Boiler - Steam Generator Boiler or steam generator is a device intended to gener ate steam through a heat exchange between

the fuel and water, and this is done b y this equipment built with plates and tubes whose purpose is to make water heat s and go from liquid to gaseous, using the heat released by the fuel that makes the metal parts of it and transfer heat to heat the water producing steam. The p urpose of generating the steam came from the industrial revolution and the means of the time she had was of little use, but the steam at the beginning served fo r the purpose of moving machines and turbines for power generation and locomotiv es, with the advent of the industrial need was required the need for cooking and cleaning and food manufacturing, it was necessary evolution of the boilers. Wit h this steam is used in dairy plants, food (tomato sauce, sweet), gelatin, tanne ries, slaughterhouses, industrial curing, sugar and alcohol, textiles, pulp and paper factories etc.. Our Plants and alcohol were successful because we use the actual sugar cane bagasse for power generation plant and power plants today are taking advantage of this fuel that is left over from the manufacture of sugar an d alcohol to generate electricity, and some of the products marketed by them. Ou r boilers are classified as boilers or flamatubulares fogotubular and Watertube or mixed (and Flamatubulares Watertube) Boilers flamatubulares are those whose t hermal exchange with the hot gases passing into the tubes and water outside the tubes. The water tube boilers are boilers that are the hot gases out of the pipe s and water inside the tubes. Flamatubulares boilers are boilers that generate s team in order 50-20000 kg / h with maximum pressure of 15 bar or 15 kg/cm2, due to his own conception of construction becomes uneconomical and also due to safet y above these values the mechanical construction the same. The water tube boiler s are boilers have large heat exchange area can work at pressures of 120 bar, "1 20 kg/cm2 and flows of the order of 150,000 kg / h, because they work with ballo ons and paneled walls of water pipes. The boiler applications with flow rates of the order flamatubulares 300-20000 kg / h and pressures of 8.0 kg/cm2 to 15 kg/ cm2 in industries of food, refrigerators, beverage, dairy, testing industry, and factories that use oil boilers the order of 15000 kg / h. The boiler water tube boilers are used in sugar mills, factories, pulp and paper and power generation , with presões 120 kg/cm2 and flows of the order 150,000 kg / h. or more. With the advent of Mary s moke and scrapping of the railway line flamatubulares locomovel these boilers as they were called, were used in our refrigeration industries, leather and dairy products being redesigned and installed in our plants to meet industrial demand. These boilers only one pass and low yield by 18kg/m2 or 60%, were replaced by b oilers of two and three passes of the hot gases inside the tubes with surface he at exchanger for solid fuels of about 25 kg/m2 with compressing it more, boiler, and up to 85% yield. Already liquid fuel in the boilers, we arrive at around 33 kg/m2, 45 kg/m2 and today even with yields of around 98%. The water tube boiler s work with 45kg/m2, rate of heat exchange surface for heat exchange, the surfac e area of heat exchange area and any metal that is in contact with gases (fire) and water, which exchange heat and generate steam so it is called surface area f or heat exchange and given in m2. In the early ethanol plants whose only purpose was to manufacture alcohol, if made with lots of boilers and furnaces refractor y horseshoe to have a low income 60% to consume all the cane that became a probl em remains the same shortly thereafter, it was finding alternatives to bagasse a nd this was by improving the efficiency of boilers, and today is the great alter native co-generation electric power for cities, improving the efficiency of boil ers working with incomes of 90%. Boiler is a metal whose function is, among many , the production of steam by heating water. The boilers are usually used to powe r thermal machines, autoclaves for sterilization of various materials, cooking b y steaming or heating the environment. As Bazzo (1995), in the industries of the early eighteenth century many were the disadvantages caused by the combustion o f local coal to generate heat.€The first machines to steam generation emerged t o solve this problem, since the energy was captured in a central unit and distri buted to various sectors of the company, through the steam boilers flamotubulare s tube boilers of fire or smoke tubes, flamotubulares or gas-tube are those in w

