# State Center for continuing education of Votorantim www.ceesvo.com.

br 1 MODULE 11 OBJECTIVES: At the end of this EU you should know: Recognise numerical and algeb raic expressions; Calculate the numerical value of an algebraic expression, iden tify the coefficient and the literal part of a monomial; Write mathematical sent ences; Equating problems of the first degree; Solve problems and interpret the f irst degree; Relate equations with day-to-day; Solve algebra a system of equatio ns of a degree by the addition method; • Interpret problems with two unknowns re lating them to the everyday setting up a system of equations; • Solve systems an d interpret the answers; • Knowing the geometric method in the Cartesian plane t o solve systems of equations of the first degree. • • • • • • • • Screenplay: - Read the module observing and following the resolution of the exam ples - Do the exercises in your notebook and check the answers on feedback - Wri te down the questions on notebook and ask the teacher. MAKE THE YEARS IN YOUR NOTEBOOK. DO NOT WRITE in the handout. www.ceesvo.com.br 2 The ALGEBRA BACKGROUND: The use of letters in troubleshooting a new era of mathematics. At t he moment we use letters to represent an unknown quantity entered the part of ma thematics called algebra. The use of facilitated communication letter mathematic s. For example, you may be: "The square of the sum of two numbers" for (a + b) ² to be understood in any country. The letters a and b are representing any two n umbers. There are mathematical expressions in the letters that need to represent an idea or a situation. Example: One liter of gasoline costs \$ 1.70. How can yo u represent the spent fuel during a trip? You thought, thought and could not ans wer? It is missing some data on the problem? You do not know how many gallons of gasoline were spending? True, you can not get an immediate result, but there is a way to write this idea: using any letter to represent the amount of gallons o f gasoline. Then you can write 1.70. X where X represents the number of liters. Expressions made up of numbers and letters are called algebraic expressions. In mathematics we work with numbers, shapes and letters to represent numbers. Are t he formulas and equations. An example of using formula to calculate the perimete r P (sum of four sides) of a rectangle where one side is twice the other. Observ e the diagram below: You do not know the extent of one side so you can represent it by a letter. X represents the measure of one side. P = X + 2X + 2X + X X P = 6X 2.X www.ceesvo.com.br 3 In this expression X is unknown or variable and is representing an unknown numbe r. NUMERICAL VALUE OF A NUMERIC EXPRESSION is the number you get when you replac e the variables (letters) for real values (numbers). Note that figures were give n for the letters (unknowns), then Example 1: a + b = 2 is to just replace ((tak

e) a letter by the corresponding number b = 3. May 3 + 2 = 5 Numeric Example 2: Determine the numerical value of 2a + 3b - 5 noting that second is the same as F ebruary. because a number between one and one letter has a multiplication. 2nd + 3. B-5 for a = 5 b = 2 2.5 +3.2-5 10 + 6-5 16-5 11 Once the numerical value (RCV) is 11. Exercise 3: Ca lculate the numerical value of 2 x 3 ² + y for x = 5 y = - 4 2. 5 ² + 3. (-4) 2. 25-12 50-12 VN = 38 Copy and resolve in his notebook: REMEMBER: 5 ² = 5. 5 = 25 1) Calculate the numerical value of expressions: a) x +2 b) fifth ² - 2b for x = 3 for a = 3 b = 2 www.ceesvo.com.br 4 c) d x + y) 2x - y for x = -1 y = 2 for x = 3 y = 4 x = 8 y = 3 z = 5 e) x + y - z ALGEBRAIC OR TERMINATION The term algebraic monomial consists of two parts: the literal (some of the letters) and the numerical coefficient (the number you are multiplying the literal part). When the algebraic expression is formed by two or more terms is called a polynomial. When you have only one term is particularly called monomials. Thus convention is: 4 x ² Numerical coefficient Part literal Eg 4x is a monomial in the variable x and the coefficient is 4. 2xy 3 is a monomial with variables x and y with coefficient 2. X ³ Y ² is a monomial with coefficient 1 (no need to write a paragraph before the variables). DO NOT FORGET: Is 4 X 4 • X (multiplication) Note the multiplication sign is not used between t he number and letter or letters between two or more eg 4ab = 4. to. b www.ceesvo.com.br 5 Monomials TERMS OR SIMILAR Two or more monomials are similar when the parties li terals (letters) are identical (same letters with the same exponents). So 15 x ² ³ b is similar to 6x ² b ³ part because they have the same literal (X ² b ³).T he monomials b and 10c-2CB ² ² are not similar because the parties literals (b a nd c ² ² cb) are not identical (the exponents of the letters are different). REDUCTION OF SIMILAR TERMS If there is an algebraic expression in two or more si milar terms, they can be reduced to one, simply perform the specified operation on the coefficients (numbers), keeping the literal (letter). Examples: 1) 5x ² + 7x ² - x ² = 11x ² + 5 7-1 = 11 NOTE: When the literal part (letters) is not worth writing a coefficient. Eg, X ² is equal to 1X ² To perform the operation with positive and negative numbers you must remember th at: 1) when the numbers have the same sign, the sum and keeps the signal, 2) whe n the numbers have different signs, subtract (strip) and follows the sign of the

