INTERVENTION LEARNING DIFFICULTIES IN CHILDREN WITH HYPERACTIVITY Paloma Tejeda AGENDA What is learned and how learning styles

learn sification of Educational Psychology Intervention DEFINITION OF LEARNING "A more or less permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of practice " (Kimble, 1971; Beltrán, 1984) MODELS OF LEARNING Learning as acquisition of responses: Behavioral Model Learning as knowledge acq uisition: cognitive model focuses on content learning as construction of meaning : Cognitive model student-centered Learning Processes DA Clas

LEARNING STYLES: cerebral hemispheres LEFT HEMISPHERE

RIGHT HEMISPHERE Language Environment Analytical and organized individual work organized and form al analytical approach: • Information in small pieces • Logical reasoning and temporal sequential proces s and serial • • Details: dates and names • Speech Coding and Mathematics Global Visual and spatial and creative informal atmosphere, you do not mind nois e Workgroups Holistic approach: • Global Information and diagrams • Find patterns and spatial relationships • si multaneous and parallel process • Main Ideas • Viso-spatial and musical Learning Styles Exactly PULSE / FIELD DEPENDENT inaccurate communication channels: visual, audit ory, kinesthetic

REFLEXIVE Accurate / inaccurate INDEPENDENT FIELD

LEARNING PROCESS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. CUSTOMIZING CARE AWARENESS RECOVERY TRANSFER ACQUISITION EVALUATION FOUNDATIONS OF LEARNING care oral language written language Definition of D.A. "Difficulties are characterized by a performance in one or more school subjects is significantly lower than expected given the age of the child, an IQ around 75 and the absence of severe emotional disorders, sensory deficits and / or neurological deficits " (Defior Citoler, S. 1996) CLASSIFICATION OF D.A. I. Depending on the academic standard (DSM-IV) I. Two categories D. D. Reading D. Arithmetic Writing Evolutionary DA (evolutionary time), difficulties in the SSP: • Primary (P, A and M) • Schools (thinking and strategies LO) Reasoning and problem solving

Depending on the deficiencies in cognitive processing Motion Perception Attention Memory Language Academic DA (field) • Reading • Writing • Spelling writing • Arithmetic II. Integrated model Integrated model (NJCLD, 1994) Four levels: Intraindividual discrepancy: • Significant Challenges • Strengths: Listening, speaking, reading, writing, rea soning, math, thematic areas of knowledge.

Aspects; psychosocial skills, physical and sensory problems associated with DA

Alternative explanations of the DA; Three aspects: • Difficulty primary generalized • Environmental influences, cult ural or economic • Instructions inappropriate

D. Intrinsic to the individual failures SNC and problems of information processing Psychoeducational intervention ACADEMIC PROBLEMS L. WRITING Dyslexia Dysgraphia CL, T.E. .. INFORMATION PROCESSING ARITHMETIC ADHD DA DOMAIN - Personal - Social D. ASSOCIATED EMOTIONAL Study techniques and strategies as a cognitive process

INFORMATION PROCESSING STRUCTURE SELECTION 1 1. Selection or selective encoding of information Extract the relevant information Underline Outline Summary Main Idea Underline memory aid reduces underlined Excessive Skills useful effects of selection: - Do not mark more than a general statement by paragraph - use colors Summary Develop and organize the information selected in Steps to underscore its prepara tion:

Conduct a first reading above Develop a basic outline in paragraphs using capita l letters and leaving a hole for two or three sentences read the text fragment a fter fragment Select two or three words of each section to reflect the main idea of the theme. With them, write a sentence. Write two or three sentences to repo rt on this idea in their own words Guidelines for teaching and guiding the implementation of the abstract:

EXPLAIN WHAT? WHY is it useful? WHEN to use it?

DEMONSTRATE how to contrast: - Good set / set poor - Details and information important / irrelevant ... etc.

REDUCE WORK aid gradually given increasing personal control of the task FIX Recommended: Start with small portions of material to increase gradually the amount initially used simple stories and then give way to more complex texts offer a good correc tive feedback for students to reflect on the quality of their work Start with th is material and then proceed with material not available for exploration, promot ion instead of copying paraphrase the words of the text literally

The scheme It helps an organization and helps the memory A brief outline before hearing the lesson or start reading promotes understanding and recall of content

The main idea Their identification is influenced by features of the text is more difficult exp ository texts that narrative

