State Center for continuing education of Votorantim www.ceesvo.com.

br 1 MODULE 11 OBJECTIVES: At the end of this EU you should know: Recognise numerical and algeb raic expressions; Calculate the numerical value of an algebraic expression, iden tify the coefficient and the literal part of a monomial; Write mathematical sent ences; Equating problems of the first degree; Solve problems and interpret the f irst degree; Relate equations with day-to-day; Solve algebra a system of equatio ns of a degree by the addition method; • Interpret problems with two unknowns re lating them to the everyday setting up a system of equations; • Solve systems an d interpret the answers; • Knowing the geometric method in the Cartesian plane t o solve systems of equations of the first degree. • • • • • • • • Screenplay: - Read the module observing and following the resolution of the exam ples - Do the exercises in your notebook and check the answers on feedback - Wri te down the questions on notebook and ask the teacher. MAKE THE YEARS IN YOUR NOTEBOOK. DO NOT WRITE in the handout. www.ceesvo.com.br 2 The ALGEBRA BACKGROUND: The use of letters in troubleshooting a new era of mathematics. At t he moment we use letters to represent an unknown quantity entered the part of ma thematics called algebra. The use of facilitated communication letter mathematic s. For example, you may be: "The square of the sum of two numbers" for (a + b) ² to be understood in any country. The letters a and b are representing any two n umbers. There are mathematical expressions in the letters that need to represent an idea or a situation. Example: One liter of gasoline costs $ 1.70. How can yo u represent the spent fuel during a trip? You thought, thought and could not ans wer? It is missing some data on the problem? You do not know how many gallons of gasoline were spending? True, you can not get an immediate result, but there is a way to write this idea: using any letter to represent the amount of gallons o f gasoline. Then you can write 1.70. X where X represents the number of liters. Expressions made up of numbers and letters are called algebraic expressions. In mathematics we work with numbers, shapes and letters to represent numbers. Are t he formulas and equations. An example of using formula to calculate the perimete r P (sum of four sides) of a rectangle where one side is twice the other. Observ e the diagram below: You do not know the extent of one side so you can represent it by a letter. X represents the measure of one side. P = X + 2X + 2X + X X P = 6X 2.X www.ceesvo.com.br 3 In this expression X is unknown or variable and is representing an unknown numbe r. NUMERICAL VALUE OF A NUMERIC EXPRESSION is the number you get when you replac e the variables (letters) for real values (numbers). Note that figures were give n for the letters (unknowns), then Example 1: a + b = 2 is to just replace ((tak

e) a letter by the corresponding number b = 3. May 3 + 2 = 5 Numeric Example 2: Determine the numerical value of 2a + 3b - 5 noting that second is the same as F ebruary. because a number between one and one letter has a multiplication. 2nd + 3. B-5 for a = 5 b = 2 2.5 +3.2-5 10 + 6-5 16-5 11 Once the numerical value (RCV) is 11. Exercise 3: Ca lculate the numerical value of 2 x 3 ² + y for x = 5 y = - 4 2. 5 ² + 3. (-4) 2. 25-12 50-12 VN = 38 Copy and resolve in his notebook: REMEMBER: 5 ² = 5. 5 = 25 1) Calculate the numerical value of expressions: a) x +2 b) fifth ² - 2b for x = 3 for a = 3 b = 2 www.ceesvo.com.br 4 c) d x + y) 2x - y for x = -1 y = 2 for x = 3 y = 4 x = 8 y = 3 z = 5 e) x + y - z ALGEBRAIC OR TERMINATION The term algebraic monomial consists of two parts: the literal (some of the letters) and the numerical coefficient (the number you are multiplying the literal part). When the algebraic expression is formed by two or more terms is called a polynomial. When you have only one term is particularly called monomials. Thus convention is: 4 x ² Numerical coefficient Part literal Eg 4x is a monomial in the variable x and the coefficient is 4. 2xy 3 is a monomial with variables x and y with coefficient 2. X ³ Y ² is a monomial with coefficient 1 (no need to write a paragraph before the variables). DO NOT FORGET: Is 4 X 4 • X (multiplication) Note the multiplication sign is not used between t he number and letter or letters between two or more eg 4ab = 4. to. b www.ceesvo.com.br 5 Monomials TERMS OR SIMILAR Two or more monomials are similar when the parties li terals (letters) are identical (same letters with the same exponents). So 15 x ² ³ b is similar to 6x ² b ³ part because they have the same literal (X ² b ³).€T he monomials b and 10c-2CB ² ² are not similar because the parties literals (b a nd c ² ² cb) are not identical (the exponents of the letters are different). REDUCTION OF SIMILAR TERMS If there is an algebraic expression in two or more si milar terms, they can be reduced to one, simply perform the specified operation on the coefficients (numbers), keeping the literal (letter). Examples: 1) 5x ² + 7x ² - x ² = 11x ² + 5 7-1 = 11 NOTE: When the literal part (letters) is not worth writing a coefficient. Eg, X ² is equal to 1X ² To perform the operation with positive and negative numbers you must remember th at: 1) when the numbers have the same sign, the sum and keeps the signal, 2) whe n the numbers have different signs, subtract (strip) and follows the sign of the

