DEPARTMENT E.E.A Electronics - Electrical - Automatic www.creea.u-bordeaux.

fr Domestic Electricity and Electrical Safety Luke LASNE, University of Bordeaux 1 lasne@creea.u-bordeaux.fr 15 / 10 / 2003 1 Summary I) Introduction ............................................... ................ .................................. ................... 3 II) Electrical Domestic ............................................ ................................ 3 II-1) upstream Installation ........................................... ....... ........................................... ......... 3 II-2) Pension neutral .. ........................................ ....................................... ........... ..... 4 II-3) Impedance contacts Earth ............................. ........... ................................... 5 II-3) Impedance contacts Earth ........................................ ................................... 6 II-4) Protection Components .......................................... ......... ................................... 6 II-5) Installation Diagrams .............. ........................... .................................................. . 8 III-1) ........................................... Electric Shock ........... ....................................... ............ Direct contact ............ ................................... 9 .......................................... ........ ................ Indirect contact ..................................... .......... 9 .................................................. ........... 10 I II-2) Pension neutral and protection ...................................... .... ............ 10 Plan neutral ground (TT and TN) ....................................... ........ .............................. 10 Isolated neutral system .............................................. ......... ......................................... .. Insulation local .................. ............................. 11 ............................................... ... ............ 12 III-3) behavior toward risk having electrical .............. ........................ ............. 12 In a private home or public .......... ............................... ...... 12 In a hospital or a place where electri cal continuity is imperative ......................... 12 In the case of an inte rvention on a device connected to a transformer ......... 13 III-4) Some classic examples of hazards and electrocutions ... ............................ 13 2 I) Introduction The electrical energy supplied to the network is available, dome stically, in the lowest voltage range ie 230V / 400V. This is called the low vol tage (LV). Despite the name, this voltage is dangerous, potentially fatal and re quires strong precautions because of the importance of currents which can be deb ited. Access to electricity is, moreover, pervades the lives of its users, elect rical plugs and terminals are widely used by people yet often uninformed on the electrical hazard. The domestic electrical installations are subject to laws and standards to ensure: The defect detection systems and protection against the ri sk of overcurrent, overload and overvoltage protection of individuals against th

e dangers of defective equipment or handling Advanced users at risk of electrici ty are often poorly trained on the reality of domestic premises are programs or bac BEP. This knowledge is fundamental, however. II) Electrical Household II-1) Installation upstream Schematically, the lines of electric energy distribution l eads to tensions in the range of medium voltage (MV) to the nearest residential areas or large consumers (industries, etc. ...). The substation MV / LV can then distribute the three phases BT, neutral and possibly the earth to all consumers located nearby. The schematic diagram below shows an example of delivery of ele ctrical energy: Three phases (black, red, brown) neutral (blue) large consumers (industries) transforming neighborhood (yellow and green) individuals The wiring diagram for this example is presented below: MT BT 230V / 400V N Grounding ZNT Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Earth 3 The single phase loads represent impedances (Z1, Z2 and Z3) connected between ph ase and neutral. It should be noted that it is necessary to allocate these costs as much as possible on the three phases to ensure the best balance of the netwo rk.€The three-phase loads (Z4) are generally neutral relié1 to avoid the imbalan ce of tension in case of imbalance courants1. It is important to note that the n eutral facilities is created locally by the coupling of three phase MV / LV. It is also important to note that the neutral is grounded by a particular impedance : ZNT. The study of ground connections is called "neutral systems" and is a feat ure that alters the nature and operation of protection. II-2) Pension neutral Th ere are three ways to connect the neutral and the masses of plants to the Earth. The standard defines three C15.100 neutral schemes are characterized by two let ters: the first letter, where the supply (transformer output) in relation to the earth. T: on earth I: insulation or ground wire through a second impedance lett er: state of the masses of equipment from the earth. T: the masses are connected directly to ground N: the masses are connected to the neutral facility will sep arate special way the three regimes: TT, TN and IT Plan TT The TT distribution s cheme is the scheme used by EDF for any distribution of public power low voltage . The principle of the association is to connect the neutral to ground at the he ad of the LV installation and all the masses directly to the local earth. Thus, when a fault isolation appears, it is characterized by a short circuit Phase-Ear

