Blood flow What is blood? What is the heart? 2. Blood 5 liters of blood circulate in the body.

The various components of bloo d provide different functions: The plasma carries the elements ... ... ... ... of the intestines to the organs. White blood cells clean and defend the body against ... ... ... ... .. . Red blood cells carry the ... ... ... ... ... to the lungs. The blood circulates through the body ... ... ... ... .. blood. When the blood flows through the ... ... ... ..., red blood cells "take care" of oxyg en and "discharge" of carbon dioxide. Then when it happens in a body "file" oxyg en and "recovered" from carbon dioxide. 3. The heart is a hollow muscle divided into parts ... ... .... It works like a ... ... ... ... and circulates blood thr ough the body. Blood enters the atria and ventricles by fate. Using your diction ary, find the elements cited and note them on the diagram below. Sources: See the directory -1 Jean-Philippe Solanet Blood is composed of many elements including four main areas: - white blood cell s (+ - 7500 / mm ³), they defend the body against microbes - blood red (+ - 4.5 million / mm ³), they carry the oxygen and carbon dioxide - the plates (+ - 250, 000 / mm ³), they can stop bleeding - blood plasma fluid portion of blood yellow ish roles of blood are to transport nutrients, carry the oxygen to cells and car ry waste from cells to the alveoli. substances carried by blood are: 1. oxygen, 2. carbon dioxide, 3. non-gaseous waste and 4. nutrients removed from the diet. Our heart is a pump, because it sends blood throughout the body, here is a diagr am of the heart and the course of blood: 1. aorta 2. pulmonary vein 3. left atri um 4. valves 5. left ventricle 6. péricorde 7. pulmonary artery 8. Superior vena cava 9. right atrium 10. IVC 11. right ventricle (C) Biodidac I. livingstone Diagram of blood flow: Sources: See the directory -2 Jean-Philippe Solanet The characteristics of the human bloodstream as blood passes twice through the h eart to return to any point in the bloodstream: the movement is called twice. Th e oxygen-rich blood and blood carrying carbon dioxide does not mix at any level in the bloodstream: the movement is said to be complete. The entire route of the blood is channeled through blood vessels: the movement is called closed. Note: There are parallel to the circulatory system, lymphatic system. These two system s work together Sources: See the directory -3 Jean-Philippe Solanet

Blood is continuously moved by the double heart pump (right heart and left heart ) whose activity is easily identifiable by external events (sounds, rhythm). The heart is a hollow muscle located in the anterior mediastinum, a cavity bounded by the lungs and diaphragm slightly to the left of the plane of symmetry of the body. Its contraction is automatic and results from the rhythmic activity of a p articular tissue in which it is provided, the nodal tissue. Morphology and structure of the heart The heart is a double pump consisting of two independent halves. Each includes a n atrium and a ventricle. The atria have thin walls and drain the blood from the veins. The ventricles have thick muscular walls and eject blood into the arteri es (Fig. 1): Figure 1 - Schematic of the heart The right heart It is the pump that circulates the blood in the so-called "little movement", con sisting of pulmonary arterio-venous system (Fig. 1 *). The right atrium receives the two venae cavae (superior and inferior) vena cava and the coronary (heart m uscle irrigation itself). The right ventricle is separated from the right atrium through a valve consisting of three blades (tricuspid valve), which opposes the reflux of blood into the atrium during cardiac contraction. It ejects the blood into the pulmonary artery provided an aortic valve that opens when the ventricu lar ejection and then closes to prevent backflow of blood into the ventricle. Sources: See the directory -4 Jean-Philippe Solanet The left heart It is the pump that circulates the blood in the so-called "high traffic" or gene ral circulation of the body (Fig. 1 *). The left atrium receives four pulmonary veins.€The left ventricle is separated from the atrium through the mitral valve (Fig. 4). It ejects the blood into the aorta of aortic valve fitted which contai ns the openings of two coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself . The left heart (especially the ventricular muscle tissue) is more developed th an the right heart, because the work required to generate enough pressure to the systemic circulation is much greater than that done by the right heart to the p ulmonary circulation. The pumping effect is exerted by the interplay of active contractions punctuated by the automatic nodal tissue located at the right atrium and the inter-atrial septum. It generates a stream of blood the ventricle to the atrium, made irrever sible by the set of valves (Fig. 2): Figure 2: Schematic of the journey covered by the blood stream. Sources: See the directory -5 Jean-Philippe Solanet The circulation The circulation assures continuity of trade in organs. Blood flows one way in ve ssels: arteries, veins, capillaries that form a closed system. The blood is move d by the heart muscle hollow, septate, functioning rhythmically. The proper func

