XI wit 'the Software and Databases 2006 JISBD Ia Jos' Riquelme - Pere Botella (E ds) ec CIMNE, Barcelona, 2006 GANTT

CHART EXTENDED: A '' GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES Fran J. And Javier Ruiz-Bertol1 Dolado2 1: Department of Inform'tica and engineers' to IA Systems Polit'cnico Superior C enter and University of Zaragoza C / Maria de Luna, 1. 50 018, Zaragoza e-mail: franjr@unizar.es, web: ~ http://webdiis.unizar.es/ franjr 2: Department of Softw are and Systems Faculty of Inform'tica Inform'ticos to a University of Pa 'Basqu e is Po Manuel de Lard "Izabal, 1. 20 009, San Sebasti'na e-mail: @ javier.dolad o ehu.es, web: http://www.sc.ehu.es/jiwdocoj Keywords: Project Gesti'n; Models Representaci'n, wit 'or Ia Soft ware; Human Re sources Summary. The development of a software project is often long, complex an d difficult to control. It is therefore necessary to provide software developmen t tools to monitor and manage an efficient and effective development process. Th is paper presents a extensi'n the Gantt chart, where a ~ aden to the ono represe ntaci'n human resources. This extensi'n Gantt chart provides, among other improv ements, a optimizaci'n om'todo for the process, and adequate allocations visuali zaci'n. Eoo This is passed from a process-oriented approach to a people-oriented approach. This model has been developed using the character 'Desirable ISTIC re presentaci'n, still in the stages of monitoring where it best fits planificaci'n y oo this proposal. 'INTRODUCTION 1. In software projects occur with some frequency problems affecting the developmen t, mainly resulting from poor aplicaci'n of tools and mechanisms om'todos. On th e one hand, from the standpoint of the process, and not used methodologies in 't hat have been proven effective, or appropriate ias the project process, but m's or just rev's, is the project which adapts to the process of development chosen ae. Moreover, from the point of view gesti'n the problem'tica or comes from a po or aplicaci'n ym'todos of tools that are available. or e 1 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado The toolkit is given by gesti'n aplicaci'n good pr'cticas, OOA the utilizaci'n e st'ndares recommendations of, or take into account the extra knowledge or 'previ ous projects. But certainly the appearance m's important in gesti'n ido ao softw are projects is precisely that it is managed effectively, that is, it is a proje ct organized, planned, controlled and directed. Therefore, a very useful device to capture data of the project is precisely the process of planificaci'n, 'or as the project manager provides a gr'fica representaci'n yoaa project plan develop ers a way to recognize the importance of the activities est'na running. There ar e several ways to generate the project plan, although the tools used are m's net work diagrams (eg, PERT / CPM), what-if scenarios distribuci'n equal to or resou rces to avoid a overcommitting ' n [1]. oo In general, a project manager uses th e activity as the lower level of definici'na when dividing the development proce ss, since the activities provided or at'mica unit of work that can be divided an d allocated. This divisi'n oo determines the importance of the development proce ss (c'mo activities are organized in the project), but also of c'mo or managed ' ste. However, this approach focuses m's in c'mo ejecuci'n eoeao perform schedule d tasks, which qui'n performs such tasks, so that human resources oe considered as if they were mere devices, a consuming component of the project [2]. To take consideraci'na people need to have effective control over or realizaci'n assigne d activities, but also be 'appropriate the utilizaci'noe Ia or a proper represen taci'n informaci'n of project activities and oo people. In this art 'icular exte nsi'n to propose a Gantt chart, aoa adapt'ndolo a focus on people, because altho ugh the activities and their dependencies are important, it is also represent pe ople who work in and development of the project. The secci'n 2 provides the char

acter 'or ISTIC that define good models of representaci'n. 3 In the proposed sec ci'n extensi'na Gantt charts, where tambi'noooe new interactions are discussed a rising from the proposed model.€The secci'n 4 analyzes or qu 'provides new enha ncements in the secci'n representaci'ny 5 shows an example Eoo utilizaci'n assum ption of a development process using the new representaci'n. o o 2. CHARACTER 'I STIC OF REPRESENTATIVES A project representaci'n is useful if those involved in the project understand m e 'use. But it is also necessary that the representaci'n is simple, clear, that the speakers represented eat or be displayed in a simple and legible, and that t he informaci'no est 'well-organized. But a'nm's important is that the good euao representaci'n abstracci'n pose a real world. o The Gantt chart and network diag rams (PERT / CPM) have been for d'ed the m's and tools appropriate to represent the informaci'n the project. The range of representations ao is large, ranging f rom specialized representations, for example, 2 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado Asbru healthcare professional environments [3], LineOfBalance (LoB) in repetitiv e environments [4], or for UML and software design ~ o [5] to gen'ricas represen tations, such as Gantt charts YNE PERT / CPM in planificaci'n [6] or Petri nets and ontologist 'on representaci'no IAS or knowledge. But many of these models su ffer from being either too gen'ricos, eo either too specialized. As 'the charact er' ı, ISTIC a desirable visual representaci'no are: Context and content clear. The use for which it was developed must be an equivalence in context, and conte nt should show only the information 'maci'n necessary but also sufficient to be useful. or e Simplicity. The informaci'n should be simple to understand, and tha t this informaci'noo can be managed and controlled by both the customer and the developer. Organizaci'n. The representaci'n informaci'n must present an organize d way oo ized, that is, there must be a clear structure of this informaci'noo in formaci'ny always follow the same hierarchy 'at all levels of refinement. IA 3. EXTENDED GANTT CHART The development of certain specialized tasks in software projects requires, in g eneral, experts in these tasks (or with a specific set of skills). However, when performing the asignaci'n planificaci'ny the informaci'nooo about who will perf orm each task are not represented. To facilitate the work of the project manager to be 'useful informaci'n on allocations that manifested itself ia' or integrat ed with the planificaci'n representaci'n activities. For this purpose, usually L izano utio or Gantt charts, usually combined with network diagrams, since both r epresentations provide the character 'desirable ISTIC described in paragraph 2. The representaci'n of the allocations is recommended due to: o The need comunica ci'n among those involved in the project. o aparici'n development of new process es, where m's important people or the process or product. The only dependencies between activities determine the temporal ordenaci'n 'oyl'gica of activities. o To include the human resources within the Gantt chart is necessary to define the set of components to use such representaci'n, as' as new ino ı extensi'n terac tion arising from the Gantt diagram. Table 1 shows the or elements represented i n the proposed extended Gantt chart. In this representaci'n disappear dependenci es between activities, since 'hese are replaced by oe communications. 3 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado Representaci'n or Activities Activity Group Descripci'no Landmark Communications Human Resources ( including human resources) Table 1: Representaci'n of s' or extended Gantt diagram ımbolos

However, the Gantt diagram configuraci'n Extended oe also must determine the pos sible interactions between operations and human resources. These interactions ha ve common denominators, and establishing links between people involved in the pr oject. A continuaci'n described in greater detail d'NDE yc'mo ooo fit both human resources and communications within the Gantt chart. 3.1. Situaci'n Human Resou rces or Seg'n its definici'n, an activity is the m 'uo Inima component of the work that can be assigned to a person [1]. Therefore, the relaci'n between human resources and activities is or direct, that is, a person runs a set of activities and an activity is executed by one or more persons. A representaci'n level, such activi ties must be adequately represented or situated within the diagram,€since its r epresentaci'no distribuci'n planificaci'ny determines the work to be done, but t amb 'sets oo iin the development process aplicaci'n selected particular software project. On or so, this proposal represents human resources as to the next leve l of refinement of the project estructuraci'n. This allows representaci'n oo dis played in a diagram only one joint visualizaci'n descomposici'n structure of the project 'oo to, the activities asignaci'n people, and the tasks assigned to eac h person. or 3.2. Communication between Human Resources The human resources representaci'n allows refining units, which may or detail bo th the agencies and communications. As' in our proposal dei, saparecen dependenc ies between activities, and its functionality is replaced by communications. Com munications between human resources represent both secuenciaci'n of activities, including colaboraci'n needs, delivering products oo 4 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado intermediate work, or any other comunicaci'n necessary or appropriate developmen t of the assigned tasks. We can distinguish two types of communications: Comunic aci'n between activities. Dependency ratios are down or between two different ac tivities. In this type of communication, is relaci'n or an agreement for the exc hange of informaci'n between a person or task ends (in activity) and another per son who needs the result of work done in the activity dependent and therefore al so determines the e secuenciaci'n of tasks to perform. or Comunicaci'n within an activity. This type of comunicaci'n oo is the necessary exchange between two om informaci'n's people running oaa est'n the same activity, the objective being t he successful finalizaci'n such activity. o In Table 2 we can see the