Module 12. Geography key.

Developed countries GEOGRAPHY DEVELOPED THE BLOCKS America developed Europe Asia Oceania developed CEESVO 1 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries ITINERARY this module you will: Identify the countries of North-developed; see t hat these countries are located both in the northern hemisphere (mostly) but als o in the southern hemisphere (Oceania) Realize that there are developed countrie s in almost every continent, with the exception of Africa, and the most wealthy countries is concentrated in Europe; Observe the causes of major economic develo pment in the North and the way we manage to stay in that position. In the previous module, you saw that the world space is divided by natural crite ria which are: land (continents) and water (oceans and seas) and political crite ria - economic. According to the degree of industrialization, technology, econom ic and social development, countries can be divided into northern (developed) an d South (developing). Most countries belong to the group of poor countries and A frica is a continent composed only for underdeveloped countries. Why did the Nor thern countries are rich? Because their wealth is due in part to the initial exp loration of their colonies and currently, the profits of their companies abroad. The British industry at its inception, has grown thanks to the Mexican silver a nd gold in Brazil. The commercial expansion and the colonization process of the American countries, Africans and Asians the basis of sustained economic developm ent in Europe. Currently, sales of manufactured products at very high prices and the purchase of raw materials at low prices guarantee high profits for develope d countries, a trading extremely advantageous. The developed world covering near ly 15% of the world. CEESVO 2 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries You know how the lives of people developed? The city of Paris, nicknamed "City of Light", is the capital and center of econo mic, political and cultural France. One of the most important commercial hubs of Europe, mainly Paris has attracted entrepreneurs from the printed materials and luxury goods, according to their effervescent arts and cultural programming. So you can find in its broad avenues hundreds of jewelry stores, haute couture, bo

okstores, art galleries and fluff, offering what is most expensive and exquisite in the world of fashion and the arts, as well as its latest releases. Credit: P hotoDisc They have a high standard of living, their wages and guarantee good food decent housing, more employment opportunities, access to education and health. The diff erences between rich and poor happen far less than in underdeveloped countries, like Brazil. Political life is governed by a constitution that represents the wi ll of the people, in developing countries, still live with military coups and di ctatorships. Political stability is guaranteed in part by the distribution of we alth. We could not find, as in the South, income concentration, ie with very few and many with almost nothing. There are contrasts (differences) in the develope d world? Absolutely. Some countries are still considered late (Portugal, souther n Italy, Greece). But even so, the standards of living are much higher standard of living of the Third World (underdeveloped countries). Exercises. Answer in your notebook: 01. Countries, according to the degree of ec onomic development, can SER3 CEESVO divided into two groups. What are they? And the group that belongs to most countries of the world? Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries DEVELOPED THE BLOCKS America Americas Developed In only two countries have a dev eloped economy: the United States and Canada - that make America Anglo-Saxon (En glish speaking countries). USA: in the seventeenth century, England began the co lonization of American territory that now constitutes the United States of Ameri ca. The political and religious problems that happened in the sixteenth century in England, led many Englishmen to leave Europe and settle in the Americas. CEESVO 4 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries have established in the region, an immigrant colonization, a fter the Portuguese colonization of Brazil (1532). While the Portuguese came to explore our wealth (colonization of exploitation), developed in the English colo nization of North America based on democratic principles, which was an important step towards political and economic independence of these colonies. People were well placed economically and San Francisco - USA Montreal Canada The northern United States had a significant industrial development (large amoun t of natural resources) and concentrated landholdings south (large estates) that produced mainly cotton and tobacco. After the Civil War in 1865 (the north agai nst the south) and the victory of the industrialized north, the industry has exp anded across the country, determining the major U.S. development. CEESVO