2 1. Structure and Organization of information Structuring the contents making them consistent (Categorizing) Stages: 1. 2. 3. Identifying the main idea categories organized secondary Spider Complementary de tails Bound Hierarchical Tree Types: 3 1. Elaboration Establishing connections between the newly acquired knowledge (new information) and existing knowledge (prior information) Ask questions Brainstorming Clarifying Predicting Analogies ATTENTION Mechanism by which environmental stimuli are processed (imputs) FUNCTIONS 4. Filter the information 5. Select the elements of the memory stimulu s and relevant in the current context 6. Breaking the continuity responding to e nvironmental demands ATTENTION CLASS OR STRATEGIES SUSTAINED GLOBAL TARGET-SELECTIVE ATTENTION 2 SELECTIVE Focusing on a / os that information, so that the object of attention can be perc eived from different points of view, ignoring the rest GLOBAL Directed attention to all stimuli in a comprehensive manner covering all the inf ormation box SUSTAINED Attention that is sustained over an entire sequence as it develops gradually META-NOTE 3 Ability of the subject can be made aware and regularly use their own skills atte ntional Voluntary conscious control and that the student may perform on their own proces

s of care when performing the task required Be aware of: • The nature of the attentional task • Strategy • The quality of th e work done LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ADHD ADHD Rating Definition ance Defining ADHD The hyperactive child is one who, for various reasons, has a maladjusted behavio r that occurs primarily in: - Excessive motor activity - Inability to maintain s ustained attention - Lack of impulse control and produces a number of difficulti es associated with nature: emotional, physical, social and pedagogical Classification Three subtypes: a) ADHD predominantly inattentive type Increased difficulty in maintaining sustained attention c) TH Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Difficulty controlling their impulses and activity e) AD / HD Predominantly Combined Type Features Triple children about girls was seen between 3 and 5 years Impact on populat ion 2% to 9%, persists into adulthood Impaired behavioral inhibition and selfcontrol 2 PRIMARY SYMPTOMS Features Etiology Educational Intervention Guid

Excessive motor activity Impulsivity Inattention PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED Problems equal relationship with sleep disorders Low sel f-esteem Aggression Under memory performance altered emotionality DA Speech problems Etiology Genetic twins between 50% and 55% to 92% neurotransmitters dopamine Prematurit y alcohol consumption during pregnancy lead levels

ADHD DA Most result from the inability to sustain attention and concentration Low memory performance in arithmetic difficulties ce of reading comprehension Dysgraphia Etc. Main areas that affect performance Under poor reading performan

Knowing how to follow instructions to initiate tasks quickly and effectively coo rdinated with the rest and keep the attention until the end of the task produce work to a normal level, consistent transitions Make Organize tasks use different approaches to problem-solving strategies to complete tasks in time Interacting with others planned Orientation Cognitive-behavioral treatment Drug therapy education: program for the Centr e and Professor Family orientation: A program for parents Educational intervention 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Changing the role of teacher curriculum Early Treatment strategies and solutions specific cognitive-behavioral treatment programs 1. Teacher's role Positive attitude and knowledge about ADD ADHD Teamwork Being a good model Knowi ng and practicing TMC assess the differences of these students teach and train i n HHSS provide a structured and predictable: Report of the rules, keep an eye on schedules, anticipate developments, to desig n a quiet workplace, place him alongside fellow positive role models ...

Provide positive reinforcement to complete the task requested not to pay attenti on when monitoring without having completed the task Showing interest when worki ng correctly you of the routines of the classroom 1. Changing curriculum It is usually not necessary Curricular Adaptations significant but should adapt the timing of the goals, partnerships and evaluation system for student characte ristics.

Mixture of activities of high and low-interest news and games Using that capture their interest Simplification and increased visual presentations teaching organ ization skills and study strategies Using mnemonics Using visual references for Workgroups auditory instruction and cooperative learning Modification Environmen t • a) b) c) d) Principles of strategies and solutions (Sydney Zentall, 1993) For the excessive activity of waiting for the inability to begin the difficulty of tasks for the lack of attention to complete routine tasks or activities for t he failure to complete assignments on time e) f) a) For excessive activity Using the need for movement of these children, directing and redirecting product ively Guide the work acceptable and constructive ways to use the activity as a reward Use active responses, which involve a class action in place a system of points a chieved by the fact remain seated during the task responsible for opening or clo sing the lab in class periods relaxation and self short a) Inability to wait Give the child the opportunity to make verbal or motor activities while waiting All ow your child to prepare and plan while waiting. When the inability to wait tu rns to impatience or authoritarian attitudes, to promote leadership. Suggest alt ernative behaviors or ways completely ignore when claiming your attention befo re you have completed the task a) Difficulty starting tasks Increase task structure and underline the important parts. Encourage you to take notes, give oral and written instructions, let him know in detail the standards for acceptable work and teach how to structure the tasks. a) Inattention to complete routine tasks or activities