n th largest . 2) - 4 to 9 and b ³ + b ³ + 7 - 10 = 5 to b ³ - 3a +9 -4 = 5 7010 = - 3 Note: When monomials are not similar there is no reduction of terms. Eg: 9x - 3y (no reduction because the parties are not the same literal). www.ceesvo.com.br 6 OPERATIONS monomials addition and subtraction of monomials: can only be made if the monomials are similar. To determine the outcome you must: 1 remove the brack ets by applying the rule of signs as shown in the examples below, 2 reduce (toge ther) like terms by observing the signs of the coefficients (numbers). 1 Example : (3x ²) + (-5x ²) addition of two monomials Different signals resulting negative sign. 3x ² - 5x =-2x ² ² (must have 3 and 5 = -2) 2 Ex: (-8 to ² ³ x) - (- 4a ² x ³) subtraction of monomials Equal signs result positive sign. -8 To ² x ³ + 4 ² x ³ =-4a ² x ³ (to 8 and has 4 = -4) 3 Example (4AX ²) - (-9AB ²) are not similar so it can not be reduzido. Você should just remove the parentheses: 4AX ² + ² 9AB Copy and resolve in his n otebook: 2) Perform the indicated operations and reduce similar terms: a)-5x ² y + 7X ² y - 20x ² y + 3x ² y = b) (-12b) + (- 8b) = c) 9x - 3x + 2y-5y d) (7s) - (- 4s) = 3) Look at the garden below. The letter X represents the width and x + 3 length. Represents the perimeter of the garden (the sum of four sides). www.ceesvo.com.br 7 SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION OF A SENTENCE MATHEMATICS. You know that to represent an unknown number, usually used if one of the letters of the Latin alphabet. Thus: A number X to represent its double, multiply the number by 2, Remember: Therefo re: • Twice the point of a number 2. The triple X or 2X a number is represented by 3. X or 3X and so on. Now in his notebook, using the symbols representing mat hematical expressions written in Portuguese: a number :........................ double the number :............................. triple the number :............ ........................ quadruple the number :...................... You nailed it has written as: X, 2X, 3X and 4X. represents multiplication. www.ceesvo.com.br 8 To represent the half of a number, written as for the number is divided by 2. When referring to "parties" means division. Repr esents symbolically in his notebook, the following expressions: Half a number :. ............................... The third part of a number :.................... ....... The fourth part of a number ........................... The fifth part o f a number :.......................... You certainly wrote this: X, X, nineteent h-April 23 5 Note carefully: A number added to 12 equals 20. Turning to the lang uage of mathematical representation of this sentence is a number X + plus 12 wit h 12 = 20

