , such as styes and oozing. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Labiatae Genus: Salvia Species: officinalis Botanical Descripti on A sufrútice kills as root fusiform, robust and wiry, erect stem quadrangular section which leave many ramifications, leaves opposite, petioled, ovate-lanceol ate, thick and rough, with finely toothed edges, covered with green fuzz and ash en. It has stimulant properties, stomata, antispasmodic, antiseptic, carminative , and vulnerary antisudoríficas. Salvia contains tannic materials, resin, starch , phosphoric acid, nitric and oxalic acid, essence of salvia and other substance s. Uses It is used in ailments of the respiratory and digestive systems, and aga inst night sweats. Widely used as a gargle and mouth disinfectant. It is diureti c, stimulant, haemostatic, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue, tonic, stomachic, digestive , snacks, etc.. Outside cure sores, ulcers, and is applied in irrigation, poulti ces, lotions, poultices, etc.. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 14 Tea Thea sinensis Thyme Thymus vulgaris L. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Pa rietae Family: Guttiferae Genus: Thea Species: sinensis Species Botanical Descri ption freely when growing up to 10 meters, but in culture rarely allows an incre ase of 3 mts. Leaves alternate, petiolate, elliptic lanceolate. Flowers white, s olitary, persistent calyx of five sepals. Fruit a capsule two or three lobes and localized dehiscence. The economic life of the plant is 25 to 40 years€beginnin g on the third post-transplant. Properties The main active constituents of tea l eaf are tannin, caffeine, essential oil, various enzymes and complex polyphenols , among others. Applications As drinking tea has a mildly stimulating, has medic inal effects for intestinal diseases. The physiological action of the infusion i ncreases heart rate, activates the brain functions and has diuretic effects. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Subclass Agiospermae: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tub iflorae Family: Labiatae Genus: Thymus Species: vulgaris L. Botanical Descriptio n herbaceous shrub that does not exceed 40 cm in height, has erect, woody stems, well branched, pubescent. Lanceolate opposite leaves from ovate to lanceolate, narrow, measuring about 6 cm long, shortly stalked, slightly hairy, verdegrisáce as with rolled edges. Flowers small, white or pink. Properties Thyme, a strong a romatic smell special and very penetrating, contains essential oil, tannins, gly cosides, Saponara acid and resins. At the same time, oil is mainly full 25% of t hymol and carvacrol, linalool and bornillo in small quantities and levoalfapinen o, camphene, terpinene and caryophyllene, others. Its seed is recommended for th e quality of honey that is produced when apiaries near him. Medicinal purposes i s used as an appetizer, emmenagogue, sedative antispasmodic, diuretic, antisepti c, anthelmintic. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 15 Melissa Melissa officinalis L. Valerian Valeriana officinalis Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Subclass Agiospermae: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tub

iflorae Family: Labiatae Genus: Melissa Species: officinalis L. Botanical Descri ption herbaceous plant about 40 cm high, with stolons and adventitious roots, st em from four edges aligned on these leaves, opposite, ovate, with cordate base. Flowers arranged in whorls auxiliary tubular and campanulate calyx. The fruits a re achenes long, oval, brown and smooth. Properties Melissa main assets are the tannins, oil ETIR, oxidase. Resin, gallic acid, citral, citronellal and pinene. The essential oil is available in a ratio of 0.1: 0.5% Applications is cardioton ic, sedative and calming nerves. Its leaves and stems are used in fusion as an a ntispasmodic, diaphoretic, digestive, and in general, nervous disorders. The inf lorescence is used as eupeptic and enemagogas. The tincture of fresh leaves in t he proportion of 20% vulneraria antinervina and is used as a tonic and antispasm odic. It is popular for use as alcoholic extract. Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: Tu biflorae Family: Valerianaceae Genus: Valeriana Species: officinalis Botanical D escription herbaceous, tuberous perennial. Contains small roots dark brown. The stem is grooved, hollow, erect, 0.5 to 2 m in height. Its leaves: the basal form a rosette, while the other born pinntisectas and opposite of the petioles. The fruits are brown, linear and ovate, feathery. Iridoid esters Properties: valepot riates or valtratos, baldrinal · Essential Oil: contains between 0.5 and 1.5%. I t is quite complex containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such a s alpha pinene, fencheno, camfeno, beta pinene, limonene, beta-bisabolol, alpha curcumeno, Vallenar, and criofielno. Uses Treatment of insomnia, anxiety, stress , hysteria, migraines, painful process with autonomic nervous component, somatic manifestations of excess autonomic tone. Painful conditions of the female genit alia, spasms, dizziness, vomiting. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 16 Curcuma longa yuquilla Aloe vera aloe Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotiledoneae Order: eu phorbiae Family: Zingiberaceae Genus: Curcuma Species: longa Botanical Descripti on Perennial, acaulescent, with aromatic rhizomes bright yellow inside. Leaves w ith long petioles, lamina oblong or elliptical, 30-50 cm long and 8-18 cm wide, narrow towards the base and acuminate at the apex. Showy yellow flowers grouped in spikes baseline. Digestive properties, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, anti inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiesclerótica, antihepatotoxic, diuretic and carmi native. Uses The rhizome contains an essential oil rich in monoterpenes (borneol , camphor, terpinene and others) and sesquiterpenes (tumerona, atlantona and cur cumenol). As a spice (curry). The rhizomes contain a yellow coloring matter. It is also used as an indicator to determine the acidity of a medium (changed from yellow to brownish red in the presence of alkalis). Systematic Kingdom: Plant Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Monocotiledoneae Order: Lilifloras Family: Liliaceae Genus: Aloe Species: vera Botanical Description Loo ks like a little agave. It is perennial, rhizome length. Propagation is by divis ion of kills. And it has a herbaceous growth habit. The leaves are called fronds , are big, thick, succulent or fleshy, short, broad, upturned teeth with sharp e dges and thorns on the edges and contain a gel called wormwood. Properties have essential oils, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannin, glucose, proteins and res ins. It has medicinal properties to combat the headache, is stomachic, for skin infections, for control of mumps to amenorrhea and is used as a purgative. Use s hampoos, creams, juice, aloe powder (obtained by dehydration and micro spray) an d freeze-dried aloe (obtained by cryocencentración), cosmetics, medicinal produc ts. Aloe acid dyes are obtained.

Handbook of Medicinal Plants 18 RECIPES AND USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS Here are presented a series of recipes and medicinal uses of plants that have been described in this manual, indicating the location of each plant in it. Salvia DIABETES: Low levels of glucose. Direction s: In a cup of boiling water, add 2 tablespoons of dried leaves of sage, put it to rest for a few minutes. Take 3 cups a day. In case of painful menstruation or stomach upset take 1 cup per day Source: Peppermint DIGESTION www.infopeople.co m Directions: Place a sprig of mint in a cup of boiling water, turn off heat and let stand for 10 minutes, you want to sweeten , take 3 0 4 times a day. It cure s indigestion and acts as antiflatulent. Source: MUSCLE PAIN www.infopeople.com Ingredients: - 1 liter of alcohol - a bunch of Romero - 1 square of camphor - a glass jar (tight lid) Directions: Place the alcohol, Romero, and Camphor in the jar . Place the bottle to stand for 2 weeks, then rub a bit of content in the af fected area. Source: insomnia E www.infopeople.com ENERGY RETURNS TO LIFE - 3 or 4 carrots - ¼ white onion - 1 large clove garlic - 1 stalk celery - 1 radish ¼ bunch watercress - little fresh lemon - ½ beet (beetroot) "if you are diabetic ," Making this juice with the extractor when tired or not sleep well and wait a long day at work or who is feeling down. - Take in the morning. Source: www.info people.com Handbook of Medicinal Plants 19 STRETCH (recipe for avoiding) Ingredients: ½ cup olive oil ¼ cup aloe vera gel c apsules of vitamin E 6 4 capsules of vitamin A Directions: Mix ingredients well in blender. Pour into a jar and refrigerate. Apply once daily in the abdomen and / or in places where they go. If the application is consistent and every day it is possible to avoid that they make their appearance. Note: Apply cocoa butter and / or elastin cream, these substances can combat stretch marks. Source: GASTR ITIS www.infopeople.com Ingredients: - 3 cups soy milk - 5 sprigs of parsley. 5 sprigs of watercress. Preparation: Blend and make a cup after each meal for 6 months. Source: www.infopeople.com HEMORRHOIDS 1. Boil chamomile, strain and sto re in the refrigerator and then do a sitz bath for 20 minutes 2. Take 2 potatoes and peel all chop into slices and put them in the freezer, then apply in the re ctum 1 slice frozen, losing the cold dump it and get another, at the end apply t he cream Natural Hemorrhoids. To do all this process until the problem disappear s. Source: www.infopeople.com INSOMNIA SLEEP REMEDIES FOR SERVING GOOD GRASS: Pl ace a sprig of mint in a cup of boiling water. Turn off heat and let cool well c overed. Take half an hour before bedtime. BASIL: In a cup of milk boiled 3 to 5 large basil leaves. Strain or remove the leaves and sweetened with honey. It is better to drink it warm, its results are more effective. Take half an hour befor e bedtime. Source: www.infopeople.com Handbook of Medicinal Plants 20 OTHER RECIPES Ruda. Common Uses: haemorrhoid, antivaricose, emmenagogue Administ ration: .