JOURNAL MARITIME NAVIGATION AND MARINE FISHERIES-September 1909 CONDITIONS OF A FISHING ROSCOFF and gear EMPLOYEES IN THE

REGION Here are some notes I have collected, either personally or from fishermen on the fishing gear in use among the registered port of Roscoff. During the time I spe nt in this city, from August 1907 to October 1908, I applied myself to know not only theory but also and especially the practice of these different devices. Pre viously, in a study of large nets in the bay of Mont Saint-Michel, I could send you the list of equipment used in the east of the bay: it would, I think, intere sting to group together a number Documents whose synthesis would characterize a gear box and a suitable facies. From now than we can compare the gear of sandy a reas of the bay of Mont Saint-Michel to those of the rocky coast of Roscoff. The fishing gear employed in Roscoff are as follows: 1. longlines, 2. handlines, 3. mullet fillets, 4. nets mies, 5. trammel savvy, 6. sandeel seine, nets or Guide l 7. dredges, 8. lobster trap, 9. havenets or havaneaux, Bichette 10.faucilles b az-hooks, 11. handspikes, 12.gaffe. We study under what conditions these devices are normally used in the bays of Roscoff and Morlaix. 1. - Lines background The end lines are the main engine of Roscoff, because they provide the main fish ery, typical of the country; the rays and conger eels. Parts of lines are purcha sed in Rennes. Each piece has a length of 70 fathoms or 120 meters. Each boat ha s 40 pieces of these lines, representing a total length of 4,800 meters. In thes e lines, are attached to 1.200 to 1.400 finer twine rope, each bearing a hook. T he ends of the line markers are cast in well-observed, with large stones, whose place is marked by a surface buoy and cork floats arranged along a rope attached to the stone that serves as wet. The lines are well on the bottom during the du ration of a voyage, and then the fishermen come. meet them and having found, tha nks to the buoy markers and their trained eye discovers from afar, even in foggy weather, back to the arms, hands, equipped with gloves. Four men pull on the li nes and who is against the railing of the boat watching reboarding fish that ble w up on a gaff shot. When not fishing lines are dress in baskets. ten in number. The cost of long lines amounts to 600 francs. Each piece of line is in fact 11 francs, the size of hooks costs 30 francs, whic h represents, with twine, a value of 110 francs. We must add the price of buoys, tether, floats. The end lines are laid, usually at a distance of 5-6000 coast, from funds known where markers are transmitted by tradition. These leagues are s ubstantive boëttées with animals of all types. But the bait which are preferred and better value are: • The launch in summer (Ammodytes). • The priests, in wint er (Attrenia). • The horns, in winter (Loligo). • bats at any time (Scyllium). B ut the bait of choice was the sardines whose absence has changed the fishing con ditions. Mackerel is an excellent bait for the halibut. 2 - Hand lines. The hand lines are used in, small boats to fish for mackerel, places, old, bars. The lines are solid wire mackerel, the fisherman holding one end. The free end is twofold, one thread takes the bait, the other carries a weight heavy enough t o prevent, despite the speed of the boat, the line out of the water. The mackere l fishery, in fact, running or drifting. One bait for mackerel with a shiny obje ct, a piece of silver fish, a pipe stem or preferably a net of freshly caught ma ckerel au. The jerkin is sought for the bar. For places, the old, the lure fishe rmen with annelids, they refer to as black worm (Arenicola piscatorum) of loose gravel (Nereis), the pistis (Marphysa). The bars are caught in the rocks in the surf zone and kelp that form a belt around the reefs. 3. - Nets mules These nets are set nets with a height of 2 meters over a length of e meshes of this net have 0m, 035 squared. The headline is russet. rm the dam by adding four or five goals butt. At low tide,€the net perpendicular to the coast in a region of strong currents. At high 28 meters, th They often fo is stretched tide, the mul