5 Module 12. The search for new markets for their products and new sources of raw materials has developed an imperialist policy (of domination), Latin America. Fr om 1930, the domination is now done through the establishment of multinational c ompanies on all continents. After the 2nd World War (1945), while the U.S. figur e as a great power of the capitalist world until 1991, when Japan and Western Eu rope began to divide that space. Geography key. Developed countries Los Angeles is the second largest U.S. city. Located between the Pacific Ocean a nd San Gabriel mountains of California, was born in 1835 and the Mexican city wa s declared capital of Mexico. In 1847, however, was won by Commodore Stockton an d incorporated in the United States. And overcrowded tourist center, Los Angeles today is the land of cinema, where the big American studios and live famous act ors and actresses. Credit: PhotoDisc With the multipolar, increased competition in the world market, forcing the U.S. to invest more in technology and the advancement of scientific research to indu strial production. You know what multipolar? The multipolar happens when several economic powers divide world leadership among themselves, the USA, Japan and Eu ropean Union (Western Europe - especially Germany). Canada: Canada was colonized by the French and English who still live in cultural conflict. Although English is the official language, many areas still speak French (Quebec for example). H is connection with the U.S. is not only geographically, its economy is fully int egrated into the American economy. The Canadian industry produces all types of g oods, mainly mechanical and chemical. The economic union between the two countri es is important because they complement each other to strengthen the U.S. agains t other world powers. EUROPE CEESVO 6 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries You know where they came from the Portuguese who colonized Brazil? Came from Eur ope, a continent which has a population of more than 700 million people, respons ible for the colonization of much of the land surface. It was Europe who left th e expeditions for new lands were discovered and colonized. How to divide Europe? Most often, it is customary to divide or regionalize Europe: Northern, Southern , Central, West and East. REGIONAL DIVISION OF EUROPE CEESVO 7 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries But this division has some problems, mainly because we do not take into account

the social and historical elements. Knowing that the lives of several European p eoples is directly related to these issues politico, Europe can be divided into: Western Europe: formed by developed capitalist countries, or the First World, w hich are characterized by presenting a consolidated market economy. Eastern Euro pe: meet the former socialist countries, which had a few years ago, a planned ec onomy. Currently there are "transition economy", which largely has not fully con solidated its market economy. Did you know that Western Europe is considered the cradle of modern society? It was in this part of Europe that was born of capita lism and the Industrial Revolution, which were the hallmark of great change not only economic but social and human. From the Industrial Revolution occurred in E ngland in the eighteenth century, all the rules of economics and social life cha nged. London, capital of England, is a major economic and cultural centers of the worl d. Europe's largest city, the metropolis is divided into 32 districts plus the " City of London," in the center. Most of the center is located north of the Thame s, and contains 12 neighborhoods, including the City of Westminster, where the n ational government buildings. About 12 million people live in London and 20 mill ion visitors annually. Credit: PhotoDisc Munich, the Bavarian state capital and third largest city in Germany, has about 1.2 million inhabitants. Situated in th e south, along the river Isar, the city attracts tourists for its sophisticated shops, great pubs, nightclubs, parties and celebrations. It is an important indu strial center, producing products such as beer, electrical equipment,€optical in struments and processed foods, among others. Is connected by airlines, railroads and highways to major German cities and other cities in Europe. Credit: PhotoDi sc CEESVO 8 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Western and Eastern Europe Trade relations, dependence among countries, the division of society (bourgeoisi e and proletariat), urbanization and modernization of geographic space were caus ed by these events. European imperialism (domination economic, political and cul tural) of its colonies in America, Asia and Africa, secured the European hegemon y until the 2nd World War (1945). Devastated after the end of the 2nd World War, Europe was forced to ally itself to the U.S. for its reconstruction (the Marsha ll Plan - 1948). CEESVO 9 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Learn more about the Marshall Plan Interested in expanding the area of U.S. infl uence in the world, President Harry Truman establishes the Truman Doctrine. With the basic objective of combating the spread of communism, created the Marshall