tioning of the cardiovascular system is stimulated by physical activity and a di et too rich, stress ... are the cause of cardiovascular disease. Sources: See the directory -6 Jean-Philippe Solanet Vocabulary: Heart: hollow muscle contractions which provide the setting in motion of blood i n the vessels. Artery: blood vessel in which the blood circulates from the heart to various body organs. Hair: very small and vessels connecting arteries and ve ins purposes. Vein: blood vessel in which the blood circulates from one organ to the heart. Ear: Parts of the heart where the wall is very thin. It receives blo od from the veins and propel it into the ventricles. Ventricles: parts of the he art where the wall is thick. They receive blood from the atria and propel it int o the arteries. General circulation: blood path between the left heart and right heart. Pulmonary circulation: path of blood between the right heart and left he art. Infarction: heart attack due to poor irrigation of the heart muscle. Sources: See the directory -7 Jean-Philippe Solanet HEART MOVEMENT © 2000-2001 haplosciences The heart is no bigger than a fist but it is the most powerful muscle in the bod y. It pumps the blood it sucks from the atria and the ventricles rejects, this a bout 70 times per minute, passing through the lungs. The other folder is inside a hollow muscle that works like a pump. He is respons ible for setting in motion the blood in the circulatory system. It is partitione d into two Sources: See directory-Philippe 8Jean Solanet Parties (2 cores) welded to each other. The left heart pumps blood oxygenated (r ed) throughout our body to provide oxygen to the cells of this one. Nutrients an d oxygen are necessary for their metabolism. The cells consume oxygen and produc e more waste carbon dioxide. The blood (blue) lies right in the heart responsibl e for carbon dioxide. The role of the right heart is to propel the vitiated bloo d to the lungs to exchange for new carbon dioxide (returned at the end) cons of oxygen (absorbed during inhalation). The route left heart - body - is called the right heart circulation. The term right heart - lungs left heart is called the lesser circulation. The great movement to go with a longer course, also the left heart is it more powerful than the right heart. These are the contractions of t he muscular wall (myocardium) of the heart, to circulate the blood. The contract ion causes a muocarde pressurized blood in the atrium, then into the ventricles, and ejection in the arteries. The heart contracts on average 70 times per minut e. Each contraction produces a heartbeat. Sources: See the directory -9 -

Jean-Philippe Solanet The arteries of the heart and will leave the organs. The veins leaving the bodie s and go to the heart. The reoxygenated blood is returned into the left atrium b y pulmonary veins. From the left atrium is driven into the left ventricle and th en distributed throughout the body. The tainted blood back into the right atrium through the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava and then returned int o the right ventricle and returned to the lungs through the pulmonary artery to comply reoxygenation. The capillaries form an extensive network of very fine ves sels that supply the organs. © haplosciences.€The left ventricle pushes blood rich oxygen in the circuit of circulation. This circuit consists of many branches der ived. A branch supplies the left arm, another his right arm, another his left le g, right leg, kidney, intestine and liver, the placenta when the mother is expec ting a baby, the brain. The oxygen-poor blood rich in carbon dioxide back to the left ventricle before being sent to the lungs where gas exchange has a link: Th e blood is oxygenated before returning once again the left ventricle. Sources: See the directory - 10 Jean-Philippe Solanet DID YOU KNOW? • heart weighed 300 g and pump an average of 5 liters of blood per minute (8000 li ters per day). the number of heartbeats varies by age of the individual. • The kidneys are responsible for filtering blood to remove waste. The waste is ex creted as urine. The kidneys filter up to 2000 liters of blood per day. We have two kidneys but we can live with one. They are placed at the hip and are each th e size of the heart. On the drawing below cons oxygenated blood is red and from the heart. It nourish es all the organs of the body (also in red). In blue blood returns to heart stal e to be propelled into the lungs. Blood send the body all the substances necessa ry for its nutrition and eliminate those which are unnecessary thanks to the kid neys. June 2001: A team of U.S. researchers have designed a new artificial heart that does not require connection to an external battery. The first operation took pla ce at the University of Louisville, Kentucky. The heart was designed by a team o f the company Abiomed Inc. .. The battery is recharged inside out using a device that is worn on the belt and regularly sends waves inside the artificial rechar ging. The device, which Sources: See the directory - 11 Jean-Philippe Solanet works like a pump, costing $ 70,000 but should save 100,000 people a year in the U.S.. Each year 700,000 people die of heart problems in the U.S.. The artificia l heart is designed to overcome the shortage of donor hearts. Source of informat ion: CNN.COM e human heart is a hollow muscle, the shape of a triangular pyramid. It is anato mically located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs, in an area called the mediastinum. The weight of normal adult human heart is 250 g. It is a body compr