th must be stopped, then said there is "breaking the first fault. TT: MT BT 230V / 400V N Grounding Z1 Z Earth 1 See the course "Electrical engineering, fundamentals and power system", Chapter IV-7 4 TN TN The distribution scheme is the scheme used when the grounding of the masse s of equipment poses a problem. These are then connected to the neutral conducto r, connected at the head of the facility to land. Thus, when a fault isolation a ppears, it is characterized by a short circuit Phase-Neutral to be interrupted, it says there is "breaking the first fault. TN: MT BT 230V / 400V N Grounding Earth Z1 Z The IT Plan IT distribution system is the system used when the insulation defect s must be detected, but without causing interruption (eg in hospitals). The neut ral is not grounded or is connected through an impedance of high value (1500 to 2200Ω). The masses of equipment, they are grounded. Thus, when a fault isolation appears, it does not dangerous voltage or current to the earth important. The d etection of current in the impedance can detect the fault. However, if a second fault occurs, it represents a short circuit between phases or between phase and neutral must be eliminated, we say that there are "cut to the second default. IT system: MT BT 230V / 400V N high impedance earth Z1 Z The various schemes require the neutral nature of the protections provided on th e downstream installation. 5 II-3) Impedance contacts earth impedance of conductors connecting the masses to

the ground is very important. Indeed, it requires in part the current leakage to ground. For the same default over the earth impedance is high unless the defect is detected by switch différentiel2. The diagram below shows the difference bet ween two cases of ground impedance for which the threshold of detection of a lea k to ground is 500mA. = 300Ω Rdefaut I = 230 / (320) = 0.72A = 300Ω Rdefaut I = 230 / (500) = 0.46A 230 222.8V 230 138V Rterre = 20Ω Rterre = 200Ω Case 1: I> 500mA: contact voltage 222.8V but sensed current cutoff ⇒ Case 1: I> 500mA: contact voltage 138V power but not detected ⇒ danger! II-4) Components of protection The protection of electrical installations aims: to stop in a few milliseconds, corresponding to the current short circuits, that is to say, those over very quickly and widely the maximum current allowed for i nstallation: it is part of circuit protection to stop a few seconds or even minu tes, the currents corresponding to overload, that is to say those that go withou t little change during Maximum allowed: it's the other part of the protection ci rcuit to interrupt, beyond a threshold of 0.5A, which rebouclent currents throug h the earth to avoid non-billing of the energy of provide the greatest possible protection of persons, that is to say, stop in a few milliseconds, running, beyo nd a threshold of 30mA,€flowing through a person to earth. - Protection against short circuits and overloads is provided by fuses or thermal-magnetic circuit br eakers. Fuses: Principle: The fuse is a driver designed to melt sharply beyond a certain time (s) through the intensity. Each fuse is designed to melt at a time when the nominal tf tf If current passes through it. Is represented on the grap h below the curve cons of running a fuse. Note that beyond a certain current, th e fuse is unable to make the cut without the recovery voltage n'amorce arcing. S ymbols: fuse 2 Maximum current = breaking intensity If (A) striker fuse disconnector fuse see Chapter II-4 6 Magneto-thermal: Principle: The thermal-magnetic circuit breaker has two bodies cut. One is a time (s) Protection against overload TF bimetal which interrupt, t hermal effect, the protection against short-circuits beyond a maximum value. The other is a magnetic circuit breaker which current max = PC starts at the onset of sudden power spikes. Is represented on the graph below If the cons Intensity (A) curve of operating a circuit breaker. Note that beyond a certain current, th e circuit breaker is unable to make the cut without the recovery voltage n'amorc e arcing. Symbols: Thermal-magnetic Circuit Breaker