- Infusion of rue. To facilitate menstruation. It is made with a small handful of rude in a cup of boiling water. It can take up to two cups a day. .Poultice. For abscesses and boils. To do this we need the fresh plant. Is crushe d and placed on the abscess, covering it with gauze. The essence is not recommen ded except under medical prescription. Other ways to deliver crude are in the fo rm of powder, fluid extract,€dyeing and also as an infusion for external use, bu t always under control of authorized personnel. Source: www.cape1.net Thyme Comm

on Uses: Antiseptic, expectorant, appetizer Administration: .- infusion. It is m ade with one teaspoon per cup of boiling water. We should not take more than thr ee cups a day. .- Essence. One to five drops, three times a day, after the main meals. Do not exceed this dose without a prescription. .- Decoction for external use. Add 50 g. plant to a liter of boiling water and let boil for three minutes . It is applied as compresses, lotions, baths, mouthwash, etc. In addition to th ese formulations, thyme can be found in almost any pharmaceutical form, both in pharmacies and herbalists, alone or as part of presentations made. Source: www.c ape1.net Plantain Common Uses: emollient, soothing, anti-inflammatory .- Adminis tration Decoction. It uses a tablespoon per cup boiling for no more than five mi nutes. It may take 3 to 4 cups a day. This concoction, used for internal road, i s used to combat bronchial catarrh. It is sometimes also used externally to soot he and reduce inflammation of the mouth and throat. When used in this way, some add a little boric acid, in which case should not be swallowing any liquid as th is acid is toxic. .- Macerado. Boil about 40 grams. plant per liter of water. Af ter a few minutes, remove from heat and leave to macerate for 8-10 hours. You ca n drink as much as you want throughout the day. .- Ointment. Formerly plantain o intment prepared by crushing the fresh leaves and add the juice they release to the melted butter cow. This ointment is used to relieve discomfort caused by hem orrhoids. Handbook of Medicinal Plants 21 .- Fresh leaves. Are cleaned with water and then blanch in boiling water, once m ade this operation are applied to sores and ulcers difficult long evolution. Sou rce: Common Uses www.cape1.net Wormwood: carminative, appetizer, an antibiotic. Administration: .- infusion. It is prepared with seven grams of the flowering to ps of the plant, one liter of water and boiled, leaving it to stand for fifteen minutes. This preparation can take up to two glasses a day as an appetizer. .- D ust. The maximum dose is three grams per day, using as an appetizer or antipyret ic. In more-to a total of 8 grams per day, can be used as an anthelmintic agains t pinworms. .- Tincture. You can add 15 drops to an infusion of mint, anise, to take three times a day between meals. Source: Salvia www.cape1.net Common Uses: antiseptic, appetite stimulant, hypoglycemic Administration: .- infusion. A rate of 20 gr. plant per liter of water. Prepare an infusion stomach which can take 3 cups daily. .- Essence. From 2 to 4 drops, 2 or 3 times a day, administered on a sugar cube. It is important not to exceed this dose. .- Tincture. From dilute d alcohol, mix one part sage and 10 of watery alcohol, macerated with stirring f or one week, then filtered and making a rate of 35-40 drops twice a day. In the pharmaceutical market are available leaves and flowering tops in many dosage for ms: ground cut, tablets, extracts, tinctures, oils, capsules, etc.. Source: www. cape1.net Oregano Common Uses: Antiseptic, healing, anti-rheumatic Administratio n: .- infusion. A spoonful of dry grass and for every cup of tea, take three cup s a day. .- Fluid Extract. 30 to 50 drops three times daily. .- Dry extract. You can find the extract of this plant in capsules. Between 50 and 200 mg of plant per capsule, can take three capsules daily. .- Decoction. Very effective against asthma. Boil water in a liter of 30 g of flowering tops, is sweetened and drunk in small cups. .- Friction. 5 g of oil of oregano in 95 g of alcohol rosemary. But it should be noted that the essence of oregano in large quantities can be to xic, so it is recommended to take it under medical supervision. Source: www.cape 1.net Handbook of Medicinal Plants 22 Romero Common Uses: Antiseptic, analgesic, healing Administration: .- Decoction. Is prepared using one liter of water to which is added 35 grams of flowering to