X 2 equals 20 As depicted: A number added to 7 equals 23? Write your answer in your notebook. Surely you wrote: X + 7 = 23 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 4) Skip to mathematical language. Use one of the letters of the alphabet to represe nt the unknown number and the proper symbols: a) a number added to 8 equals 12. b) A number added to 8 equals 16. c) a number by subtracting 2 Results 7. d) The difference between one and nine is 12. e) Twice a number is 24. f) The triple o f a number is equal to 33. g) The fourth part of a number is 7. www.ceesvo.com.br 9 Check your answers at the end of this module. If you got all the exercises, cont inue their studies. Otherwise redo them, analyzing their mistakes. Look closely: The sum of the triple with a number 15 is 27. The representation o f this sentence is: 3. X triple the number added 15 + 15 = 27 equals 27 Represent: The difference between twice a number and 15 is equal to 8. Write you r answer in your notebook. Surely you wrote: 2. X - 15 = 8. Difference is subtra ction. Copy and resolve in his notebook: 5) In his notebook,€skip to the mathematical language of the following statements: a) the sum of twice a number is equal to 18 to 23. b) The sum of three times a n umber is equal to 28 to 32. c) The difference between the third part of a number and eight is 14. d) The difference between the fourth part of a number and 14 i s 70. SUCCESSOR AND CONSECUTIVE predecessor or successor of 9 is 10, why? Because 9 + 1 = 10 To find the successor you add a unit number. To represent the successor o f an unknown number so you use the X + X 1 represents the successor or running, so we are adding a unit to the number (X) unknown. Remember that successor and r unning are synonyms (meaning the same thing). And the predecessor? The predecess or of a number is one that has one less. Example: the predecessor of 9 is 8, bec ause 9-1 = 8 www.ceesvo.com.br 10 As if symbolically represents the forerunner of a number? That's right! If X is the number then X - 1 is the predecessor of a number. In h is notebook, symbolically representing the expressions, using Y to represent an unknown number. a) The successor of a number ................................. b ) The predecessor of a number .............................. Surely you wrote: a ) a + Y b) Y - See how one is represented in mathematical language the sentence: The sum of a number and its predecessor is 81. The representation of this sente nce is X + (X - 1) = 81. Now it is with you: How to represent: the sum of a numb er under his successor is 57? If you wrote X + (X + 1) = 57, hit! Or X + X +1 = 57 Note: The numbers X and X + 1 are also called consecutive integers. Look clos ely: The sum of two consecutive integers is 15. The representation of this sente

nce is: X + (X + 1) = 15. For the unknown number is X. www.ceesvo.com.br 11 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 6) In his notebook, go to the language of mathematics. Use a letter Latin alphabet to represent the unknown number. a) The sum of a whole number with its row is 29 . b) The sum of a number with the predecessor is 61. c) The sum of a number with her successor is 29. EQUATION Equation is an equality (=) involving one or more letters that are representing numbers. Note: Be aware that can be used as any letter to represent an unknown n umber. These numbers are called root or solution of the equation. The equations are classified by grade according to the greatest exponent of the unknown (lyric s). EQUATION 2X - 3 = 0 5x + 6 ² = 36 ³ + 6th-8th - 7 = -9 GRADE 1st 2nd 3rd BAC KGROUND The exp. X is one of the exp. X is the second largest exp. of AE3 www.ceesvo.com.br 12 EQUATIONS OF THE 1ST DEGREE To determine the value of the unknown (lyrics) simpl e equations you can use just the reasoning. In the equations more complex (diffi cult) is to use resolution techniques. See the example that the prof. Francisco gave: The prof. Francisco offered the following challenge to his student Flavia: "I thought of a number, multiplied by six, I added two and the result gave 32". Guess who is this paragraph. Flavia discovered No doing the inverse operations. See his notes: 32 30 6 0 5 is thought to paragraph 6 • 32 -2 +2 = 30 Prof. Fran cisco solves this problem by using a letter (X) to represent no thought. The tra nsactions made with it are listed as follows: • 6 x +2 = 32 plus 2 32 Results No thought and multiple. for 6 In the ruling obtained, one finds the value of X undoing the operations performe d with it. We started breaking the addiction. Note: 6 • X 2 + 6 = 32 • X = 32-2 6 • X = 30 Now, undo the multiplication: X = 30 = 6 X 5 To undo an operation we perform the "account" reverse. Add (sum): inverse operation is subtraction (minu s). Multiplication (times) inverse operation is division. What you just read is nothing more than solving an equation of the 1st Degree. www.ceesvo.com.br 13 Techniques for Solution of Equations Solve an equation is to find the value of variable (letter), so as to make equal ity real. Example 1: X + 8 = 13 You can only solve by reasoning: "What is the pa ragraph that summed with 8 Results 13? Answer: No. 5 is, therefore X = 5 In the 2nd example becomes more difficult to know the value of X in the equation. You w ill have to solve using the techniques explained below. 2 Ex: 2 + 7 x 1 = 13 mem ber 2 member Since we can not do "counts" of the terms that we have X numbers: - Isolate or separate, in one member, the terms that have "x" and the second mem ber, the terms that have no "x" - Reverse the signs of switching operations that change the terms of one member to another. You can use the chart to represent t his technique. Inverts the signal or the operation LETTER