es are taken by nets. Fishing is most productive at night or hectic time, as the fish sees the net less. Fishermen pull the seats out and installed a kind of ro lling through a common agreement. This fishery took place mostly winter and spri ng. The main places of installation of the nets are on the east coast of the tip of Roscoff. The report of this fishery is rather low for evil and what gives th e risks posed by the nets often stormy weather. 4 - Nets lines. The mesh lines are 1 meter tall and very large mesh, 20 inches square, approxima tely. This net is held on the bottom with gravel ballast and the headline russet . This net is used primarily in the summer to take rays, turbot, lobster. Fish abu t against the net and stopped feeling, make jerks who entangle in net. 5 - trammel. The trammel net consists of three layers of stacked nets. The two outer layers a re formed by a net with large mesh net as stripes. The middle layer is a mesh of 0m, 025 squared. This net is larger than the others, so he is relaxed and float ing loosely. The influence of the current is formed, either in one direction or the other, pockets, purses where they catch fish. These pockets are formed by th e net income protruding through the large mesh outer. The trammel nets are place d in the currents. The height of the tangle is 1 m 50, a length of 40 meters. Th e headline is russet, the other wedged at the bottom with lead. The spider crabs (Maia) are very harmful to these nets and damage when they cut they are taken. 6 - Purse with sandeel. Vessels fishing with long lines associated by two Senner sandeel which serves as bait in the summer. It is in effect ten men to handle the net. The seine is a l ong net that includes a core formed of very small mesh at 0m, 014 for example. O n each side is a mesh-0m, 025 squared. The net height is about 2 meters and its total length can reach 100 or 120 meters. The upper edge is rope and weighted co rk, the bottom rope is set up with plates of lead or slates. The rigged at the e nds are separated by a stick which is secured a rope that extends from the area that is surrounded by the seine. Senner can shore or boat. For Senner ground, on e or two men remain on shore, holding the end of a rope, while others leave the shore seiners and describe a great circuit and let go in the direction of the cu rrent turn the rope, the net mesh-average, the small mesh net, then return to ea rth by throwing another mesh 0m, 025 and the rope which is held to the shore. Th e purse is divided into two equal groups and begin to pull the net out of the wa ter, approaching slowly. When the net comes out of the water, some fishermen on each side pulls the leads with the same speed as other party-draws the cork. Mos t of the fish found in the pocket, which forms the back of the net. For Senner b oat, a boat is fixed and represents the team of land, while another large wheel with a limited purse, then place beside the first. The net is lifted between the two boats. Seine is most often at low tide. The purse is, in general, commonly used on the sandbanks. But the sand eel seems to have left the sandy banks where he was taken with the bright (Trachinus), plaice (Platema), sole (Solea), took refuge in rocky coves to sandy bottom. Despite the risks to the net, is now in t he creeks that sennent fishermen. Competition and emulation render people more a nd big. The price of a large machine is 450 francs. 7 - Plaice or Guidel. The guidel used to fish the bait used to Athem. It's a big net bag to a depth of 4 feet, stretched over an iron 16 feet in circumference. We fix the net, for th e maneuver, a pulley, the masts, and was running a few minutes. It Attracts over with crabs, boiled bats. When one considers the full, guidel is hoisted aboard. It is used in winter in the seagrass. The net price is 40 francs, without editi ng.

