# Kinematics Grundgroessen Time, location, speed, acceleration Tasks Direct proportionality speed acceleration Experiments Length measuring length

measuring devices Messchieber Views History of timekeeping history length measurement speed acceleration speed measu rement examples examples stopping the free fall Galileo Unit Conversion Cycle speed measuring measure orders of magnitude diagrams patte rn tasks LEIFI tests of 10 questions, extra tasks Grand Prix speed speed speed s peed of sound placement Geschwindigkeitsumrechner Tachograph Physics Web 7th Class - Rupprecht-Gymnasium - (C) LEIFI Last update: See the fil e "New" on index page http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/materialseiten/07_t_s_v_a.htm [0 8/28/2007 18:40:25] Basic Information Basic Information Unit conversion for speed Theory: A physical quantity can be understood: v = 10 as a product of numerical value an d unit can also take the form v = 1, 10 ·. or v = written 10 · If you want to specify only the size of a unit, so we write [v] = 1 = . The units are usually specified in the so-called SI-system. They say this also M KSA system (meter, kilogram, second, ampere system). Yet, there are other units are common, such as the speed limit given in Prime example: How much? Short: 10, 10 =? 1st Step: Press the given size 10 in the requested unit. 10 = 10 ° = 10 ° http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07einheitumr/einheit 1.htm (1 of 3) [08/28/2007 18:40:32] Basic Information Note: 1000 m = 1 km that is, 1 km, m = 3600 s = 1 h, then 1 s = h, second Step: Eliminate any double strand breaks. 10 ° = 10 ° = 10 · 3.6; Score: 10

= 36 Responsibilities: a) 100 =? [27.8] http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07einheitumr/einheit 1.htm (2 of 3) [08/28/2007 18:40:32] Basic Information b) 120 c) 720 =? =? [7.20] Note: keep the number of valid points must be obtained from the transformation ( see Basic Information: accuracy in figures) http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07einheitumr/einheit 1.htm (3 of 3) [08/28/2007 18:40:32] Basic Information Basic Information Important quantities of the theory of motion (kinematics) q q On the following pages, build on each other, you will experience the most import ant thing about the sizes, which are used in physics to describe motion. If you still have little idea, it is best if you work through the pages - with the intr oduction of starting - in order. If you are only interested in the definitions o f the various sizes, you can go directly to these specifications. Introduction Average speed Current speed Average speed http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/ind ex.htm [28/08/2007 18:40:38] Basic Information Basic Information Average speed Current speed 1 If you have worked through the basic side of the uniform motion, you will immedi ately recognize that describes the following graph, which documented the rectili near drive a car, no uniform motion. Task: Characterize the movement shown by the graph in words. In order to solve a nd continue to overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig01.htm [28/08/2007 18:40:43] Basic Information

Basic Information Average speed Current speed 2 q q q q The motion starts at x = 0 In the first section between t = 0 and t = t1 (0 <t < t1) the car is getting faster. This can be seen from the fact that increasing th e distance traveled at a fixed time period Δt Δx. In the second section (t1 <t < t2) the car slows down again (see animation below). In the third section (t2 <t <t3) is the car as there is no change of location with fortscheitender time. http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig02.htm (1 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:40:46] Basic Information It is obvious that in the considered movement time and place not directly propor tional to each other are, and that therefore there is no uniform motion. In orde r to describe the "speed" of a non-uniform motion, may have the physicists, the terms mean velocity (also called average speed) and instantaneous velocity v cre ated. Next Back To Overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig02.htm (2 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:40:46] Basic Information Basic Information Average speed Current speed 3 To calculate the average speed over a period (eg between t = 0 and t = t3) we di vide the distance you Δx by the required time Δt.Average speed (average speed): Notes: q q You'll probably imagine that this definition is the same as setting uniform motion. The definition of the average speed is not limited rm motion, but is applicable to all transaction types. xe and te is coordinate and the time at the end of the considered period, ta and orresponding quantities at the beginning of the period. the speed of to the unifo the spatial xa are the c