LETTER NUMBER NUMBER Inverts the signal or the operation Example 3 2x + 7 = 13 Reverses the operation, the return signal. 2x = 13-7 2x = 6 Remember that the second is multiplying the variable x x = 6 th erefore is dividing. 2 x 3 = V = 3 www.ceesvo.com.br 14 4) 8x + 3 = 15 5x + 8x - 5x 3x 3x x = 15-3 = 12 = 12 = March 12 x = 4 V = 4 5) 3 • (x + 2) + 3 = 2 x First remove the parentheses, applying the distributive property of multiplication: (multiply the number of out with the words that are within parentheses). 3x + 6 + 3 = 2x 3x - 2x = - 6-3 x = -9 x = -9 V -9 = 6) Example: 4x + 2 = 5x - 3 3 1 2 2 Remember, the denominator of the two is a Reduce fractions same denominator to calculate the lcm 3.2, divide by the bottom and multiply by the top. 3.2 2 3.1 1 3 (multiply) 6 m.m.c 8x + 12 June 6 15x = 6 6 -9 Cancel the denominators (no. 6) and copy the numerators and solve the equation. 8x + 12 = 15x - 9 (separating X X) 8x - 15x = - 9-12 - 7x = - 21. (-1) X = 21 7x = 21 7 V = X = 3 www.ceesvo.com.br 3 15 7) 5x - 10 = x - 2 5x - x = -2 + 10 4x = 8 Remember: X = X 1 X 4 X = 8 = 2 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 7) Solve in his notebook the equations below:

a) x + 3 = 4 b) 2x + 5 = 10 c) + 6 = 2x - 3x - 4 d) 4x + 9 = 2x - 8 and) 2 (X + 3) = 10 f) X + 1 = 3 3 2 2 i) X + 2X = 3x - 4 5 3 3 TROUBLESHOOTING To solve a p roblem, you should: 1) Carefully read the problem, 2) Identify the unknown data of the problem will be represented by a letter; 3) Identify the known data of th e problem; 4) Form the equation involving known and unknown data, using the symb ols of mathematics; 5) Solve the equation (find the value of the letter); 6) Wri te the answer to the problem. www.ceesvo.com.br 16 Now, read carefully the problems solved below for you to learn; Example 1: The s um of my age with 6 equals 28. What's my age? Since the unknown is "my age" repr esented by the corresponding equation X: X + 6 = 28 resolution of the equation: X + 6 = 28 X = 28-6 x = 22 Answer the problem: My age is 22 years. Example 2: Tw ice a number added to 13 equals 23. What is that number? Since the unknown is "t he number" represented by X, then the equation corresponding to the problem is: 2X + 13 = 23 resolution of the equation: 2. X + 13 = 23 2. X = 23-13 2. X = 10 X = February 10 X = 5 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 8) Copy in your notebook the problems below, passing into the language of mathemati cs and solves the equation: a) What is the number which, together with seven, eq uals 15? b) a number subtract 9 and found 4. Determine the no. c) Twice a number added to 20 equals 50. Calculate this number and find your triple. d) The tripl e of a number ten is less equal to twice that number minus four. What is that nu mber? www.ceesvo.com.br 17 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS OF THE 1ST LEVEL WITH TWO VARIABLES You already know how to find the value of a variable in the equation but the equ ation was formed by two variables (letters), how would you solve? Ex: X + Y = 15 See: If X = 7 Y = 8 If X = 2 Y = 13 Did you notice that there is only one solut ion? 7 + 8 = 15 2 + 13 = 15 If X = - 3 3 + 18 = 15 Y = 18 To determine a single value is necessary to have t wo equations, which together form a system of equations with two variables. Remember: To determine the values of variables is necessary that the number of v ariables equals the number of equations of the system. Commonly used systems to solve problems with two unknowns, and we follow the fol lowing steps: 1) Read the problem carefully and assemble the system with two var iables, typically X and Y. 2) Solve the system and then interpret the results ob tained the answer to the question asked. Look closely at the example: Example 1: The sum of two numbers is 15 and the difference between them is 3. What are tho se numbers? Representing the figures sought by X and Y, we have: X + Y = 15 (the sum of two numbers) X - Y = 3 (the difference of two numbers) www.ceesvo.com.br 18 • The system can be solved by the method of algebraic addition of two steps: Ste p 1 - canceling one of the letters (variables) Remember! To cancel a bill is necessary that they have the same number (coeffici