8 - Dredgers Dredges are used by the boats that fish the calcareous algae (Lithothaumion) or maerl for use as fertilizer. It is a rectangular frame of iron, with sharp edges , which is attached a bag of strong rope netting, shallow. An iron collar rope d rag. She was dragged on the bottom few minutes, then reboarding and emptied into the barge. The fishing starts in mid-ebb tide and continues until about an hour or two hours after low tide. The average produce of the sale of a barge filled, unloaded at the dock was 12 francs. 9 - or Havenets Havaneaux. Bichette. These are nets with handles, as everywhere, used to fish for shrimp in the eelgr ass beds. This kind of fishing is mostly done talking women and children and is a very low ratio in the region roscovite. 10 - Lobster traps. These traps are also typical, without local modification. It tempts with the rem ains of fish and crabs crushed. They are sunk to the bottom, and their place is marked with a small bucket. 11 - Sickles Sickles are used for fishing for sand eels on the sandbanks. The sand eel is cau ght between the sickle and hand. I replaced the sickle advantageously, who neede d strong, with a short-handled fork and crooked teeth. 12 - Gaffes A gaff is used to catch the short horns (Loligo). At night, the white gored seem s like a candle and the ink that is also launching a white glow. They bait a lin e with small places, and soon caught the squid bait with its suckers, it is "dri ffe" with a short hook. 11 - Baz-Croc. The baz-hook is. a stick over a hook or an iron rod bent at an end that serves t o bring out the lobster or octopus crevices where they hide (baz-(Breton) stick) . 12 - handspike I had the honor to report against this machine, and I only mention its use for m emory and grievances that I blamed him: The handspike is a stick used as a lever to flip or shake the stones , under which lie the small congress. This machine is extremely harmful, because: • 1 - He crushed by the movement of the stone, al l animals that are edible crabs below .-, rocklings and animals that have an int erest in the bait (about ) and the food edible species • 2 ° - depopulated by ki lling, the state of youth, congress, which adults are one of the offshore fisher y resources, • 3 - The stones being returned not called up, everything is at the bottom dies, and algae that are taken under the stone become a hotbed of putref action • 4 This device is only used by fishermen on foot, not enrolled , that cu rrently fill the high tide Sunday and produce a gain insignificant considerable damage. These are the main gears used in the bays of Roscoff and Morlaix and emp loyees to sea by fishermen in the bays. The trawling was once allowed in that ar ea, but by a decree of September 25, 1907, "the use of trawling was banned in th e Bay of Morlaix and in the sea that stretches around the bay Santec, until 'a l ine drawn from the rock Roc'h Haro at the western tip of the island of Batz and including such rock Golc'h Heder and Sieck Island. The decree issued fled to try to prevent the escape of the sardine that still frequent the Bay of Island Siec k. I quote it here because of its historical significance in the history of fish ing gear in this region. The sandeel seine was about, repeatedly, to be removed and this issue is still on the agenda. In many fisheries which I attended, I've never seen destruction of fry, but I do not want to issue any opinion here, cons idering me as yet poorly documented. Report by Mr DANISH, naturalist Scientific

Fisheries Service Marine, February 15, 1909 I propose to examine: • The boats and fishermen, • The distribution of benefits and costs of fishing • The manner and tonnage of shipments • The sale of fish; • The report of the fishery. A - boats and fishermen. Fishing is the main Roscoff conger, ray and turbot using longlines. These lines are placed at a distance of 4-6000 of the coast. The ships will ask these lines are cutters of twenty tons, manned by five men crew whose boss. These vessels ar e associated with two Senner, for handling the large sandeel seine requires ten men. Other smaller vessels,€cutters and boats have fore a crew of two men, a bos s and a sailor (or foam). These vessels engage in fishing with hand lines, nets, striped, and ask to trammel lobster traps. These boats are built either to hims elf or to Carantec Roscoff. The fishermen were among a hundred, all written-sea. Of great courage and great strength, resistance, they go out to sea in all weat hers, night and day, to deliver to their hard work. It is only to lament the unf ortunate tendency to alcoholism of this interesting population. B. - Organization of fresh fishery. The benefits and costs of fishing are organized as follows: From the profits we made in a cutter mounted by five men, six parts: • a share for the boss • 1 hand for the boat; • 4 shares for sailors. The boss