ising an outer layer (pericardium), a muscular layer (myocardium) and an inner l ayer (endocardium). The heart pump Atria, ventricles, valves. The heart is composed of two functionally and anatomi cally distinct parts, the right heart and left heart. Each of these two parts is itself divided into atrium and ventricle. The right heart and left heart functi on synchronously. The blood has a sense of the left heart to right heart. There exists among the d ifferent parts of the circulation system of valves (sort of "gate") that prevent s blood from flowing backward. The atria and ventricles are separated from each other by valves that open into the ventricular cavity and prevent backflow into the atria. These valves are fibrous, non-muscle and muscle attached to the pilla rs which ensure the opening phase. The cardiac cycle The cardiac cycle consists of a contraction and ventricular filling. The ventricles, and especially the lef t ventricle functional elements are crucial. With each beat, they contract: the systolic and they are emptied of their blood through the aorta, then fill from t he atria: the diastole. Sources: See the directory - 12 Jean-Philippe Solanet The system circulatory of heart The coronary arteries and veins as every heart has a blood supply with clean art eries and veins, called coronary arteries. The coronary arteries are the first o f the arterial vascular tree. The right and left coronary arteries arise on the ascending thoracic aorta. The left artery is more important than the right arter y, it has two branches: the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex a rtery, arterial blood supply to each branch its own territory. A collateral circ ulation composed of small branches can grow to circumvent a bottleneck because o f arterial deposits (atheroma). The blood vessel is propelled in nearly 100,000 miles of blood vessels by a pump which is particularly successful: the heart.€We can compare the heart to pump pressure / suction and the network of vessels to "pipeline" for irrigation and oxygenation of tissues and organs. The cardiovascu lar system consists of two parallel networks of vessels: arteries and veins. The arteries are the network of vessels supplying oxygen, the veins forming the net work said "back" of blood to the heart and lungs (blue blood as instructed in CO 2). The arteries are vessels susceptible to various hormonal stimuli. They play an essential role in maintaining blood pressure, optimal blood pressure for irri gation of all points of the body even more remote. Fitted with a their own muscl es (smooth muscle cells), they can alter the state of tension of the wall and th ereby regulate the pressure (or blood) pressure. Veins are vessels without the p ossibility of intervention on blood pressure, they suffer more compared to arter ies. As a result, they leave more easily distended by the pressure, the mechanis m of venous return of blood to the heart is a passive mechanism, which is likely to fall off as regards the return of the lower body.

The system electric of heart. The heart is animated contractions eats per minute. The average heart ntraction to eject a heartbeat The tem independent of the rest of the on). Sources: See the directory - 13 Jean-Philippe Solanet The contraction flow starts in the sinus node, also called "pacemaker" (the unit of the same name plays the same role of current initiation of contraction). In fact, some heart cells are able to cause birth s'autoexcitées an electric curren t, which will spread throughout the atria. Then the current reaches a relay (atr ioventricular node), then print it one main network (His bundle) and it spread a round the ventricles, causing their contraction and thus the ejection of blood. The autonomic nervous system stimulation of the heart can be influenced by nervo us stimuli reaching it from the peripheral nervous system through hormones (like adrenalin to the sympathetic nervous system) that increase the frequency and fo rce of contraction ( during a sporting effort will increase the heart's blood fl ow, ie the total volume of blood ejected into the aorta, the heart can charge up to five times more blood than at rest). Other incentives from the parasympathet ic nervous system, through other hormones (such as acetylcholine) instead will e xert a moderating influence on the "work" of the heart (and thus slowing the pac e of contraction frequency) . Sources: See the directory - 14 Jean-Philippe Solanet that occur at varying intervals, counted in b rate of 70-75 beats per minute (bpm), each co volume of 60 cm3. The heart has a nervous sys body (own internal tissue electrical conducti