ps, should be boiled for ten minutes, the liquid obtained is applied in massage on affected areas rheumatic pains. Also applied to the scalp with a light massag e, improves blood circulation in the area and promotes hair growth.€It is also u sed for washing wounds and douching. Alcohol .- rosemary. Dissolve 30 grams of s ubstance in one liter of alcohol at 96 º, to apply rub to alleviate rheumatic ty pe pains, neuralgia ... Sometimes the temperature of the area over which it appl ies, which may be accompanied by a reddening of the same. .- Rosemary oil. For e xternal use is prepared by dissolving twenty grams of substance in a liter of ol ive oil, its uses are similar to those of alcohol and rosemary. .- Infusion of f lowering tops. Ten grams added to a liter of boiled water, letting it stand for ten minutes, filtered, and the liquid obtained is taken up to two cups a day, bo th before and after meals, thus achieving a Indeed carminative, choleretic and c olagogo. Source: Common Uses www.cape1.net Chamomile: anti-inflammatory, digesti ve, antiseptic Administration: The most common form of chamomile is administered by infusion, prepared with half a dozen heads per cup and managing it as hot as possible, with or without sugar. .- Elixir. In 700 gr. of water dissolve 800 g. sugar, heating it without actually boiling. In 200 gr. ethanol at 96 º C are ma cerated for 4 to 5 days following compounds: 100 gr. of chamomile flowers, 5 gr. bitter orange peel and 2 g. cinnamon; alcohol macerate is filtered and added to the syrup. This elixir combats nervous excitement and insomnia. .- Chamomile po wder. Between half a gram and one gram per dose, four times a day. .- Fluid extr act: 40-50 drops, 3 times a day. .- Infusion for compresses. Soak two cotton woo l pads in a chamomile tea and apply over eyes for a quarter of an hour. Infusion .- enema. In a liter of boiling water is poured a tablespoon of dried flowers. Allow tuning the liquid is filtered and used for enema. Source: Eucalyptus www.c ape1.net Common Uses: Antiseptic, expectorant, healing Administration: .- Decoct ion. Three well-shredded leaves-for-cup, leaving boiling for one minute after th e removal of the fire is allowed to sit ten minutes infusion. This preparation c an be repeated three times a day. .- Suppositories. Used from 100-400 mg supposi tory, can be utilized from one to three times a day. .- Syrup. Prepared with 10% of eucalyptus, can take up to three tablespoons a day. .- Inhalation. It should be ensured in advance of tolerance to this substance, as there may be cases of allergies to this plant. Is applied for 15 seconds and wait half an hour to chec k that there are adverse reaction. The infusion was prepared with 10 grams of cr ushed leaves or with 12 drops of oil in a quart of boiling water and allow to co ol while you inhale Handbook of Medicinal Plants 23 water vapor carries the essence of the leaves. Its use is also suitable in winte r to counteract the dryness that produce certain types of heating and own drylan d environments. In these cases, using a pair of leaves in a bowl with boiled wat er or a humidifier Source: Tea www.cape1.net Common Uses: stimulant, astringent, anorectic. Administration: .- infusion. 4 grams are added. of leaves per 350 gr . boiling water, then let stand 3 or 4 minutes. This preparation can be used as a stimulant, although in some areas is considered very soothing, which contradic ts the presence of the protein between its components. If the taste is not pleas ant you can add sugar or sweetener. Take a cup after meals. .- Cook. Put water o n to boil for 10 minutes and add tea leaves. Exceeding the cooking time may suff er its effects and taste. Take three cups daily. Source: Basil www.cape1.net Com mon Uses: aperitif, digestive, sedative administration: .- infusion. 5 gr. fresh leaves are added to a cup of boiling water, add a few drops of lemon and a litt le sugar. You can take a cup after the 3 main meals. .- Essence. Take 2 to 3 dro ps, 3 times a day, after meals. Do not exceed this dose. .- Dust. Basil spray ha s been used extensively as monkfish to cause sneezing. In the pharmaceutical mar ket there are many flavored with basil. The best job I can give to this plant as food seasoning in stews, soups, etc.., Who gives a delicious taste and aroma, a s many know. Source: www.cape1.net

Handbook of Medicinal Plants 24 REFERENCES Agricultural Encyclopedia Newfoundland. Agricultural Production in Fe bruary. 1998. Terranova Editores. Santa Fe Bogota, D.C. Colombia. Ocampo, Rafael . 1994.€Domestication of medicinal plants. Tropical Agricultural Research and Te aching. Turrialba, Costa Rica. Description of Healing Plants. Online on November 14 2004 on page www.cape1.net Medicinal Plants. Recipes and Uses. Online Novemb er 15 2004 on page www.infopeople.com