Reduce the duration of the task. Use strategies of concentration before the star t of the completion of the task Make sure the tasks are interesting. Use this ga me for children to review their work and to memorize the routine material and se quenced Let faq temporary markers. a) For non-compliance and incomplete tasks Increase interest in the tasks and allow the child to have the freedom to choose between them Ensure that tasks meet the learning abilities of students and their prefe rred style to meet a) To complete tasks on time Anime the child to use lists and to organize their assignments: Use the agenda, write the tasks on the board, and ensure that the child write them down Establish ro utines to place and easily locate those objects which the child uses often Tea ch child when they leave one place to another wonder, "I brought with me all I n eed?" 1. Cognitive therapy Is to modify the behavior by controlling environmental factors and events Use reinforcers Token economy Extinction Time-out response cost overcorr ection behavioral contracts between adult and child social reinforcement 1. Specific treatment programs

Self-instruction training in problem-solving strategies HHSS Training Educationa l Intervention Program to Enhance Care and Reflexivity (PIAAR, B. Gargallo, 1997 . TEA) Self-instruction Is to change the internal verbalizations that the subject used to perform the ta sk and replace vebalizaciones that are appropriate for achieving success Objecti ves: Define the problem

What do I have to do?

Approximation Consider all the possibilities I have to focus my attention

Focus attention Election of self-reinforcement response Problem Solving Strategies Turtle Technique (Schneider and Robin) Objective: To self-manage their own behaviors altered Steps: He is taught to respond to the word "turtle" has to react retreating in her bo dy, closing her eyes and breathing deeply relax Teach the turtle's position, mai ntaining tension and loosening the body then teach strategies to solve widesprea d problem in home

HHSS Training Image impoverished themselves annoying behavior, lack of patience, non-complianc e with difficulties in processing information inflexible cognitive style ... SOCIAL REJECTION PROGRAM: Learn to give a compliment please request a dispute resolution Assertive Behavior PIAAR (B. GARGALLO, 1997) Objective: Teaching awareness of cognitive processes used in learning to control, extend an d optimize

Techniques used: Forced delay and analysis strategies scrutinizing details autoinstructions Train ing Troubleshooting Using reinforcing participatory model EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DA Children and adolescents who experience AD show an incidence of behavioral and e motional problems Low achievement expectations low persistence tasks Feelings of low cognitive com petence and academic

MOTIVATION Reduce Anxiety generate negative feelings towards school work EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION Within a comprehensive and global action. Directed Reduce academic problems Enhancing emotional well-being analysis of selection contextual reality interven tion programs Incorporation of specific strategies

All professionals working with families Parental counseling Enhancing knowledge about the DA Report problems to be found and effective strategies for improving enhancements that strengthen the home en vironment the child's adjustment 2 Metacognition promote the child in relation to their problems Teach him to accept their strengths and weaknesses and valued as people who have control over their own with the help of appropriate teaching strategies Personal Area The methods to increase motivation and self-concept is divided into two groups: Based on the external control Positive Reinforcement Token economy

Internal Control T.

Self Attributional Retraining

The strategy instruction programs together with the significantly increased attr ibutional Feedback - Skills of abstraction - Troubleshooting - Self-concept - Functions internal (Miranda, Arlandis and Soriano, 1997) Behaviour Area Behavior modification brings together a set of strategies that use reinforcement and punishment to increase or establish desired behaviors and reduce or elimina te inappropriate behavior Advantages:

Easy to implement Fast Low Cost Adaptable to multiple contexts 2 TMC

ECONOMY PROGRAM FILES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Selection to modify behavior Decide what kind of chips are goi ng to provide for the elimination of unwanted behavior Making the list of privil eges Flesh value of the chips and conduct meta At first, the exchange of tokens for privileges or prizes will be on a daily basis (effectiveness) Continuous ass essment program

CONTINGENCY CONTRACT Establish a negotiation between teacher and student, parent-child relationship, the contract specifies that what is called the child and what the consequences w ill achieve compliance with 3 T. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL It behavioral techniques combined with cognitive strategies Objective: • Develop self-control, based on subject's ability to observe their own behavior , assess and capture the results and consequences Self-instruction Social Area

Use of behavioral and cognitive techniques focusing on teaching behaviors that t he subject is not in his repertoire and modify inappropriate behavior Introducin g themselves as co-therapists colleagues in working groups HH Training Troubleshooting: • Recognition of the problem • Problem analysis • Develop alternative solutions and assess their consequences • means-ends thinking

Program "think aloud"