n th largest . 2) - 4 to 9 and b ³ + b ³ + 7 - 10 = 5 to b ³ - 3a +9 -4 = 5 7010 = - 3 Note: When monomials are not similar there is no reduction of terms. Eg: 9x - 3y (no reduction because the parties are not the same literal). www.ceesvo.com.br 6 OPERATIONS monomials addition and subtraction of monomials: can only be made if the monomials are similar. To determine the outcome you must: 1 remove the brack ets by applying the rule of signs as shown in the examples below, 2 reduce (toge ther) like terms by observing the signs of the coefficients (numbers). 1 Example : (3x ²) + (-5x ²) addition of two monomials Different signals resulting negative sign. 3x ² - 5x =-2x ² ² (must have 3 and 5 = -2) 2 Ex: (-8 to ² ³ x) - (- 4a ² x ³) subtraction of monomials Equal signs result positive sign. -8 To ² x ³ + 4 ² x ³ =-4a ² x ³ (to 8 and has 4 = -4) 3 Example (4AX ²) - (-9AB ²) are not similar so it can not be reduzido. Você should just remove the parentheses: 4AX ² + ² 9AB Copy and resolve in his n otebook: 2) Perform the indicated operations and reduce similar terms: a)-5x ² y + 7X ² y - 20x ² y + 3x ² y = b) (-12b) + (- 8b) = c) 9x - 3x + 2y-5y d) (7s) - (- 4s) = 3) Look at the garden below. The letter X represents the width and x + 3 length. Represents the perimeter of the garden (the sum of four sides). www.ceesvo.com.br 7 SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION OF A SENTENCE MATHEMATICS. You know that to represent an unknown number, usually used if one of the letters of the Latin alphabet. Thus: A number X to represent its double, multiply the number by 2, Remember: Therefo re: • Twice the point of a number 2. The triple X or 2X a number is represented by 3. X or 3X and so on. Now in his notebook, using the symbols representing mat hematical expressions written in Portuguese: a number :........................ double the number :............................. triple the number :............ ........................ quadruple the number :...................... You nailed it has written as: X, 2X, 3X and 4X. represents multiplication. www.ceesvo.com.br 8 To represent the half of a number, written as for the number is divided by 2. When referring to "parties" means division. Repr esents symbolically in his notebook, the following expressions: Half a number :. ............................... The third part of a number :.................... ....... The fourth part of a number ........................... The fifth part o f a number :.......................... You certainly wrote this: X, X, nineteent h-April 23 5 Note carefully: A number added to 12 equals 20. Turning to the lang uage of mathematical representation of this sentence is a number X + plus 12 wit h 12 = 20