ent) with different signs. X + Y = 15 (1st equation) X - Y = 3 (2nd equation) 2X = 18 2X = 18 X = February 18 X = 9 You add the two equations. The resulting equation, you determine the value of an unknown (in our case is X) . Step 2: Replace the value of the last the numbers X + Y = 15 (1st equation) th is Y = 15-9 represented by Y = 6 V alues of X and Y of the system: X = 8 arch 15 0Y there X = 5 www.ceesvo.com.br 19 Substituting X = 5 in the first equation, you get the value of Y. X + Y = 8 5 + 8 = Y Y Y = 8-5 = 3 The whole truth is represented as: V = (5, 3) (X, Y) 3) Solv e in his notebook the following system of equations: 3X + 2Y = 18-3X + 4Y = 0 Yo u got to have done so: 3X + 2Y = 18-3X + 4Y = 0 0X + 6Y 6Y = 18 = 18 = Y June 18 Y = 3 Substituting the value of Y 3 are: 3X + 2Y = 18 (1st equation) 3X + 2 • 3 = 18 3 x + 6 = 18 3x = 18-6 X = 12 X = 4 = 3 V (4.3) 2Y 2 • How is Y and you know that Y = 3 note the replacement in exercise. www.ceesvo.com.br 20 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 9) The difference of two numbers is 4 and the sum of these numbers is 26. What are these numbers? 4.What is the difference and 10) The sum of two integers is 34 are these numbers? X + 3Y = 17-X - 2Y = - 12 11) INITIATION analytic geometry Is it possible that the same problem can be solved both algebraically and geomet rically? You learned the solution of algebraic system of equations of a degree b y doing the calculations with numbers and variables. How will the geometric solu tion of the same system? Using the Cartesian plane, ie the graph. Note: You lear ned what it is and how is the Cartesian plane in Module 6, we recall: Using two lines numbered (or axes) that intersect at a point (origin) and considering: 1 a xes perpendicular to each other (forming angles of 90 °) 2 The same unit of meas meeting on the 1st or 2nd equation. Soon, Searches are 9:06 and 9 + Y = 15 whole tru = ((9, 6)) X, Y Example 2: Determine the v + Y 2X - 3X + Y = 7 Y 0 = 15 3X = 15 X = M

urement on the axes. Y 4 3 2 1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 12 . -1 -2 -3 -4 3 P (3,2) 456 X axis www.ceesvo.com.br 21 The horizontal axis is called the axis X. The vertical axis is called the axis Y . To locate a point P (figure), are traced through this point parallel to the ax es X and Y, respectively. Therefore, the point P of figure represents an ordered pair of real numbers (3.2) so that point is determined as intersection of strai ght lines parallel to the axes X and Y. P (3,2): The first number of the ordered pair is called the abscissa (X axis) and the second number is the ordinate (Y a xis). Both are called Cartesian coordinates. Returning to the example on page 2: X + Y = 15 X - Y = 3 to find the geometric solution we like: X + Y = 15 (1st equation) Consider two paragraphs that gives adding 15 to the 1s t table X - Y = 3 (2nd equation) Consider two paragraphs that give subtracting 3To make the 2nd table. We give values for X and Y in order to make the equations true. There are severa l options. We need at least two values for each equation. Note: XY XY 78 P (7,8) 3 0 P (3,0) 87 P (8,7) 4 1 P (4,1) You mark the points found from the 1st table in the Cartesian plane and traces its line . Then mark the points of the 2nd ta ble and draws the second line. The point (X, Y) where they cross is the response of the system. Note the chart on the following page: www.ceesvo.com.br 22 Points of the 1st table Y 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3 -4 Points in the 2nd table .. .. XY . P (9, 6) -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