Plan: massive financial investment aimed at rebuilding the economies of Western Europe, devastated by war, and thus consolidate the capitalist structures on the continent. To strengthen the power of the executive and strengthen the principl es of the Truman Doctrine, the United States approved the National Security Law (National Security Act), establishing the National Security Council (NSC) and Ce ntral Intelligence (CIA). Several plans and political and economic treaties emerged from there: NATO (1949 ) - Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty - the military alliance between th e allied countries of Europe. ECSC (1951) - European Coal and Steel BENELUX - (1 958) Economic Union between Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. EEC (1958) - European Economic Community. EFTA (1900) - Economic Association of Free Trade. All of these organizations were important to the economic development of Wester n Europe and reducing interference in the American region. Common features of th e countries of Western Europe: predominantly urban population: since the Industr ial Revolution, the population has migrated (moved) to urban areas and still is concentrated in cities. Low infant mortality rates: the high standard of living and health care accounts for very low rates of infant mortality. Low rates of na tural increase: the population is increasingly aging and not being renewed: to d ie later (high average life expectancy) and almost not born children. Racist mov ements: it grows in European hostility toward immigrants (blacks, Jews, Turks, e tc.). Who enter countries illegally in search of jobs. The European Union in 199 4 was created the European Union seeking a greater economic and political develo pment of Western European countries, making them a unified territorial portion. Preserving their cultural identities and differences, these countries together h ave become an economic power. Starting in 2002, began circulating the euro singl e currency and European Central Bank is a reality. CEESVO 10 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries The unification will not take away the economic differences, nor interfere in th e political life of countries, but will provide development and improvement of w orking conditions. After the 2nd World War (1945), Europe was divided into two blocs: the US-led ca pitalist and socialist led by the Soviet Union. Socialism and planned economy ex isted for several decades in Eastern Europe. To strengthen the union of these co untries, two organizations were created: Comecon: Council of Mutual Economic Ass istance. Warsaw Pact: military pact based in Warsaw. For a long time, the countr ies of Eastern Europe were linked economically to the former Soviet Union. After the crisis of the Socialist System in 1989, many countries abandoned the regime peacefully. Only Albania still resists these changes. In Eastern Europe we find three categories of countries: 1. highly industrialized countries - Poland, Hun gary, Croatia, Slovenia. 2. less industrialization - Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuani a etc.. 3. agro-industrial - Albania. The countries of Eastern Europe are going through a difficult period of change from centrally planned to market economy an d suffer the consequences, such as: CEESVO 11 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Increase in inflation, unemployment, State enterprises scrapped; Difficulties in managing new private enterprises; dissatisfaction of certain portions of the po

pulation. Despite all the difficulties they face,€have the privilege of being de veloped Western European neighbors with whom they have close historical and cult ural. They are considered a kind of European periphery, but try to take the path of prosperity used by Western European countries, including its integration int o the European Union. Warsaw, capital and largest city of Poland, is situated in the central region of the country and is divided by the River Wisla into two main zones, the commerci al, where historic monuments and residential. Despite having 90% of its territor y destroyed during World War II, Warsaw was rebuilt and today is one of the grea t historic cities of Europe with its "old town (Stare Miasto) and the cathedral of the fourteenth century carefully restored. Its population is 1.6 million inha bitants. Exercises. Answer in your notebook: 02. England colonized America. What is the d ifference between the colonization of Brazil and the U.S.? 03. Why until 1991 th e U.S. was the only major world economic power? DEVELOPED ASIA The developed countries of the Asian continent can be divided into two blocks: T he CIS and Japan you know what is CIS? The Commonwealth of Independent States is a political-economic organization established in 1991 and brings together Russi a and the countries that belonged to the Soviet Union. CEESVO 12 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Have you heard of the Soviet Union? The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was the largest socialist country in the world, formed by Russia and countries that were annexed after its creation in 1922. The USSR faced harsh attacks since its inception because its production was always directed to the military interests o f the state. As he gradually became a power in the arms industry (weapons), the population suffered from a lack of consumer products (food, clothing, appliances etc.). With the deepening of the internal problems in 1986, tried to perestroik a (restructuring) politicaleconomic trying to solve the country's problems by up grading it in order to be among the major powers. The St. Basil's Cathedral in Red Square was built between 1554 and 1556 by Tsar Ivan VI, the Terrible. Erected in honor of the victory of the Tsar on the Khanat e of Kazan and Astrakhan, the church was designed by architects Barma and Posnik . St. Basil was a priest who lived in the sixteenth century and was burned to de ath inside the church during the reign of Tsar Fyodor I. The perestroika ended in 1991, mainly because of opposition from the privileged strata of society, who thought criticism of the very slow changes and the need t hat some republics had to get rid of the Soviet Union. With the end of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the independence of the republics that formed it created the CIS, an economic organization that star ted strongly integrated. Gradually, the CIS member countries are having greater autonomy. Japan Japan is located in the Far East, consists . The main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku larger than the State of São Paulo, 125 million y in 80% of its territory in agriculture has one s mainly rice. of a set of about 4,000 islands and Kyushu. In an area slightly people live. Mountainous countr of its main activities. Produce