nce is: X + (X + 1) = 15. For the unknown number is X. www.ceesvo.com.br 11 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 6) In his notebook, go to the language of mathematics. Use a letter Latin alphabet to represent the unknown number. a) The sum of a whole number with its row is 29 . b) The sum of a number with the predecessor is 61. c) The sum of a number with her successor is 29. EQUATION Equation is an equality (=) involving one or more letters that are representing numbers. Note: Be aware that can be used as any letter to represent an unknown n umber. These numbers are called root or solution of the equation. The equations are classified by grade according to the greatest exponent of the unknown (lyric s). EQUATION 2X - 3 = 0 5x + 6 ² = 36 ³ + 6th-8th - 7 = -9 GRADE 1st 2nd 3rd BAC KGROUND The exp. X is one of the exp. X is the second largest exp. of AE3 www.ceesvo.com.br 12 EQUATIONS OF THE 1ST DEGREE To determine the value of the unknown (lyrics) simpl e equations you can use just the reasoning. In the equations more complex (diffi cult) is to use resolution techniques. See the example that the prof. Francisco gave: The prof. Francisco offered the following challenge to his student Flavia: "I thought of a number, multiplied by six, I added two and the result gave 32". Guess who is this paragraph. Flavia discovered No doing the inverse operations. See his notes: 32 30 6 0 5 is thought to paragraph 6 • 32 -2 +2 = 30 Prof. Fran cisco solves this problem by using a letter (X) to represent no thought. The tra nsactions made with it are listed as follows: • 6 x +2 = 32 plus 2 32 Results No thought and multiple. for 6 In the ruling obtained, one finds the value of X undoing the operations performe d with it. We started breaking the addiction. Note: 6 • X 2 + 6 = 32 • X = 32-2 6 • X = 30 Now, undo the multiplication: X = 30 = 6 X 5 To undo an operation we perform the "account" reverse. Add (sum): inverse operation is subtraction (minu s). Multiplication (times) inverse operation is division. What you just read is nothing more than solving an equation of the 1st Degree. www.ceesvo.com.br 13 Techniques for Solution of Equations Solve an equation is to find the value of variable (letter), so as to make equal ity real. Example 1: X + 8 = 13 You can only solve by reasoning: "What is the pa ragraph that summed with 8 Results 13? Answer: No. 5 is, therefore X = 5 In the 2nd example becomes more difficult to know the value of X in the equation. You w ill have to solve using the techniques explained below. 2 Ex: 2 + 7 x 1 = 13 mem ber 2 member Since we can not do "counts" of the terms that we have X numbers: - Isolate or separate, in one member, the terms that have "x" and the second mem ber, the terms that have no "x" - Reverse the signs of switching operations that change the terms of one member to another. You can use the chart to represent t his technique. Inverts the signal or the operation LETTER

LETTER NUMBER NUMBER Inverts the signal or the operation Example 3 2x + 7 = 13 Reverses the operation, the return signal. 2x = 13-7 2x = 6 Remember that the second is multiplying the variable x x = 6 th erefore is dividing. 2 x 3 = V = 3 www.ceesvo.com.br 14 4) 8x + 3 = 15 5x + 8x - 5x 3x 3x x = 15-3 = 12 = 12 = March 12 x = 4 V = 4 5) 3 • (x + 2) + 3 = 2 x First remove the parentheses, applying the distributive property of multiplication: (multiply the number of out with the words that are within parentheses). 3x + 6 + 3 = 2x 3x - 2x = - 6-3 x = -9 x = -9 V -9 = 6) Example: 4x + 2 = 5x - 3 3 1 2 2 Remember, the denominator of the two is a Reduce fractions same denominator to calculate the lcm 3.2, divide by the bottom and multiply by the top. 3.2 2 3.1 1 3 (multiply) 6 m.m.c 8x + 12 June 6 15x = 6 6 -9 Cancel the denominators (no. 6) and copy the numerators and solve the equation. 8x + 12 = 15x - 9 (separating X X) 8x - 15x = - 9-12 - 7x = - 21. (-1) X = 21 7x = 21 7 V = X = 3 www.ceesvo.com.br 3 15 7) 5x - 10 = x - 2 5x - x = -2 + 10 4x = 8 Remember: X = X 1 X 4 X = 8 = 2 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 7) Solve in his notebook the equations below:

ent) with different signs. X + Y = 15 (1st equation) X - Y = 3 (2nd equation) 2X = 18 2X = 18 X = February 18 X = 9 You add the two equations. The resulting equation, you determine the value of an unknown (in our case is X) . Step 2: Replace the value of the last the numbers X + Y = 15 (1st equation) th is Y = 15-9 represented by Y = 6 V alues of X and Y of the system: X = 8 arch 15 0Y there X = 5 www.ceesvo.com.br 19 Substituting X = 5 in the first equation, you get the value of Y. X + Y = 8 5 + 8 = Y Y Y = 8-5 = 3 The whole truth is represented as: V = (5, 3) (X, Y) 3) Solv e in his notebook the following system of equations: 3X + 2Y = 18-3X + 4Y = 0 Yo u got to have done so: 3X + 2Y = 18-3X + 4Y = 0 0X + 6Y 6Y = 18 = 18 = Y June 18 Y = 3 Substituting the value of Y 3 are: 3X + 2Y = 18 (1st equation) 3X + 2 • 3 = 18 3 x + 6 = 18 3x = 18-6 X = 12 X = 4 = 3 V (4.3) 2Y 2 • How is Y and you know that Y = 3 note the replacement in exercise. www.ceesvo.com.br 20 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 9) The difference of two numbers is 4 and the sum of these numbers is 26. What are these numbers? 4.What is the difference and 10) The sum of two integers is 34 are these numbers? X + 3Y = 17-X - 2Y = - 12 11) INITIATION analytic geometry Is it possible that the same problem can be solved both algebraically and geomet rically? You learned the solution of algebraic system of equations of a degree b y doing the calculations with numbers and variables. How will the geometric solu tion of the same system? Using the Cartesian plane, ie the graph. Note: You lear ned what it is and how is the Cartesian plane in Module 6, we recall: Using two lines numbered (or axes) that intersect at a point (origin) and considering: 1 a xes perpendicular to each other (forming angles of 90 °) 2 The same unit of meas meeting on the 1st or 2nd equation. Soon, Searches are 9:06 and 9 + Y = 15 whole tru = ((9, 6)) X, Y Example 2: Determine the v + Y 2X - 3X + Y = 7 Y 0 = 15 3X = 15 X = M