key from the boat. When there is a separate owner of the employer's share of the boat is divided: • 1 / 4 for th e boss; • 3 / 4 for the owner. The costs are divided as regards the purchase of equipment between the master and crew. The cost of the boat watching only the bo ss or the owner only when it is not the boss. I recall here the cost of major eq uipment lines the bottom, mounted 40 pieces - 600 francs to sandeel Purse, 120 m eters - 450 francs or guidel Plaice, unmounted - The price of 40 francs a cutter of twenty tons is about 1500 francs. C. - Shipping Fish During the return from fishing, fish are prepared for shipment. The fishermen cu t the head of Congress, the big empty lines and keep only the fins, throwing the entire body axis, the bill to the tip of the tail. Cars waiting at the water's edge return of fishermen to ship the fish to the station and bring baskets of sh ipment. These baskets are baskets of a depth of 50 centimeters. Each one of "them contains 50 pounds of fish. Each of them costs th e fishermen a fair coin. Fish shipped the morning comes to Paris for sale at Les Halles to 5:00 the following morning. This does not boast of, even in summer Th e use of refrigerant mixtures: the just wrapped in straw. After the sale racks a re returned to the fishermen at discounted rates. It must be noted in passing th at he often loses a large amount of current road to a ratio of 1 to 2, due to in sufficient oversight by the railways. These losses are further reduced restricte d benefits for fishermen. Here in the last two years, the tonnage of shipments p ort station of Roscoff: Weight in kilograms January February March April May Jun e July August September October November December 1907 by Total 16.500 20.400 22 .100 35.750 42.800 47.550 57.750 44.800 19.200 16.750 10.500 342.150 8.100 23.50 0 11.000 25.450 22.650 1907 39.750 83.700 41.050 49.050 67.1250 20.200 8.430 4.6 50 389.750 From this curve, we can immediately note characters, ordinary two years of fishi ng the increase in the tonnage of fishing in summer, dropping deep winter, this decrease is much more to do with the impossibility of sin ', because of bad weat her, only one fewer fish on the coast. The maximum of the curve at the beginning or the end of July, and immediately after a sudden descent occurs. If we compar e these two years of fishing, just as we did later, to superimpose the two curve s. The year 1908 was much better: a difference of almost 50.000 kg made 1908 a g reat year of fishing. The general movement of the two curves is exactly the same

because we do not take account of the months of January and September 1908 that , very productive, have brought a small increase in delay of one month with the normal curve. Until the end of May two years, the ascent is almost parallel only in June, we have this sudden leap to more than 80,000 pounds which gives the ad vantage to the year 1908. But once shipments drop very quickly. Equality stood a lmost exactly at the end of August and, apart from the brief rise in September 1 908, the descent is established parallel to the end of December. In winter or wh en the course of the markets is advantageous for fish such as mullet (Mugil G.), are sent by parcel post. A small amount of fish is shipped in this way. D. - Sale of fish. Very few fish are sold in nearby towns. Hotels in Roscoff, in summer, are provid ed by contracts and special contracts with fishmongers. Almost all fish is shipped to Paris,€so that the curves attached almost exactly indicate an y changes in the amount of fish caught in Roscoff. On the Market Hall, fishermen are replaced by the system with little benefit to them, in general, agents. A t rial of representation by a fisherman has not yielded better results, rather, be cause this man just did not understand the multiple combinations of the sale of bullets. The average sale of 50 kilos basket varies between 6-15 francs. The inc reases are related to the season and the scarcity or abundance of fish in other ports of shipment. E. - Report of Fisheries. The maritime statistics generally believe the value of a kilogram of fish sold a t 30 francs 0. This figure, based on observation, is fair enough. By adopting it , we see that the proceeds of the annual catch was in 1907, about 100,000 francs in 1908, about 120,000 francs. That total, distributed among the 100 men involv ed in fishing in Roscoff, an average individual from 1.000 to 1.200 francs per m an. This, however, according to information I obtained, the average ratio of a f ishing year. This amount would allow a modest life in Britain, where commodity p rices are low, but alcoholism and an absolute lack of foresight lead quickly, an d in winter when the fish is missing, the misery. Report Af. DANISH, naturalist Scientific Marine Fisheries Service, the. February 16, 1909

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