CEESVO 13 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Devastated by two atomic bombs in World War 2 (1945), Japan could only emerge fr om a slump because of the discipline and determination of its population. The Ja panese government coordinates and protects the industry itself. In addition, it invests heavily in research and technological conquest of foreign markets. Inves ts heavily also in education. With that Japan, in a short time, became a major w orld powers. The Tokyo region is the most industrialized country, besides being a political capital, economic and cultural cooperation with some 20 million inha bitants. The modern city of Tokyo, located in central Japan, is the capital and largest c ity. Major industrial center and transport, has the first public monorail line a nd high speed trains that unite the other major Japanese cities. Founded in the twelfth century, today's metropolis dispute with London and New York the title o f world's economic center. It has more than 100 colleges and universities, many shopping malls, palaces, temples and gardens open. Credit: PhotoDisc The Way Back Do you know someone who went to work in Japan? After the 2nd World War, Brazil began to receive large numbers of immigrants who came looking for la nd to work. They were delighted with our territorial extension, once came from a small, mountainous country. But today,€the situation is reversed. There is grea t number of Brazilians who are descendants of Japanese immigrants who return to Japan to work and improve their living conditions. The wages and working conditi ons have been better because Japan also suffers from the problems affecting the world economy. Still, a developed country like Japan, always offers better oppor tunities. In Japan, where most of the population is very attached to the Shinto, there are hundreds of towers (gateways) wooden constructed next to the temples. According to the adherents of that religion, the tower has the function of purifying the spiritual man and transport him to the angelic world is the abode of the gods. T he Shinto search sensitivity, serenity and order, and sees nature as a manifesta tion of God's power. Also worships the ancestors and the emperors of the country . CEESVO 14 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Oceania Oceania, continent or is a BRAND NEW set of islands that lies in the Pac ific Ocean. Australia Of 26.5 million inhabitants, 17.6 million live in Australi a. Australia was colonized by the British in 1901 and only got its own Constitut ion, which created a federation uniting the various colonies that existed. With an economy diversified industrial activity has developed, because mining is cruc ial for exports. Its inhabitants have a high standard of living with all the fea tures of developed countries.

The complex cultural Opera House, Sydney, built in 1973, is a major postcard tow n with its futuristic architecture. Designed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon, the complex has restaurants and shops and offers beautiful views of the entire bay of Port Jackson. Throughout the year there presentations of theater, dance, ball et, concerts and film screenings. A few meters are the Parliament, the Australia n Museum and the Public Library of the state. New Zealand Located in the South Pacific, southeast of Australia, New Zealand is an archipel ago with two large mountainous islands, the South and North, where is the capita l, Wellington. Its beautiful landscapes, consisting of lakes, fjords and glacier s, annually attracts nearly one million tourists. The population is mostly white , mostly of British origin. Credit: Felipe Goifman CEESVO 15 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Auckland is located in 1865, when the function was transferred to Wellington, th e city has developed narrow isthmus on the island between the North Waitemata an d Manukau harbors. Country's capital from 1840 to the largest urban area like Ne w Zealand and an important commercial and financial center. It has the largest c oncentration of indigenous Maori in the country and a large number of people fro m other Polynesian islands in the South Pacific Credit: PhotoDisc It is the 2nd country of Oceania in extent (size) and population (3.6 million in habitants). Colonized by the English, its economy based on agriculture, livestoc k (exports wool, meat) and a well developed industry. New Zealand is not an indu strial power, but its inhabitants have a high standard of living. Exercises. Respond in your notebook: 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. Europe can be divid ed into 4 parts. What are they? Noting the political map of Western Europe, cite the names of five countries What differentiates Western Europe Eastern Europe? Why Western Europe could be considered the cradle of modern society? The countri es of Western Europe have common features. Write about them. The economy of the countries of Eastern Europe is undergoing a transition period. What is the chang e that is occurring and what are the problems? What were the causes of the end o f the USSR? What is ERC? For many Brazilians are going to work in Japan? What ar e the countries that make up Oceania? And how has the economy of each? 10. 11. 12. CEESVO 16 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries Further reading: Developing nations, Customization, The end of "made in" The ind ustry accounts for approximately 30% of the wealth generated in the world - some