urement on the axes. Y 4 3 2 1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 12 . -1 -2 -3 -4 3 P (3,2) 456 X axis www.ceesvo.com.br 21 The horizontal axis is called the axis X. The vertical axis is called the axis Y . To locate a point P (figure), are traced through this point parallel to the ax es X and Y, respectively. Therefore, the point P of figure represents an ordered pair of real numbers (3.2) so that point is determined as intersection of strai ght lines parallel to the axes X and Y. P (3,2): The first number of the ordered pair is called the abscissa (X axis) and the second number is the ordinate (Y a xis). Both are called Cartesian coordinates. Returning to the example on page 2: X + Y = 15 X - Y = 3 to find the geometric solution we like: X + Y = 15 (1st equation) Consider two paragraphs that gives adding 15 to the 1s t table X - Y = 3 (2nd equation) Consider two paragraphs that give subtracting 3To make the 2nd table. We give values for X and Y in order to make the equations true. There are severa l options. We need at least two values for each equation. Note: XY XY 78 P (7,8) 3 0 P (3,0) 87 P (8,7) 4 1 P (4,1) You mark the points found from the 1st table in the Cartesian plane and traces its line . Then mark the points of the 2nd ta ble and draws the second line. The point (X, Y) where they cross is the response of the system. Note the chart on the following page: www.ceesvo.com.br 22 Points of the 1st table Y 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 Points in the 2nd table .. .. XY . P (9, 6) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

March 12 456 July 89 X axis The result will be the point of intersection of the line (where they intersect). The values X and Y = 9 = 6 are the ones that make both equations true: X + Y = 15 X-Y = 3 9 + 6 = 15 9-6 = 3 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 12) Solve watching on your notebook X + Y = 6 X-Y = 2 the previous explanation: Because we want the solution we need the geometric values of X and Y in both equ ations. Complete tables. X + Y = 6 = 2 X-Y XY XY Now just to score points in the Cartesian plane (graphic) and see the meeting of the two lines. This is the solution of the system. www.ceesvo.com.br 23 FEEDBACK 1) a) 5 b) 41 c) 1 d) and 2) 6 2) a) 15x ² y-b)-20b c) 6x - 3y b) 11s 3) P = x + x + x +3 + x +3 4 -) a) X + 8 = 12 b) X + 8 = 16 c) X - 2 = 7 d) X - 9 = 12 e) 2 X = 24 f) 3 X = 33 g) X = 7 4 ) 2X + 18 = 23 b) 3x + 28 = 32 c) X - 8 = 14 3 d) X - 14 = 70 4 6 -) a) X + (X + 1) = 29 b) X + (X - 1) = 61 c) X + (X + 1) = 29 7 -) a) X = 1 b) X = 5 2 c) x = -2 d) X = - 17 2 e) = 2 X f) X = 3 g) X = 30 www.ceesvo.com.br 24 or P = 4x +6 5 -) 8-) a) X = 8 b) X = 13 c) X = 15 d) X = 6 9 -) (15.11) 10 -) (19.15) 11 -) (2, 5) 12 -) 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 So the solution is X = Y = 4 and 2 (4.2) www.ceesvo.com.br 25 MODULE 12 OBJECTIVES: To provide students with: - The experience of the ideas discussed, i nvolving chances and opportunities that lead to observation, logical reasoning a nd organization of events around the world and - The ability to interpret bar ch