The following figure shows the graph of two movements, whose average speed (rela tive to total movement time) match, but which are nevertheless very different: http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig03.htm (1 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:40:57] Basic Information In order to describe details in the "speed" of a movement may have been introduc

ed in physics the concept of instantaneous speed. The instantaneous describes th e "speed" in a time when the average velocity characterizes the "speed" in a (us ually larger) period. If we want to determine the instantaneous speed at the lef t displayed movement with simple tools, we will use our knowledge of the average velocity. More Back To overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig03.htm (2 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:40:57] Basic Information Basic Information Average acceleration q q To describe how fast a change of location takes place in a given time, we have i ntroduced in physics the size of "speed". To describe how fast a speed change ta kes place in a given time, leads to the size of "an acceleration". The greater the Momentangeschwindigkeitszunahme in a given time, the greater wil l be the acceleration. The acceleration in the car brochures will be given in th e form of: Porsche Carrera: From 0 to 100 km / h to 3.9 s Fiat Punto: From 0 to 100 km / h in 14.5 s In physics, the acceleration is set slightly more compact and in accordance with the definition of speed: Note: Record the velocity in the considered period from, so Δv negative and thus the average acceleration. This is then usually of negative acceleration or dece leration. Chart 1 Task: http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig05.htm (1 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:41:17] Basic Information a) Calculate the average speed of a Fiat Punto and a Porsche Carrera in the rang e between 0 km / h and 100 km / h in units of 1 m/s2. b) Describe in words the course of the acceleration in the first diagram Back So lution Overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig05.htm (2 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:41:17]

Basic Information Basic Information Mean acceleration solution a) conversion of the speed 100 km / h: Calculate the average acceleration: b) q q q There is initially an accelerated motion, the speed increases (a> 0). Then (in t he range of the highest part of the curve) remains constant speed for a short pe riod. There is here a uniform motion before (a = 0). In the right part of the cu rve movement is accelerated again. However, decreases the speed (a <0). Back To overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/grundwissen/07beschleunigung/bes chleunig05_l.htm [08/28/2007 18:41:27] Index - Tasks Ph 2007 Additional tasks Overview M LED - light as a drawing of diagrams taillight M S S hunter and dog m ovement on the highway O Bicycle Tour L L rail joints country end plane interpretation of graphs M M M Auto Tour cycli sts http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/index.h tm [08/28/2007 18:45:46] Additional task Interpretation of charts From a sports car that starts at A tv in the following diagram is known. a) Characterize the ride of a sports car and go between A and E in particular (q ualitative) relates to the acceleration. b) What speed (in km / h) of the sports car? [109 km / h] c) Calculate the average acceleration in the section between A and C. [1,5 m/s2] http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/diagram m/diagramm.htm (1 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:45:53]

Additional task d) Which route shall return the car between C and D? [0.40 km] e) is located between A and E, the distance of about 950 m. With what average sp eed transit of the cars that route? [22 m / s] Overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/diagram m/diagramm.htm (2 of 2) [08/28/2007 18:45:53] Additional task Cyclist a. b. c. Decide which image to which the movement of Sections 1, 2 or 3 and is a reason f or your decision. What speed (in km / h), the driver in the various sections of movement? What average speed (in km / h has) the driver in the time interval [0s , 1000s]? [4.3 km / h] Overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/radfahr er/radfah1.htm [28/08/2007 18:46:06] Additional task Drawing diagrams The following table are the start dates for a car listed. Time in s velocity in m / s 0 0 1.0 10 2.0 20 3.0 29 4.0 37 6.0 50 8.0 59 10 64 12 65 14 65 a) Draw the time diagram for the speed racing car. b) What is the acceleration at t = 13 s? [0 m/s2] c) What is the acceleration at t = 1.0 s? [10 m/s2] To overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/zeichne n/zeichnen.htm [28/08/2007 18:46:14] Additional task Movement on the highway Provided by: Gerald Bright, Grafenau From a helicopter, the positions of a large number of vehicles in the left lane were recorded continuously and displayed in a ZeitWeg chart. The result is shown on the right: a. b. c. What does the appearance and disappearance of lines? How fast are the vehicles o n the average before and after the incident "event" in the middle of the divisio n? What is the significance of this "event"? What qualities does it have?

http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/bewegau tob/autobahn.htm (1 of 2) [28/08/2007 18:46:19] Additional task To overview http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/zusatzaufgaben/07t_s_v_a/bewegau tob/autobahn.htm (2 of 2) [28/08/2007 18:46:19] Different speeds Ph 2007 View Different speeds in m / s Growth of a fingernail 0.000 000 001 Snail 0.000 002 Pedestrian 1.5 Sprinter 10 Express train 80 http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07geschwindigkeit en/beispiele.htm (1 of 2) [28/08/2007 18:46:38] Different speeds Plane 250 Sound in air 340 Light 300 million http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07geschwindigkeit en/beispiele.htm (2 of 2) [28/08/2007 18:46:38] Different accelerations Ph 2007

