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José Manuel Romero Rosales Report of the Practices in Class Team Members: Galicia Barrientos, Ernesto Cruz Cruz, Miguel Jasso Martinez, Jorge Alberto Mend oza Valdez, Ernesto Nicolas Romero, Mexico May 28, 2008 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Team 1 Definition The air is technology that uses compressed air as a mode of transmission of the energy needed to move and operate mechanisms. Air is an elastic material and the refore, by applying a force, it is compressed, maintains this compression and re turn the stored energy when allowed to expand, according to the ideal gas law. Pneumatic Valves The pneumatic controls are made up of signaling elements, control elements and a labor input. The signaling and control elements modulate the phases of work and work items are called valves. Pneumatic and hydraulic systems consist of: • • • Data elements of command Bodies Work Items For information processing and control elements is necessary to use devices that control and direct the flow of a preset, which requires the availability of a n umber of elements that make the desired functions on the control and direction o f flow of compressed air. The principles of auto mechanics, the elements designe d are sent manually or mechanically. When work requirements was needed to make t he remote control, command elements were used per symbol tire. Currently, in add ition to manual controls for the operation of these elements are used for comman d procedures and electro-pneumatic servopneumatic engaged almost all of the info rmation processing and signal amplification. The great evolution of pneumatics a nd hydraulics have, in turn, develop processes for the treatment and amplificati on of signals, and therefore today it has a very wide range of valves and distri butors that allow us to choose the system that best suits the needs. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Team 1 There are times when the command is done pneumatically or hydraulically and othe r forces us to use electricity for various reasons, especially when the distance s are important and there are no adverse circumstances. The valves in general, h ave the following tasks: • • • Regular fluid flow Syndicate Regular pressure The valves are elements who rule or govern the implementation, and address unemp loyment and the pressure or fluid flow sent by a hydraulic pump in a tank. In in ternational parlance, the term valve or distributor is the general term for all types such as slide valves, ball, seat, taps, etc. This is the definition of DIN / ISO 1219 following a recommendation of CETOP (Comité Européen des Transmissio ns et Pneumatiques Oléohydrauliques). By function valves are divided into five g roups: 1. Valves 2-way or distributors. Stop valves 3. Pressure Valves 4. Flow V
alves 5. Shutoff Valves Pneumatic Circuits There are two types of circuits. 1. Circuit closed ring: He whose final circuit avoiding bouncing back to the origin of fluctuations and offer greater recovery rate of leakage, since the flow comes from two sides. 2. Circuit open ring: He w hose distribution is formed by branches which do not return to the origin, this installation is cheaper but makes the compressor work harder when demand is high or leaks in the system. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Team 1 These circuits in turn can be divided into four sub-types of tires: 1. System Ma nual 2. 3 Semi-automatic systems. Automatic 4. Logical Systems LABORATORY PRACTICES Team 1 Laboratory Practices 1. Introduction In these practices, it is intended that students become familiar with the elemen ts of pneumatics, hydraulics and operation, and to be able to develop circuits t hat meet the specifications of an industrial process. 2. Implementation of practices Each exercise was carried out following the points below: - For pneumatic circui ts, draw the phase diagram, including the signal lines. - Designing and drawing the circuit diagram and simulate its operation, helping FluidSIM ® program. This may only be made using the components listed below, and follow the criterion of minimum number of elements used.- Set up the circuit in the corresponding bank . - Make the adjustments and proposed actions in each practice. - Answer the que stions that arise in each practice. - Remove and save the circuit components. Make the report of the practice. 3. Available items - A single acting cylinder - two double acting cylinders - a valve 5 / 2 way pil ot operated with spring return pneumatic - 3 valves 5 / 2 way pneumatically pilo ted - 3 valves 3 / 2 track operated by push button return Spring, normally close d - a pressure control valve - 2-way flow control valves - a quick exhaust valve - a valve concurrency (AND) - a selector valve (OR) - 1 roll limit switch norma lly closed - 1 Roller limit switch normally closed retractable LABORATORY PRACTICES - 1 dealer Team 1 4.Prácticas This is the simplest circuit that took place in practice, and consists of: a sin gle-acting cylinder 1 3 / 2 valve operated by push button and spring back when y ou press the button, the process of change valve, allowing the pressure to flow into the cylinder, which drives the piston, which returns through the return of spring. This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder 2 valves 3 / 2 operated by push button and spring back when pressed the first button, the plung er is expelled by pressure, and to return it is necessary to press button 2. LABORATORY PRACTICES
Team 1 This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, 2 pneuma tic valves 3 / 2 operated by push button and spring back when a button is presse d, the valve 5 / 2 changes position and the plunger is expelled, to return it wi ll have to press the 2 button causes the same effect on the valve 5 / 2. This ci rcuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, 3 pneumatic val ves 3 / 2 push button operated and spring return an OR gate OR gate operates the no matter which way you apply pressure, and is button 1 or 2, the flowing press ure at the valve 5 / 2, allowing the plunger out of the cylinder and to return i t just press the button 3, which changes the way valve 5 / 2. This circuit was carried out with: LABORATORY PRACTICES Team 1 A double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, and return pneumatic 2 driven back button and a gate spring to get the plunger of oved, you have to press buttons 1 and 2 at the same time, so tivated and allow the flow pressure is not necessary a third ve 5 / 2 has a return spring. LABORATORY PRACTICES Team 1 This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, 2 pneuma tic valves 3 / 2 push button operated and spring return two check valves regulat ors The operation principle is the same as in practice 3, but in this added control valves, which slow the return trip time and the piston in the cylinder. LABORATORY PRACTICES Team 1 This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, and retu rn pneumatic valve spring 2 3 / 2 operated by push button and a spring return va lve 3 / 2 treadle and a spring return valve two gate-return regulatory This circ uit is commonly used for high hazard operations, which must necessarily be opera ted by two buttons and the pedal at the same time, plus it has a throttle, which could delay tripping plunger. BIBLIOGRAPHY Team 1 Theoretical Framework REFERENCES: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neum% C3% A1tico http://www.sapiensman.com/neumatica/ http://www.euskalnet.net/jmfb/neunatica.htm http: / / www.neumaticanet.com.ar/ Power Circuits: FluidSIM ® v4.2 - Software & E-Learning valve spring 2 3 / the cylinder is rem that the gate is ac button, and the val