March 12 456 July 89 X axis The result will be the point of intersection of the line (where they intersect). The values X and Y = 9 = 6 are the ones that make both equations true: X + Y = 15 X-Y = 3 9 + 6 = 15 9-6 = 3 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 12) Solve watching on your notebook X + Y = 6 X-Y = 2 the previous explanation: Because we want the solution we need the geometric values of X and Y in both equ ations. Complete tables. X + Y = 6 = 2 X-Y XY XY Now just to score points in the Cartesian plane (graphic) and see the meeting of the two lines. This is the solution of the system. www.ceesvo.com.br 23 FEEDBACK 1) a) 5 b) 41 c) 1 d) and 2) 6 2) a) 15x ² y-b)-20b c) 6x - 3y b) 11s 3) P = x + x + x +3 + x +3 4 -) a) X + 8 = 12 b) X + 8 = 16 c) X - 2 = 7 d) X - 9 = 12 e) 2 X = 24 f) 3 X = 33 g) X = 7 4 ) 2X + 18 = 23 b) 3x + 28 = 32 c) X - 8 = 14 3 d) X - 14 = 70 4 6 -) a) X + (X + 1) = 29 b) X + (X - 1) = 61 c) X + (X + 1) = 29 7 -) a) X = 1 b) X = 5 2 c) x = -2 d) X = - 17 2 e) = 2 X f) X = 3 g) X = 30 www.ceesvo.com.br 24 or P = 4x +6 5 -) 8-) a) X = 8 b) X = 13 c) X = 15 d) X = 6 9 -) (15.11) 10 -) (19.15) 11 -) (2, 5) 12 -) 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 So the solution is X = Y = 4 and 2 (4.2) www.ceesvo.com.br 25 MODULE 12 OBJECTIVES: To provide students with: - The experience of the ideas discussed, i nvolving chances and opportunities that lead to observation, logical reasoning a nd organization of events around the world and - The ability to interpret bar ch

arts, column and pie, since the information brought by the media (radio, newspap ers, television, magazines etc.) always require these skills, so students can ma ke a world of reading to the satisfaction, - the opportunity to critically analy ze an information statistically. www.ceesvo.com.br 26 STATISTICS OF SURROUNDED BY ALL SIDES You may not know how to define statistics, but on hearing this word first thinks of numbers, tables and graphs, is not it? Statistics is a branch of mathematics specializing in collecting, organizing, representing and interpreting data, wit h the aim of studying the facts, phenomena, behavior. In many fields it is there to help solve problems and determine courses of action. See example: If the sta tistical study of the population of a country shows increasing rates of illitera cy, it is convenient to adopt educational policies to correct this problem. The industry uses statistics to assess the acceptability of their products on the ma rket and from there return strategies for production and sale of such products. The effectiveness of a remedy, treatment of a disease or the side effects it can cause are determined statistically, and so on. And you? The statistic is presen t in their daily lives: in magazines, newspapers, TV, in the interview that you answer about your favorite soap, the booklet with questions about the snack serv ice that you frequent, in occupations that you might have. How about learning a bit about it? This is the objective of this module: teaching the basics of stati stics for those who already live surrounded by it. There are companies specializ ing in statistical research (IBOPE, DATA SHEET, Vox Populi, etc.).. POPULATION A ND SAMPLE Consider this example: In times of elections, it is common to see surv eys of voting intention disclosed by the media. Did they interview all voters to obtain the survey data? No, that would be impossible. Then comes the concept of sample and population. www.ceesvo.com.br 27 Population: all voters make up the population of the phenomenon being studied. S ample: the proportion of the population was interviewed and is based on data col lected in this sample that the research is done. The choice of sample is an impo rtant part in the statistics .. Example: The consumption of tomatoes in the city of Curitiba. Population: inhabitants of the city of Curitiba Sample: 20 persons living in the same building from a street of Curitiba. Research is the consumpt ion of tomatoes in Curitiba. Question: Do you consume tomato? Of the 20 responde nts representing 100% of the sample you have: April 20 Yes 4 No 16 100 X Using t he simple rule of three you have: 20. X = 4. 100 X = 400 X 20 = 20% Conclusion: Only 20% of the inhabitants of Curitiba consume tomatoes. The resear ch is not valid! The population of Curitiba is not being adequately represented, because for a city this size a sample of 20 people is not significant. Resident s of the building forms a very small sample and particular. A sample has to have a quantity large enough to represent the research population in question. TABLE All data collected are organized in such a way that reduces to a table. See exa mple below: Some people have brothers or sisters, others have three, there are those who hav e no siblings and also those in large families, have six or seven siblings. In the class of Ana Lucia, that question was answered with a survey statistic. www.ceesvo.com.br 28