View Different accelerations Cyclist 1-2 m/s2 Acceleration of Normalautos " 3-4 m/s2 9.81 m/s2 = 1 g the frequently occurring case acceleration is written as 1g. freely falling body Often accelerations are expressed as multiples of g. High jumpers during the jump 3g Acceleration in the formula one 3 - 4g Acceleration that can stand the man but no serious damage 10g http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07beschleunigunge n/beispiele.htm (1 of 2) [28/08/2007 18:46:48] Different accelerations Laundry during the spin cycle 300g Fled during the jump 300g Sewing machine needle in 5000g Golf Ball 12000g http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07beschleunigunge n/beispiele.htm (2 of 2) [28/08/2007 18:46:48] Speed Measurement Ph 2007 View Speed Measurement

Velocity measurement for ships (historical) past the speed of vessels of the socalled Handlog was measured: a lead weighted board was the ship's stern on a lin e into the water. Due to the large frictional resistance was the board almost st ationary in the water. The faster the ship sailed, the more rapid was the log-li ne unrolled from the Logrolle. At intervals of about 7.2 m were on the line node s. They put down now that the ship has the speed of a node when in the 14s strai ght line between two nodes have been unwound. Note: With the advance of technology we have to rely on this type is no longer t he speed measurement. Today we use the radar or GPS. Handlog with roller Hourglass Velocity measurement in air (with Pitot tube) The speed of aircraft can be measured with a so-called Pitot tube (Pitot tube). The inflowing air at the pitot tube effect in the middle, with the interior of t he pressure cell http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/...elt_technik/07geschwindigkeit smess/g_messung.htm (1 of 3) [28/08/2007 18:47:07] Speed Measurement related to the total pressure tube. With the help of the Blue drawn tube that is connected to the airtight enclosure of the display instrument, we measure the s tatic pressure. The extension of the pressure cell, which leads to the deflectio n of the pointer is caused by the difference between total pressure and static p ressure.This differential pressure depends on the speed of airflow and thus a m easure of the speed. Speed measurement using a tachometer In conventional tachometers used the rotati on of the wheel on a so-called speedometer shaft for rotation of a magnet. By el ectromagnetic effects, which at this point can not be explained, you reach a def lection of the speedometer needle. Note: More modern tachometers measure the speed electronically. http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/...elt_technik/07geschwindigkeit smess/g_messung.htm (2 of 3) [28/08/2007 18:47:07] Speed Measurement Velocity measurement at the traffic to check whether speed restrictions are met, the police often use radar equipment. In a radar signal is sent to the mobile c ar and the reflected signal analyzed by auto. Depending on how fast does the car , the reflected signal changes in its quality, which allows a conclusion about t he speed. Explanation (not required curriculum): One can also imagine a light and radar si gnal - with limitations - as a wave. Meeting of the waves emitted radar wave (gr een lines) on the car, so this will be reflected (blue line). The speed of meand returning wave is the same. Because of the speed of the car but the distances b etween the reflected wave peaks (blue double arrow) is smaller than the distance s between the incident wave peaks (green double arrow). The animation is the arr ival of a "green" wave crest with the car caused an audible signal. http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/...elt_technik/07geschwindigkeit smess/g_messung.htm (3 of 3) [28/08/2007 18:47:07] Tachograph

