The ISLAM (part 1) "absolute submission before Allah be" ORIGINS Saudi REGION: it is a peninsula (portion of dry land surrounded

by a body of wat er, except for one side) located in southwestern Asia. It is bounded on the sout h by the Indian Ocean, east by the Gulf, the Red Sea to the west, north borders with Iraq and Jordan. Extremely arid climate, with 80% of its territory consists of deserts. It is the region where they are concentrated some of the largest re servoirs of oil and natural gas in the world. It was the center of the party whi ch emerged and radiated the Arab-Islamic civilization. Medina and Mecca, the lar gest shopping centers, at the time of Mohammed, are in this region. Currently co mprises the following countries: the countries of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Uni ted Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain. POPULATION By the sixth cent ury, the Arab population was divided into numerous tribes, formed by kinship tie s and common cultural elements. They spoke the same language (although the diale cts) and worshiped the same gods (they were polytheists). The population was spl it into two: a) that was in the desert, grouped in tribes around the oasis, the Bedouin. They took a very hard life and were very religious. Every year made a p ilgrimage to the city of Mecca to worship their gods in the Kaaba temple (about 360 idols had) and kiss the Black Stone. Once "cleansed," the Bedouins did trade at local fairs. b) that was on the coast, were sedentary and were devoted to tr ade. They were responsible for guarding the Kaaba. Profited much from the polyth eism of the city, since the pilgrimages moved fairs. MOHAMMED Mohammed and the n ew religion was born in Mecca around 570 AD and belonged to the Hashemite family . Was orphaned at age six and began to be created by his grandfather and then by a paternal uncle. He lived as a shepherd of the poor in mountainous regions nea r Mecca. Then started to follow the caravan traders. In his travels, Muhammad le arned about the different religious practices of his time: Arab paganism, Christ ianity, Judaism. At 25 he married a rich merchant - Cadija. In 610, at 40, said he had a vision of the angel Gabriel: "There is one God, Allah, and only a proph et, EXPANSION RELIGIOUS REASON: to expand Islam. The holy war (jihad) that inspired the religi ous believed that if they died fighting for the expansion of Allah, would go str aight to paradise. Economic reason: the Arabs took possession of the goods of th e vanquished; SOCIAL CAUSE: eased the problem of overpopulation. After Muhammad permitted polygamy and prohibited infanticide, tremendous population growth in S audi. POLITICAL BACKGROUND: drive to Arab tribes. Arabic was the official langua ge of the Muslim world; EXTERNAL REASON: The expansion was facilitated by the di sorganization of the barbarians in the West as well as the weakness of the Persi ans and Byzantines in the east. The caliphs (successors of the Prophet) Between 632 and 809, the caliphs conquered a mighty empire: Persia, Syria, Pales tine, Egypt, northwest China, northern Africa and almost the entire Iberian Peni nsula. The heyday of the Islamic Empire, however, was between 786 and 809. The first caliphs were military commanders and were intent on turning a Saudi em pire. By the year 661, had already won the Serious, Persia, Egypt and North Afri ca. In 661, the dynasty began. Umayyads, who transferred the capital of the empi re from Arabia to Syria in Damascus. Advanced through North Africa and also conq uered the peninsula ibérica1. Tried to reach France (Gaul), but were defeated i n the Battle of Poitiers in 732. In 750 starts the Abbasid dynasty, who moved th e capital of the empire from Damascus to Baghdad in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). A lso entered the Persian customs policy and administration of the Empire. The int ernal rivalries weakened the world Islam in 788, Morocco separated from Islam in 909, it was the turn of Egypt. In 1258, the capital of Islam, Baghdad, fell int o the hands of the Mongols - Asian conquerors. This fact represents the END of t he Arab-Islamic empire in the Mediterranean and the beginning of Turkish hegemon y in the East. M u n d M and d i and v l Mohammed. "

Mohammed came to fight the polytheistic worship the Kaaba. This caused great dis content among traders who feared the decline of pilgrimages to Mecca. Into a con spiracy against the life of "prophet." Muhammad fled to YATREB in 622 - the Hegi ra (Arabic means "flight"). The Hegira marks the beginning of the Muslim calenda r. After reaching Yatreb, the city became known as MEDINA - "City of the Prophet ." With the growth of supporters, Muhammad began to preach the holy war, especia lly against the merchants of Mecca.€What actually happened in 630, when that ci ty is making (some scholars argue that fact marked the birth of Islam). With the invasion of Mecca, Muhammad ordered all the idols of the Kaaba were destroyed. Retained only the black stone. The mosque was built KUBA, the first of Islam. Mo hammed died in the city of Medina in 632 (year 10 AH). All Arabia had converted to Islam. EUROPE EAST Africa