First it was necessary to collect data. The same question was being answered by all students and noted the results on th e blackboard: No name No name No of Sister to Sister to Sister to the Ana L. Edn a Henry 2 1 1 2 Ana Paula Eduardo M 0 2 2 2 Peter Ivo Fabian Antonio 1 1 0 Julia Renata 3 1 1 Fernando Bernardo Ricardo Luciana 0 0 0 Gabriel Célia Maria Ap 2 3 1 Daniela 3 Silvia Vargas Sonia 1 1 0 Neide Danilo Gilberto Olavo 1 0 1 5 E Zor aide to organize the data collected was made that table. It shows the number of cases of 0 brother, a brother, two brothers, etc.. No. OF BROTHERS 0 1 2 3 4 5 F REQUENCY February 11 6 3 0 1 is the number of people in each case. Name Number o f brothers name The table data can be represented in graphs. www.ceesvo.com.br 29 GRAPHICS: A COMMUNICATION FROM THE PRESENT Today, when we read a newspaper, a ma gazine or watched a television news is very common to find information about dif ferent situations represented by graphs. In this module we will examine some typ es of graphics and better understand the information contained therein. They are :-graphics segment;-graphics industries;-bar graphs or columns. 1) The graphs of lines or segments: they serve to show the progression of a phenomenon in a certain period of time. See example on another page: www.ceesvo.com.br 30 Looking at the graph we see that the candidate B has always been on high (rising line) showing the probability of being the winner. much like a pizza cut into several pieces and serve to situations that need a co mparative view of all the parts and whole. On this chart the unit most often use d is the percentage. Knowing that the angle of the circle is 360 degrees we matc h with the total percentage (100%) to calculate the angle corresponding to each percentage. Note the following example of the graph and how to determine the ang le relative to the value of each percentage. 2 -) Graphics industries: using circles to be sliced To represent 30% of congressmen np circle, write the following simple rule of th ree: 100% correspond to 360 100 = 360 multiplying 30 30% match X 100 = 30 • X • • X = 360 100 10 800 10 800 100 X = X = 108% 31 X www.ceesvo.com.br

results in the form of vertical or horizontal bars (columns), on the Cartesian p lane formed by two axes: horizontal and vertical. 3 -) bar graph or columns: the present www.ceesvo.com.br 32 V air would ction D odo O rde la 1 9 9 4-2 0 0 0 2, 5 2 1 R, 5 AND L1 Real 0, 5 0 January 1994 February 1995 March 1996 April 1997 May 1998 June 1999 July 2000 var ode would ction 1 9 9 4-2 0 0 Cartesian Plane Applying the idea we can think of a plan divided by two perpendi cular lines in four right angles. These lines are called axes and each of the fo ur angles is called the quadrant. Convention is to number the quadrants as follo ws: 2nd quadrant 1st quadrant 3rd quadrant 4th quadrant www.ceesvo.com.br 33 Whereas these straight lines are the representation of real and intersect the po int referred to zero, we get a referral system called the Cartesian system. The axes of this system are called Cartesian axes. Convention is that: • The horizon tal axis () is called the abscissa axis or x axis. • The vertical axis () is cal led the ordinate or y axis These two axes determine the Cartesian plane where to put the values of the charts. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF GRAPHS you to anal yze and interpret a chart is necessary to observe some elements that are part of it such as: Title: Identifies the subject matter being presented. surveyed. Legend: identifies what the elements that