Ph 2007 Technology Tachograph and tachograph Since 1953, the tachograph is mandatory in Germany for trucks and buses with mor e than 3.5 tons. It is used for documentation of vehicle data for a whole day. F irst, the mechanical tachograph introduced with which this site deals primarily. In the years 20052007 are the mechanical tachograph with electronic tachographs that process the signals into digital form, to be replaced. With them, they're hoping that manipulations are more difficult. Mechanical The mechanical tachogra ph Tachograph describes a circular disc which is rotated by a clockwork in 24 ho urs at 360 °. With the help of the (unmanipulated) tachographs can be checked wh ether the speed limit was observed when a truck (eg 80 km / h). The control of t he rest periods required by the driver is possible. q q q The outer edge of the disc is labeled with numbers 1 to 24 These are the tradema rks hours a day. Over the disc is a writer needle from the disc center the farth er away, the higher the velocity. Under this needle rotates the disk further wit h time. In this way, a t-written vDiagramm. is on the inner concentric rings http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07tachograph/tach ograph.htm (1 of 3) [08/28/2007 18:47:35] Tachograph q also recorded when the car is moving or when the car is at rest. In this way, a review is possible if the Höchstfahrdauer a driver (the dates in the center of t he disk must be written) is kept. On the innermost concentric ring is the distan ce traveled is documented. To save space, the writer returns again and then pin their direction when 5 km have been completed. If the zig-zag curve "eng", this means that the vehicle is speeding. Picture from Wikipedia Task: a) Check whether the driver has complied with the allowable for the vehicl e speed of 80 km / h. b) The truck driver, truck Clever is still far from its destination. To achieve this as quickly as possible, he exceeds the speed limit significantly. So this i s not documented on the recording device, it prevents the writers needle mechani cally with a rubber out of the 80 km / h to cross - a circle. him a shrewd cop c ould still convict on the basis of the otherwise proper tachograph? c) In the image below the chart on the distance traveled is increased herausgeze ichnet strong. How quickly (given in km / h) drove the truck? http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07tachograph/tach ograph.htm (2 of 3) [08/28/2007 18:47:35] Tachograph

Electronic tachograph With the new electronic tachograph is the evaluation of th e driving data through the suitable software much easier. It also believes that this trip recorders are less susceptible to manipulation. To solve http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07tachograph/tach ograph.htm (3 of 3) [08/28/2007 18:47:35] Tachograph Ph 2007 Technology Tachograph and tachograph - Solution a) The driver has exceeded the speed limit several times, as the tv-80 on the gr aph repeats km / h-circle protruding. b) Even if the needle for tv recording is blocked, it can be inferred from the s teepness of the zig-zag curve for the consecutive positions on the speed (see pa rt c). c) In 15 minutes the ride back 20 km. Thus, it sets in 60 minutes back 80 km. So v = 80 km / h. On the uniform "steepness" of the zig-zag sections can be seen t hat the speed is constant. The task http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07tachograph/tach ograph_l.htm [28/08/2007 18:47:45] Free fall Ph 2007 View Free Fall The free event is one of the most important fast movements that we observe in ev eryday life. Slips us a cup from his hand, it falls freely to the ground with a known result. If we are not careful when walking, we may fall a little stretch f reely, often with unpleasant consequences. Even in antiquity, occupied themselve s with this type of movement, and developed ideas, which differ significantly fr om today's beliefs, but they are often found as misconceptions in the learner. I n the writings of Aristotle, the concept of the construction of the cosmos and c onsequently presented the statement of the sequence of movements. With slight mo difications are considered the teaching of the ancient Greeks until about the 16 th Century, ie about 2000 years. Only with a new approach to scientific problems in which the experiment played a crucial role, has been subject to significantl y different findings, but which are apparently - not bring our experience from d aily life so readily into line. Aristotle (384-322 BC), Greek philosopher The cosmos of the ancient Greeks and their statements about free fall in the cen ter of the universe is the earth. The earthly sphere consists of the four elemen ts of earth, water, air and fire. Above the terrestrial sphere, the celestial sp here with the rising stars. http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07freier_fall/fre

i_fall.htm (1 of 4) [08/28/2007 18:47:54] Free fall The movements in the different spheres are explained differently: q Celestial movements are harmonious you for an "eternal order". The stars are mov ing by themselves on ideal uniform circular orbits. Earth movements, not to be r egular, "divine" orbits, and must have a cause. q r Movement of organisms, the cause of the movement of a body is its "vitality". Examples: the swimming fish, flying birds, the going of people. r Natural movements through the natural movement is made ain. Heavy bodies are "down" arranged and light bodies vy stone has the natural tendency to fall down and the ent weight to different degrees bodies tend to bottom: a body, the greater is its rate of fall. into a disturbed order ag "above". Therefore, a hea light smoke rises. Differ The higher the weight of