hich the gases from the combustion fumes "(hot gases and / or exhaust gases) pas s through the inside of boiler tubes which are surrounded by water, yielding the same heat. The vertical boiler tubes are placed vertically in a cylindrical bod y, closed at the ends by plates called mirrors. The furnace is located in the in ner cylindrical body, just below the bottom mirror. The combustion gases rise th rough pipes, heating and vaporizing the water that lies externally to them. The furnaces are used outside especially for low calorific fuels. They may be internal or external furnace (pi ctured below) Boilers Horizontal This type of boiler comprises several forms, fr om Cornwall and Lancashire boilers, large volume of water, until the modern comp act units. The pricipais horizontal boilers have internal pipes, through which t he hot gases. May have 1-4 tubes of the furnace. As of 3:04 is used in the Navy. Boiler Cornwall Basically consists of two horizontal cylinders connected by fla t plates. Its operation is simple, presenting however, low yields. For a heating surface of 100 m² has already large, which causes limitation on the pressure, as a rule, the pressure should not go beyond 10kg/cm ². Lancashire boiler is co mprised of two (sometimes three or four) pipe internal surface warming reaching 120-140 square feet. Content page up to 18 kg of steam per square foot of heatin g surface. This type of boiler is being replaced gradually by other types. Multi -tubular boiler furnace inner As its name implies, has several tubes of smoke. C an be of three types: tubes direct fire gases throughout the body of the boiler once. Tubes of return fire from the combustion gases in the pipe from the furnac e circulating through the tubes of return. Tubes and direct return fire The hot gases circulate through the tubes and return the direct return. Steam boilers, w ater passes through a container (boiler) that is heated, turning into steam. It was designed in 1708 (sec XVIII), by Thomas Newcomen, in order to remove the wat er deposited inside the coal mines, allowing the mining of coal. It was designed during the Industrial Revolution. Multi-tubular boiler furnace outside In some boilers the furnace of this type is formed by the masonry, below the cylindrical body. The hot gases of combustion stemmed initially come in contact with the lo wer base of the cylinder, returning the tubes of fire. Scottish Boilers This type of boiler is designed for marine use, being very compact. Conceptions are using tubing and smaller tubes. The hot gases originating from the internal combustion in the furnace checked, can move at 2.3 and up to four passes. All eq uipment necessary for its operation are incorporated into a single piece, formin g thus a whole trans portable and ready to operate immediately. These boilers op erate exclusively with oil or gas, and the movement of gases is made by fans. Ca n yields of up to 83%. Boilers and locomotives move Like the name suggests, boil ers generate steam locomotives to move the machine itself and the rest of the co mpositions, virtually discarded atualmete. The boiler is locomóvel type multi-t ubular steel featuring a double wall, through which circulates the water from th e body. Are of broad application for ease of transfer site and for providing mec hanical drive in places lacking electricity. Are built for pressure up 21kg/cm2 and superheated steam. Advantages of fire tube boilers At large volume of water they contain, also meet the fluctuating loads, ie instantaneous increases in dem and for steam. Easy construction, relatively low cost. Are quite robust. Require water treatment less established. Require little masonry. Disadvantages of fire tube boilers, pressure gauge limited to 2.2 MPa (approximately 22 atmospheres), which is due to the fact that the thickness necessary to plates of cylindrical pressure vessels increases with the second power of the internal diameter, makin g more advantageous to distribute the water in several smaller vessels,€as tube s of boilers with water tubes. In steam cycle for power generation, this limitat ion of pressure causes the cycle efficiency is more physically limited, not bein g vantojoso employment of such equipment in the medium (around 10 MW) or larger. Small capacity of vaporization (kg steam / hour) heat exchangers are of little exchange area per volume (less compact). Present difficulties for the installati on of superheater and preaquecedor air. Watertube boilers water tube boilers are also called water walls of boilers or water pipes. Are most common when dealing

with plants or thermal power generation in general, except in small units. The working pressure of boilers of this type can reach 26 MPa, which is higher than the pressure of the critical point. In this c ase, the boiling period (transition from liquid to vapor) is lacking.