- Protection against non-billing is provided by circuit breakers or breakers tha t interrupt the current to the earth above 500mA. - Protection of persons is ens ured by the circuit breaker or breakers that interrupt the current to earth exce eding 30mA. Breaker and breaker: Principle: The GFCI breaker is a classic, more features a device for detecting and cutoff at current leakage to earth. An RCCB provides just this last feature. The break is when a leakage to ground exceeds a value IΔn appears for a sufficient time. The detection of leakage to earth is b y detecting the difference between the incoming current and outgoing current IP IN facility. Phase Neutral IP IN detect Electrical installation IT Tore + magnetic coil detection The law gives the nodes: IP = IN + IT, where IT is a GFCI. When IP - IN IT => IΔ n, the detection coil can activate a switch which opens the circuit. Symbols: DDR DDR Residual current device HS: high sensitivity (IΔn = 30mA) MS: medium sensitivity (IΔn = 500mA) 7 Selectivity of protection: If more protections are in series, there should be th e preferred order of reaction. In general, we associate a fuse in series with a circuit breaker to increase the chance of cuts. In this case, it is preferred th at the circuit breaker is triggered preferentially. Simply select the two bodies after the operating curves presented below: Time (s) tf Fuse protection (secondary) Circuit breaker (primary) If fuse > If breaker If disjon Intensity (A) II-5) Diagrams installation is represented below the full presentation of the tr aditional electrical installation of a home in TT. The TN is no different with r egard to protection. 8 III) Electrical Safety This section is intended to educate users of electricity daily risks they face, especially when handling laboratory equipment, which rend ers him particularly vulnerable to dangerous voltages. The mere use of network 2 30V / 400V home traps that can kill everyone. It is first necessary to understan d and define the reality of "shock" to become aware of ways to avoid it. III-1) Electric shock An electric shock is the involvement of a human body to a dangero us electrical conduction. To make this possible, he must have been in contact wi th enough power to run a current harmful. Electric shock is a shock that leads t o death. Direct contact when a person touches a conductor with a voltage V, it a llows the passage of an electric current I provided his feet or another part of his body touches the reference voltage generator that produces the voltage V. In this case, the intensity of the current flowing is directly connected to the vo ltage by the equation: VI = R where R is the resistance cumulative human body, t he contact of fingers,€feet, shoes, etc ... This resistance varies greatly depen

ding on the humidity and the soles of shoes. The important thing in a shock is t he value of current flowing through the person offended. The following table out lines the effects cons of different intensities through the human body in the ca se of an alternating current at 50Hz. The important thing to consider is that a current above 30 mA is fatal unless it is extremely short, which is usually impo ssible because the muscles contract to be turned on and make it impossible becau se of the release. it leads to the conclusion: Under Alternative 230V at 50Hz: current I A voltage V 1 to 5mA current 10-20 mA 25-30 mA and 50mA> Effects no perception tingling tetanization muscle contraction, fibrillation of the heart contractions chest, certain death I> 30mA = DEATH or easier to remember: in any voltage> 50V = Risk of electric shock and ELECTRIC 9 The indirect contact indirect contact with a voltage comes when a live conductor is accidental contact with the carcass of a device. The consequence is that the current can pass through a person if he receives the reference voltage with ano ther part of his body. The problem can be solved if the carcass is directly conn ected to the reference voltage. In this case the accidental contact bypasses the voltage V and is blown fuses protection systems. However, in some cases, the co ntact does not override frankly dangerous voltage and therefore puts people elec tric shocks. accidental contact current I Voltage V nections? The connection between the devices and the reference voltage is crucial because it directly determines the path of currents due to accidental faults. The realit y of the protection of individuals depends naturally neutral system. III-2) Pension neutral and protection Plan neutral ground (TT and TN) Constitution is considered below the case voluntarily phase which is the most co mplex. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral current to earth ground = detection As the neutral and the masses are connected to the earth, just touch a conductor to establish a current path and be electrocuted. Touching two different conduct ors allows for more passing the current between the two arms and between each ph ase and earth. This is the worst case. Protection The protection of persons in t his case consists of a circuit breaker (or switch) whose differential is an exam ple we shall cons. This type of machine cuts the supply circuit ahead of the ins tallation for any current to ground> 30mA and this in less than 0.5 seconds. the maximum current tolerated called iΔn and is indicated on the device. 10 Linking the neutral ground to detect current leakage that can be fatal, this is where this regime is interesting, but only if equipped with a circuit breaker to protect persons at 30mA . The domestic electrical installations have to be cons istent with the pattern below, which protects sensitive components (bathroom, et