possible c ommunications that may occur in the human resource representaci'n. In this table have been described only possible or 'interactions between two people, but may extend to communications between various people. Also defines a special type of relaci'n in eo communications within an activity called comunicaci'n collaborati vely defining an raci'n colaboo close between two people working for ejecuci'n c om'n a ouo set of tasks. This allows display on the representaci'n proposal as o e programaci'n t'cnicas pairs, one used in programaci'n t'cnica 'gil [7]. oe or Descripci'no Representaci'no Comunicaci'n between activities or No comunicaci'n or Comunicaci'n in activity or Collaborative Comunicaci'n or Table 2: Representaci'n of communications issued or Gantt chart 5 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado

4. CHARACTER 'ISTIC GANTT CHART OF EXTENDED The representaci'n extended Gantt chart provides a character 'or additions ISTIC against traditional Gantt chart, presented to continuaci'n. or 4.1. Representac i'n a greater n 'mere ou components The proposed model represents informaci'n much about the project or any other re presentaci'n without losing the character 'or desirable ISTIC simplicity, clarit y and organizaci'n. For example, as DesignNet mixed models [8] can lay more n'me ro repreo components (such as deliverables or products), but this model or based on Petri nets and gr'ficos AND / OR does not provide a vision 'n or from the in formaci'n integrated, and consequently becomes a dif model' or ICIL extended to large projects. In UML [5], the m's representations focus on the software design an ~ o in the process of development, although this model provides one of the b est solutions adapted to the design process ~ or, as they provide the developer a No way to improve the design met'dica ~ I software. or n 4.2. Visualizaci'n of allowances or The Gantt diagram extensi'n human resources allows the project manager or operat ing on asignaci'n informaci'n, programaci'n, planificaci'ny monitoring, but oooo also allows developers to observe possible interactions present in and assigned tasks. In fact, allocations est'n present in very few representations. a One ex ample is the model RAM (Responsibility Assignment Matrix) [9] which has so matri x activities organizaci'n rows and columns of people. o visualizaci'n assignment s provides an improvement for the control of the plane ificaci'n, but also allow s project tracking software,€oe even for extracci'n knowledge, once the project ends. or 4.3. Process or Optimizaci'n The Northeast Regional representaci'n, human resources and communications in a s ingle program allows detecci'n diao of possible over-and / or overlaps. This fac t or result that both the process of development, planificaci'n, or assignments may or optimized to avoid these problems. On the one hand, the optimizaci'n can take place in the task secuenciaci'n as oo interactions have been defined at the level of human resources, we can see clearly m'sa task-level dependencies, not activity level. As 'for example, ı, a finished product in an activity can be se nt directly to an activity dependent, without waiting for the ongoing business e st' end. e On the other hand, it is advisable to try to optimize the allocation and communications as far as possible, especially to avoid a single sobreestimac i'ny overlaps between human resources. 6 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado Figure 1: Gantt chart for a traditional development process' gil to 5. AN EXAMPLE OF EXTENDED GANTT CHART To illustrate the representaci'n of human resources in the Gantt chart in this d ry ci'n is an example of utilizaci'n for a development process' gil. The process is based on OOA iteraci'n of A methodology '' gil for the development of a set of questions or responses to and Ia. In this process, six distinct phases or gro ups of activities: the iteraci'n Planificaci'n, Dise ~ o of the test units, Prog ramaci'n, Refactorizaci'n, Oono Test / verification 'ne Integraci'n. oo Once tes ted and verified to run activities in each of the phases, is performed secuencia ci'n planificaci'ny activities on a time scale, which gives the result oo the di agram in Figure 1. In this Gantt chart shows the planificaci'n of activities and

their dependencies, which determine the order ol'gico between the development p rocess and its dependencies. o To extend the traditional Gantt chart with repres entaci'n or human resources is necessary to transform the dependencies between a ctivities of Figure 1 in human resource dependencies, or what is the same, in co mmunications. This results in the diagram can be seen in Figure 2. 