thing around 9.6 trillion dollars in 2001, according to the World Bank. In recen t years, however, the largest productive sector have been punished by the retrac tion of the world economy. With lower sales, many factories have cut production and cut jobs. The scenario clashes with the remarkable performance achieved duri ng the 1990s, when industrial production grew at a rate of 2.8% per year, accord ing to United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). Developing na tions - Foreign direct investments in the productive and technological advances have made in factories,€in the 1990s, the expansion rate of the Gross Domestic P roduct (GDP) industry was nearly three times greater in developing nations than in developed ones. The share of GDP corresponding to the industrial sector is 34 % in developing countries, compared with 24% in developed countries. This is als o due to faster growth of service sector in developed countries. In practice, th ere is nevertheless a significant change in the leadership position in the U.S., Japan or Germany. The expansion of the industrial potential in developing count ries is due partly to the transfer of factories from rich nations for these site s. In the first half of the 1990s, these countries came to receive 32% of the in vestments of multinational firms outside their country of origin. This occurs ma inly in traditional industry, which demands a lot of raw material, energy and ma npower. How to provide good infrastructure, skilled workers and lower wage level s, in addition to telecommunications services and transport, some of these count ries are turning into new industrial centers. By contrast, rich nations are turn ing increasingly to high-tech industries (IT, biotechnology, telecommunications, aerospace), whose profitability is much higher. Customization - The industry ha s been creating alternative and more efficient performance. The model of mass pr oduction and selling stocks based, broadcast from 1913, leasing space to call cu stomization. In this, the factories produce custom, meeting specifications of th e final consumer. This only occurs because although the product is standardized, it becomes possible to modify some of its features, thanks to adjustments in as sembly lines. According to recent studies, about 20% of cars sold in the North A merican continent are made to order. In Germany the rate is even higher: 60%. Th e end of "made in" - Another trend is the adoption of common standards for the a ssembly lines of various countries, allowing the same product will be manufactur ed in various parts of the world - preferably where costs are lower. This proces s puts an end to the national identity of the products, the famous "made in". An d it is evident in the automotive sector, both in vehicle production and in the manufacture of parts and accessories. Changes in production structure of the ind ustry are so great that some scholars have already pointed out the emergence of a new industrial category: the factories of intelligence intensive, requiring la rge investments in technology. End. CEESVO 17 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries BIBLIOGRAPHY ADAS, Melhem. Geography. São Paulo. Attica Publishing, 1994. ALMANA C APR. CD ROM, 8th Edition, 2004 2000.e BELTRAME, Zoraide Victorelli. Geography Active. São Paulo. Attica Publishing, 1995. FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF BRAZIL, 1998 . DIAMANTINO, Alves C. Pereira and others, Science of Space. São Paulo. Current Publishing, 1994 DIMENSTEIN, Gilberto. Apprentice of the Future. São Paulo. Atti ca Publishing, 2000. ELECTRONIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Koogan HOUAISS 2000 NEWSPAPERS: Fol ha de São Paulo, São Paulo, Cruzeiro do Sul and Sheet Votorantim. LUCCI, Elian A labi. Geography. The man in the world space. São Paulo. Editora Saraiva, 1997. I BGE. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Static. MAGNOLIA, Demetrius e. Project for Teaching Geography. São Paulo. Editora Moderna, 2000. Medici, Miriam de Cas sia e. New Generation collection. São Paulo. New Generation Publishing, 1999. MO REIRA, Igor. The geographical space. São Paulo, Editora Attica, 1998. NIDELCOFF, Maria Teresa. The school and the understanding of reality. São Paulo. Editora B rasiliense, 1990. OLIVA, Jaime. Space and Modernity. Themes of World Geography.

São Paulo. Current Publishing, 1995. PROFESSOR PC, Geography, CD ROM REVIEWS: Se e, that is, Super Interessante, Epoch, Globo Rural. RODRIGUES, Rosicler Martins. Brazilian cities. São Paulo, Editora Moderna, 1995. SENE, Eustace of e. Geograp hic space and globalization. São Paulo. Editora Scipione, 1998. Simielli, Maria Helena. Atlases. São Paulo. Attica Publishing, 2000. TELECURSO 2000, Geography, Vol 1 and 2. VESENTINI, J. William. Society and Space. São Paulo. Attica Publish ing, 1997. CEESVO 18 Module 12. Geography key. Developed countries TEAM OF GEOGRAPHY CEESVO 2005 Jaime Aparecido da Silva Maria de Fatima Pinto Deise Quevedo Bertaco COLLABORATION PCP - Neiva Aparecida Ferraz Nunes Team Geography CEESSO 2004 Mari noni DIRECTION Elisabete Gomes Maria Isabel R. C. Kupper SUPPORT. City of Votorantim. CEESVO 19