c ...), it is also in the labs and companies at all levels where the electrical hazard may appear . The important thing is to further ensure the smooth operation of the breaker, th is is possible thanks to the systematic testing of a button it is preferable to operate regularly. Plan The Constitution isolated neutral earthing system is simple, it is simply t o connect the neutral and ground through a high impedance (see figure). They can not be connected squarely at all or be a safety device that closes when a surge accidental. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Neutral high impedance (resistance) to more current Eart h mass = more detection Direct contacts between phase and earth are no longer dangerous. However, the to uching of two different conductors becomes deadly because there is no current to the land that could be detected by a GFCI. Touch two live conductors = Death in sured 11 The only possible protection are those protections against short circuit by circ uit breakers that shut off the stream from a certain limit. (See also Figure 6) Differential protection is impossible since there can be current to earth enough . The IT systems are justified, however in some institutions, like hospitals,€wh ere the slightest defect should not condemn the installation routine to cutting the current. However, the low current potential between earth and neutral (throu gh the high impedance) is controlled so as to trigger an alarm when a fault occu rs. Local insulation can be locally isolate an electrical device. Simply plug it int o a transformer isolation. Such a device can change the amplitude of AC voltages but also to separate the secondary circuit of the reference voltage of the prim ary. The current flow is no longer possible between a conductor and secondary ea rth. However, it still enough to touch two conductors to be electrocuted for sur e (see figure below). primary phase and neutral or between phases isolated secondary III-3) behavior toward risk having electrical The different types of facilities reviewed all contain their own dangers. It mus t then adapt its behavior during an operation on a grid according to the neutral system. It is also easy to assume the system according to one's location, it sa id, the best is a cautious approach to logic hazards. In a private home or a public institution The neutral has a good chance to be a system with neutral grounding TT or TN. To safely handle any electrical equipmen t you must: • Ensure the differential protection 30mA • Work off if possible • U se a screwdriver tester to test each driver before touching and not a voltmeter • Do never touch two conductors at a time In a hospital or a place where electri cal continuity is imperative The neutral is surely a system with isolated neutra l. It must then: • Work off if possible • Use a screwdriver to test each electri cal conductor before touching • Do not touch two conductors at a time ... for th is handle with one hand at a time. 12 In the case of an intervention on a device connected to a processor's approach i s the same as in the case of an isolated installation. • Work off if possible • Use a screwdriver to test each electrical conductor before touching • Do not tou ch two conductors at a time ... for this handle with one hand at a time.

III-4) Some classic examples of risks and shock ... The electrical hazard is unfortunately very diverse, therefore it is difficult t o adapt its behavior when approaching an unknown electrical system. However, som e common examples are noted in the everyday life ... To change a light bulb, is it enough to turn off the switch? Well no! The drawin g of the figure below shows that it is always possible to be electrocuted by hav ing the off switch that controls a light bulb (if not to be equipped with a GFCI ). socket of the bulb neutral phase switch cuts the neutral ... (it is unfortunatel y often the case) House = neutral ground 230V To work on a device connected to the transformer, it is necessary to cut the pow er? And yes, for two reasons: First, it is sufficient to reach two transformer e nergized conductors to get the unknown current in the arm. In this case, the cur rent flows through the heart and fibrillation is inevitable. The second is that some processors, the secondary can not called do not isolate the autotransformer s be isolated! secondary. Thus, contrary to what one might assume, simply touch a live conductor for electrified. 13 Is it sufficient that a device is turned off for handling safe? Well no ... Of c ourse, if the device in question was designed to ensure certainty, simply unplug it to be quiet. However, details virtually everywhere in the electrical circuit s can be fatal in some circuits. The figure below shows a circuit found in 90% o f common household appliances, namely a rectifier that converts AC mains voltage into a DC voltage. AC: Phase neutral C transformer rectifier DC capacitor discharge voltage = death if sufficient smoothing capacitor The operation performed is called a conversion AC / DC and is inseparable from t he presence of a capacitor that "smooth" the output voltage so that it is as con tinuous as possible.€Most of these circuits have low output voltages compatible with the electronics they power. However, da ns laboratory equipment and some po wer supplies circuit power (lasers, motors, etc. ...) these tensions are high or very high. The problem is that the capacitor can remain charged (ie power) even after the termination of the current. This leaves two possible cases of electro cution: The transformer isolates the circuit of the earth In this case, it is no t electrified by touching a single driver, however just enter the two terminals of the capacitor to pass The current transformer does not isolate the circuit: I n this case, simply touch one lead on the + terminal of the capacitor to receive the dump ... 14