7 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado Figure 2: Gantt Chart Extended Programaci'n phase of a development process' gil or To display the new m's detail has been selected representaci'n cona or together Programaci'n activities, and that display the various types or communications pr esented in this art 'icular, as described out below' n: o Comunicaci'n between a ctivities (dependencies between activities). Ties between the activities and int erfaces Get Code final final round questions can observe a dependence of this ty pe which may be either secuenciaci'nl'gica of activities, oo but can also includ e the exchange of work products, oe reports any other deliverables. Comunicaci'n within the activity. Such communications occur or when two om's people work wit hin the same activity. In Figure 2 you can see these units at random Get busines s questions, in which both analyst and visual programmer must work together to f inalizaci'n activity. Where this involves comunicaci'n colaboraci'nooo (for exam ple, in the case of couples programaci'n activity final Code or interfaces) is c alled collaborative Comunicaci'n. o Figure 2 shows the integraci'n gr'ficamente human resources within or adjacent cona activities Programaci'n phase, represent 'ndose human resources, Olympiaki habi'ndose transformed by communications agenc ies. In this figure can be seen c'mo tambi'nee shows the two types of communicat ions as defined above mind-between activities, and within activities. Comparing the traditional Gantt chart (Figure 1) and extended Gantt chart (Figure 2) shows the following statements: 8 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado The planificaci'n of the last two tasks make use of shared resources. For o 'exa mple, the database administrator est' assigned to the two-year realizaci'n activ ities at once. This pod not 'be detected in the diagram in Figure 1. Using this representaci'n Ia, the responsibility is determined comunicaci'n or nothing to t he meaning of the arrows. The development of an activity can be divided into sev eral phases,€such as finishing Game activity where the analyst is responsible f or starting the development of the task, and subsequently joined the visual prog rammer to obtain results in a collaborative comunicaci'n. or As' the same, the r esponsibility for igualı comunicaci'n between activities or mind is determined by the origin of the arrow. 6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK In this art 'icular deficiencies have been shown to provide the main models for planificaci'n representaci'n, especially because these models focus oom's in the very process of software development (in c'mo activities are implemented) ao qu i'n that develops the tasks associated with the project (human resources). e The soluci'n proposed in this paper is the Gantt diagram extensi'n AOO to include a new component: human resources. The need to represent this component is given b y the importance of people within the software development process, but also by the need to represent assignments and communications within and representaci'n m odel. o However, it is necessary to develop a new model representaci'n or from s cratch, but, bas'ndose in character 'to ISTIC Gantt diagram, ~ have been added t o this model an representaci'n resources humans, leading to the representaci'n o o extensi'n of providing simplicity, clarity, and organizaci'n, character 'oo IS TIC necessary for the proper visualizaci'n informaci'n. oo This proposal is a ne w approach to monitoring planificaci'ny or software projects, opening new v 'for

defining the allocations without' hese are IAS and imposed by the dependencies between activities, but these allocations represent turn both units, such as com munications. This work should be complemented with the development of this propo sal, which can be adequately validated in a work, and where you can compare the Gantt diagram extended to other models of representaci'n. and 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The investigaci'n associated with this art 'or icular has been made possible by the financiaci'n or the Ministry of Science Educaci'ny TIN2004 CICYT-06 689-C0301. or 9 Fran J. Bertol and Javier Ruiz-Dolado REFERENCES [1] A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) . Project Management Institute, 2004. [2] Jaak Jurison. Software project managem ent: the manager's view. Communications of the Association for Information Syste ms, 2 (3GB): 2, 1999. [3] Yuval Shahar, Silvia Miksch, and Peter Johnson. The As gaard project: a task-specific framework for the application and critiquing of t ime-oriented clinical guidelines. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 14 (1-2) :29-51, 1998. [4] D. Arditi, O. Tokdemir, and K. Suh. Effect of learning on line -of-balance scheduling. International Journal of Project Management, 19 (5) :265 -277, 1999. [5] ISO / IEC 19501:2005. Information technology - Open Distributed Processing - Unified Modeling Language (UML) Version 1.4.2. International Organi zation for Standardization, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2005. [6] Harold Kerzner, edito r. Project Management. A Systems approach to planning, scheduling and controllin g. John Willey & Sons, 2003. [7] Robert C. Martin, editor. Agile Software Develo pment. Principles, Patterns and Practices. Prentice Hall, 2002. [8] Lung-Chun Li u and Ellis Horowitz. A formal model for software project management. IEEE Trans actions on Software Engineering, 15 (10) :1280-1293, 1989. [9] Roberta Russell a nd Bernard W. Taylor, editors. Operations Management: Quality and Competitivenes s in a Global Environment. John Wiley & Sons, 2005. 10