http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07freier_fall/fre i_fall.htm (2 of 4) [08/28/2007 18:47:54] Free fall r Forced movements as opposed to the natural movements of forced movements require an external active mover, or a permanently applied. Only thus can a body remove d from its natural place or differ by a natural movement. A typical example here is always given to the ox cart, the only moves if the ox pulls. The investigation of the free fall by Galileo as a very important representative of the 16th Century emerging scientific way of working is Galileo Galilei, who is credited with the free fall. He came to the following conclusions: q q q The free fall is an accelerated motion with constant acceleration a = 9.81 m/s2. One writes for the acceleration of gravity in honor of Galileo's and g = 9.81 m /s2. Unlike Aristotle, Galileo, after all the fall regardless of their body weig ht - the same rate. Even in Galileo emerges a vague suspicionthat there is no d ifference between earthly and heavenly doctrine of motion. Galilei (1564 - 1642) For the experimental support of his statements could not examine Galileo free-fa ll jump, since the precise measurement of the short fall times in his time was n ot yet possible. He therefore investigated a "slow free fall" by a bullet an inc lined plane http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07freier_fall/fre i_fall.htm (3 of 4) [08/28/2007 18:47:54]

Free fall let roll off. The findings, he transferred to the perpendicular case, as the mov ement of a ball on a more steeply sloping incline to the free case comes very cl ose. to struggle with what Galileo had experimental difficulties goes out of his "lab report shows. In addition, Galileo succeeded by a clever thought experimen t, the thesis of Aristotle that heavier bodies fall faster than lighter must dis prove to. In our time it is possible to film with a high-speed camera movement t o the case. The Laboratory Report For the thought experiment View Video http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/umwelt_technik/07freier_fall/fre i_fall.htm (4 of 4) [08/28/2007 18:47:54] Galileo Ph 2007 History Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) Galileo Galilei was born on 15 Born in Pisa in February 1564. Here he learned wh ile studying the writings of Archimedes know and received the 1589 Professor of Mathematics in Pisa. The drop tests on the Leaning Tower are historically not be en established. Because of better pay in the Padua took a mathematics professor there in 1592. The case law, he led her 1609th He built the telescope, invented by Holland. He sold his "invention" at a respectable price to the Doge of Venice , who, as well as military - leaders in this instrument very interested. Galileo makes with the new instrument astronomical observations and published them in 1 610 in his "Sidereus Nuncius," the "Starry Messenger". Galileo discovered the mo untains of the moon, the star richness of the Milky Way, the phases of Venus and Jupiter's moons. http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/geschichte/07galilei/galilei.htm (1 of 4) [28/08/2007 18:48:14] Galileo In 1610 came as the court mathematician in the services of the Grand Duke of Flo rence. He paid no attention to what it meant to protect the freedom of Venice ag ainst the activity of a court mathematician of the exchange is under clerical in fluence Tuscan Princely House. Vanity and the pursuit of influence seem to have led him to this fateful step, for him. Galileo was a good Catholic and saw it we ll for his calling to bring the church's doctrine of reconciliation, in accordan ce with the scientific facts. In his dialogues he tried this with admirable pass ion of teaching. He forgot that in 1600 had to die Giordano Bruno for similar ef forts at the stake. Galileo was on 26 February 1616 by the Holy Office warned to desist from the truth of the Copernican theory (not the Earth but the sun is at the heart of our system to maintain). The Galileo Galilei http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/geschichte/07galilei/galilei.htm (2 of 4) [28/08/2007 18:48:14]

Galileo Calculation of planetary positions after the Copernican hypothesis, in which it was not truth, but rather a "mathematical fiction" was allowed. In this sense, i t also allows Galileo, the Copernican system in his "Dialogo to treat" (1632). O n papal order, however, the sale of the book was banned because it accused Galil eo, is not adhered to the admonition of 1616 and not implemented agreed changes to the text to have. The Inquisition process against Galileo ended in his renunc iation and condemnation on 22 Juni 1633rd His alleged statement, "she Eppur muov e" i.e. "And they (the Earth) moves yet," is a legend. Galileo was sentenced to indefinite detention, which he spent in his villa near Florence to Arceti. Here, written for the further development of physics, the most important work, "Disco urses," which was printed in 1638 in Leiden. It contains the theory of falling b odies and projectiles. Galileo wanted his scientific Galileo before the Holy Office http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/geschichte/07galilei/galilei.htm (3 of 4) [28/08/2007 18:48:14] Galileo Findings widely known of the Timorese people. Therefore, it writes the first sci entist his dialogues not in the learned language of Latin, but in his native Ita lian. He died on 8 January 1642 in Arceti. A year later, Newton was born, which was to complete the work of Galileo.In 1993, Pope John Paul II rehabilitated th e great scientist. http://leifi.physik.uni-muenchen.de/web_ph07_g8/geschichte/07galilei/galilei.htm (4 of 4) [28/08/2007 18:48:14]