were Titles axes: vertical and horizontal. The axes (straight lines) are divided into equal parts. Each point represents a unit of measure. It should be noted how much was divided on how much the unit of measure. In this example the vertical axis was divided into 10 10 000. Lung disease death DEATHS IN 100 THOUSAND PEOPLE 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ~ NO SMOKERS 5 cigarettes / day 15 CIGARETTES / DAY 25 cigarettes per day www.ceesvo.com.br 34 Copy and resolve in his notebook: 1) Look at the graph above and answer in your notebook a) What was the issue addressed in this research? b) What degree (how much as be en divided into units of measure) of the vertical axis? c) What is the column of squares? d) What was the total sample surveyed? (Total people) e) How many nonsmokers die from lung diseases? f) The 60 000 people who died were smokers how m any cigarettes per day? g) To you, what is the relationship between the quantity of cigarettes / day smoked and the number of deaths from lung disease? h) Have your say on the relationship of cigarette use and deaths from lung diseases. OBSERVE THE NEXT GRAPHIC AND REPLY IN YOUR NOTEBOOK: Assume the following situat ion: 144 candidates take a test for a contest in which the notes range from 0 to 10, every half point. The evaluation result is what is stated in the chart that follows: We say, for example, that: 12 is the frequency (quantity) of Note 3, 8 is the frequency of grade 6, the Y axis represents the frequency (number of stu dents each note). www.ceesvo.com.br 35 2) Copy in your notebook and complete the table below according to the data in the chart above: NO 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 TA S RES 0 May 11 Q. www.ceesvo.com.br 36 AGE RANGE OF PUPILS OF CEESVO - 2000 10% 14% 12%

1980 - 1985 1980 - 1976 1975 - 1971 1970 - 1966 1965 - 1960 Before - 1960 21% 25% 18% 3) Copy and answer in your notebook by adding to the space white. The caption refers to the range of birth years of the students of CEESVO. Analyze the graph and complete the following statements: a) The age range of 25 % of the students is ___________. b) The younger students represent the percenta ge of ________. c) If the older account for 14% of the students, the minimum age for 2003 is __________. d) Those born between 1975 to 1985 for a total of _____ % of students. e) A student who has 30 years in 2003 is within the age group tha t corresponds to ______% www.ceesvo.com.br 37 ARITHMETIC MEAN The arithmetic mean of a set number is the sum of all numbers divided by its qua ntity. See example: Example: In a competition of a high jump athlete with the fo llowing results in 6 hops: 1 jump = 2.22 m 2 = jump jump 2.36 m 3 m 4 = 2.30 = 2 .28 m jump 5th jump 6 = 2.32 m 2.38 m jump = The arithmetic average of the heigh ts that the athlete jumped given by the sum of all heights reached divide by the number of jumps.: M = 2.22 +2.36 +2 , 30 + 2.28 +2.32 + 2.38 = 13.86 6 6 M = 2. 31 m Copy and resolve in his notebook: 4) What is the average of a student who obtained the following notes: 1st two months two months 2 3 4 two months two months footnote footnote footnote footnote 9 8 10 9 We are happy. You have reached their goals by completing a stage of their studie s. Do not stop, keep going .. We find it (a) in high school. Congratulations! Th at its future is bright. You deserve it! www.ceesvo.com.br 38 Feedback: 1) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) 2) NOTES 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5. 5 6 6, May 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 FREQ. Deaths from lung diseases from 10,000 in the 10,000 people who smoke 15 cigarett es / day 185 000 people 5000 people 15 cigarettes / day Personal Personal 0 1 2 4 6 11 12 16 18 14 12 10 8 7 6 6 5 4 2 0 3) 0 a) 1965 - 1960 b) 12% c) 44 years d) 43% e) 21%

4) obtained an average 9. www.ceesvo.com.br 39 Bibliography: illustrative drawings from the books: BONGIOVANNI, Vicenzo, Vissoto, Olimpio Rudinin Leite, Laureano, Jose Luiz Tavare s. MATHEMATICAL LIFE. Fifth Grade to Eighth Grade São Paulo. Publisher Attica. 7 th Edition. 1995. Imen, Marcio Luiz, Marcelo Lellis. Math. Eighth Grade São Paul o. Editora Scipione. 1999. Scipione, Di Pierro Netto. MATH CONCEPTS AND STORIES. 6th Edition. Eighth Grade. São Paulo. Editora Scipione 1997. DONE BY THE TEAM OF MATHEMATICS 2007: - Elisa Rocha Pinto de Castro - Francisco Carlos Vieira dos Santos - Joshua Elias Latance - Rosy Ana Vectirans COLLABORATI ON: - Adriana Moreira Molinar - Esmeralda Cristina T. Ramon - Rosimeire Maschett o Nieri - Sara M. Santos DIRECTOR: - Elisabete Gomes Marinoni - Maria Isabel Ram alho de Carvalho Kupper COORDINATION: - Neiva Aparecida Ferraz Nunes SUPPORT: Ci ty of Votorantim www.ceesvo.com.br 40