CHILEAN prehispanic people 1 CONTENTS: The prehistoric peoples in what is now Chile.

EXPECTED LEARNING: Recognize that the current Chilean territory was populated by numerous indigenous peoples. Understanding the history of indigenous peoples do es not end with the arrival of Europeans see the difficulties that these people now have to attach to the Latin American nation-states. 2 "I came to the Mapuche history by chance, I went to file in London to find data about the unfairness of coal in Lota, call volumes and brought me some of the Br itish consuls in Argentina. I checked in they see a letter from the British Cons ul to his majesty, where you notice a big raid that made the Arawaks in the town of three rivers south of Buenos Aires. I said to myself, can not be, what are y ou doing the Arawaks in 1872 and on the outskirts of Buenos Aires, when any Chil ean, like me, I would say that the Arawaks were killed with Ercilla, with border relations. So how they may be fighting and defeating the Argentine army? How is it possible that our araucanos have defeated federal troops and we do not have the slightest idea? Then here comes the big question, why I have no idea what ha ppened to the Mapuche? And there he meets the other commitment that is making hi story is ignored and why they ignored that story. " Leonardo Leo, Historian. 3 . CHILEAN pre-Hispanic peoples, A DIFFERENT REALITY What determined the cultural diversity that existed in pre-Hispanic peoples in C hile? a.La Inca cultural influence. Camino del Inca Pucara 4 b. The ecological diversity Central Zone Far North Southern Zone 5 What cultural levels reached Chilean Pre-Columbian peoples? Chilean Pre-Columbian Peoples Nomads (archaic) canoeists Bands monkeys chonos Pedestrian Bands pehuenches 6 Chilean Pre-Columbian Peoples Sedentary (training) Advanced Farmers atacameños Aymara diaguitas alacalufes yaganes chiquillanes puelches poyas tehuelches

Emerging Farmers Picunches 7

huilliches Araucanian

a. Canoe people, nomads of the sea CHANGES Balsa used by the monkeys Chono Pescador CHONOS 8 Canoas alacalufes Yamana Housing ES Alacalufe YAMANA 9 b. PEOPLES PEDESTRES, HUNTERS AND COLLECTORS Community Pehuenche Pehuenche CHIQUILLANES Silverware Puelche Pehuenche 10 Hunters Onas Tehuelche TEHUELCHES Kloketen Ceremony ONAS 11 c. Highland CULTIVATORS Aymara Aymara Territory Aymara Ceramics 12 d. Desert Cultivation Atacama Chorimori, ritual instrument Atacama Ceramics Loa River Gorge 13 e. Ceramic PEOPLE Diaguitas

Potter Duck Mug Shoe Pitcher 14 f. MAPUCHE, LIBERTARIAN TOWN Economy Religion Political Organization Location 15 Lonco Silverware to Mapuche Picunches Attire for Mapuche 16 Ruca Mach i ARAUCANIAN 17 Huilliche Family Huilliche 18 2. TODAY prehispanic people Preservation of culture. Numerical decline. Loss of identity. Integration, respe cted and valued. 19 Region I: Region II 40 700 Aymara: 13 855 Atacama Region III: Region IV 3074 ata cameños: 3,514 Region V Mapuche: Mapuche VI 14 594 Region: Region VII 9485 Mapuc he: Mapuche 7756 Region VIII: IX 53 104 Mapuche Region: Region X 203 221 Mapuche : Mapuche 100 327 Region XI: 7546 Mapuche R. M.: 182 963 Mapuche 20 What indigenous population is predominant in each region of the country? Region XII: Mapuche 8621 The 2002 census indicated that 4.6% of the population belong to a recognized eth nic group. QUANTITY AND PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION BY ETHNICITY Alacalufe: 0.38% (2622) Ataca ma: 3.04% (21 019) Aymara: 7.01% (48 501) Colla: 0.46% (3198) Mapuche: 87.31% (6 04 349) Quechua: 0.89% (6175) Rapa Nui: 0.67% (4647) Yamana, 0.24% (1685) 21

"The State of the descendants of human groups that have existed in national terr itory since pre-Columbian times, which retain their own ethnic and cultural mani festations, including land to be for the principal foundation of their existence and culture. The state recognizes as the main ethnic indigenous Mapuche, Aymara , Rapa Nui or Easter Island, of the Atacama, Quechua and Aymara in the north, th e kawashkar or Yagan or Yamana and Alacalufe channel Chile: Southern communities communities. PARDON THE HISTORICAL ... recognizes that indigenous peoples in Chile are The State values its existence to be an essential part of the roots of the Chile an nation and its integrity and development, according to their customs and valu es. It is the duty of society in general and the particular state€through its in stitutions, respect, protect and promote the development of indigenous peoples, their cultures, families and communities by adopting appropriate measures for su ch purposes and to protect indigenous lands are properly operating, by its ecolo gical balance and foster its extension 22. " (Indian Act, 1993) CONFLICT TO REMAIN ... 23 What did we learn in this class? On arrival of the Spanish, Prehispanic Chileans had a great cultural diversity. Contact with the Incas and the ecological diversity of the territory allowed thi s cultural diversity. The territory was occupied by cultures trails, canoe and a gricultural. The Mapuche were the basis of crossbreeding. At present, about 5% o f the population reported belonging to any ethnic group. The Mapuche are the lar gest primitive people in the country. 24 LOCATION Picunches: From the Aconcagua River to the Rio Itata. Araucanian: From the river to the river Toltén Itata. Huilliches: From the river to the Sine of Toltén Rel oncaví. 25 POLITICAL ORGANIZATION The Mapuche were never an integrated society in a state Mapuche. Each clan or lo v was headed by a lonco. The peacetime Aillarehue were chaired by a Ulmen, in ti mes of war, for a toqui. The organization was based on clans or lov, which were integrated in larger organizations sometimes called Aillarehue. 26 ECONOMY Agricultural implements Mapuche There were different agricultural practices. While Picunches built irrigation ca nals, the Arawaks used the system slash. Their economy was subsistence or subsis tence. For that dominated ecosystems from the Andes to the coast. The family was productive force, with the horticultural, hunting and gathering the main activi ties. Crops grown were maize, potatoes, squash and peppers. Agricultural activit ies were performed by women, hence its economic importance. 27 RELIGION

The cultrún was used in the ceremony Machitún. They had a worldview framed in a universe explained from two opposite and comple mentary forces: the Ngenechen, which was a positive force, and Huecube, represen ting the destruction and death. The machi was a healer and was established in th e articulator of the positive source. Intermediary between the visible and invis ible. The machi machitún carried out, which was part of the first set Mapuche me dicine and healing of the mind or psyche. The Guillatún was a spiritual manifest ation of the community who paid tribute or offering and prayers to the Creator. 28