Arrival of the Portuguese royal family to Rio de Janeiro on March 7, 1808 1999 O il on canvas, 609 x 914 mm Private collection

Table of Geoffrey Hunt (b. 1948), was exhibited at the National History Museum a nd the Imperial Museum of Brazil. The Prince Regent John, the Queen Maria II and the court set sail for Brazil on November 27, 1807, due to 1. Nd French Invasio n. The fleet will only happen at sea on the 29th. Description: This represents the center, the ship Principe Real, where he had tr aveled to Queen Mary I, the Prince Regent and his two children, infants D. And P eter D. Miguel, Spanish and infant, D. Pedro Carlos de Bourbon, at the time just to anchor, using his rattle, seeing that the royal standard floating on the mai n mast. The small boats around the ship carrying figures who refused to leave im mediately to greet the royal family, since only the landing took place the next day. On the left is the British ship Marlborough, who was at bay, firing a volle y, with the garrison placed in yards. On the right side one can see the ship Afo nso de Albuquerque, who had carried the princess Carlota Joaquina and four of hi s six daughters, begin to screw the candles preparing to enter the wind and anch or. Behind is the Medusa, which had carried the still secretary of state for For eign Affairs and War, António de Araújo de Azevedo, future Count of Barca, and the frigate Urania, who escorted the Prince Regent during the entire trip. Besi de these, the British ship Bedford, who had accompanied the Portuguese fleet fro m the Canaries. Rightmost in the coastline represents the white smoke of strong saves Villegaignon, which no longer exists, seeing himself as well - from left t o right - the coast of Niterói, the entrance to the bay of Rio de Janeiro and B read Sugar. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil Dom Joao VI: victim of Napoleonic action or subordinated to British interests? September 7th we celebrate all the days in which Brazil was proclaimed independe nce from Portugal. Thus, the bedrock of our political sovereignty stood at the t ime that the then Prince Regent, Dom Pedro I, officiated at the end of colonizat ion on the shores of the Ipiranga river. However, how can we imagine that the ou tcry on the edge of a river is able to make a sovereign nation? To better unders tand our process of independence is crucial for you to move a historical context : the establishment of the Napoleonic Era (1799 - 1815) in the early nineteenth century. During this period, which closes the turbulence experienced during Frac esa Revolution, Napoleon became the supreme head of the French nation. During hi s tenure, Napoleon had the big goal of industrializing the French economy throug h an aggressive plan that combined heavy state investment and an aggressive fore ign policy. At that time the largest industrial era England. With this, Bonapart e tried to retaliate against the British monopoly marketing or if it meant that threaten the sovereignty of European nations demics. In the year 1806, the gover nment imposed the Napoleonic Blockade Continetal Europe. Under that decree, the French demanded that no European nation had commercial relations with England. T hus, the Napoleonic government expanded its markets and customers while its bigg er rival destabilized political, military and economic. The prince regent of Por tugal, Dom Joao VI, the French did not follow the order. That's because, through out the eighteenth century, the Portuguese economy has signed a series of treati es that deepened economic dependence on overly Portugal to England. In response to the intransigence Portuguese, Napoleon threatened to invade the Portuguese territory. Pressed by Napoleon, the Portugue se government finally accepted a plan from England to work around this situation . The British offered to escort the Portuguese royal family moved to Brazil and ensured that it would use its military forces to expel the Napoleonic troops fro m Portuguese soil. In return for these favors, Dom should transfer the Portugues

e capital to Rio de Janeiro and a set of treaties that would open Brazilian port s to the nations of the world and offered lower rates alfadegárias to British g oods. Having no better alternatives facing the British proposal in November 1807 , about 15,000 citizens of Portugal left hurriedly towards Brazil. Thus, between the years of 1808 and in 1821, Brazil became the administrative center of the P ortuguese government. Besides being a unique event in the Portuguese political h istory,€the arrival of Dom Joao VI and his courtiers to Brazil began a series o f actions that have weakened the colonial pact Thus, we can contemplate the Joha nnine admininstrção a set of actions that have driven our independence. At the same time, we see that the screams on the banks of the Ipiranga, Dom Pedro I, w e accomplished nothing more freedoms previously granted during the passage of Do m João VI in Brazil. In 1810, two years after the establishment of the Portuguese Court in Rio de Jan eiro, England has renewed its commercial treaties with the prince Don Juan Benef iting from these treaties, the British have further improved the sale of their p roducts to the Brazilian market. The Portuguese bourgeoisie, by contrast, saw th eir privileges were reduced. At United, the Portuguese harassed Dom Joao, in Col ogne, directed their dissatisfaction against the local elite. The relationship b etween the Portuguese and the newly installed Brazilian - landowners and merchan ts - have become strained, as only the Portuguese had access to government posts . The Brazilians remained was the payment of taxes, primarily used for support o f the Court. The Crown was unable to settle Brazilian and Portuguese because she herself was often short of money. Dom often resorted to external borrowing of E nglish bankers. This discontent led an underground newspaper - The Courier Brazi liense - criticizing the Portuguese government. But despite all the difficulties , Dom Joao urbanize Rio de Janeiro, built schools, libraries and theaters. Artis ts brought to Brazil and European scientists, which helped to renew the Brazilia n culture. Born in 1775, and died em1830, Queen of Portugal and the United Kingd om of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve, was born in Aranjuez, Spain and died in Quel uz, Portugal. Daughter of King Carlos IV of Spain, married to Prince John of Por tugal later D. John VI. Of difficult temperament and self-willed, had many confl icts with her husband and with the Portuguese authorities, especially after D. J ohn had become regent in 1792, replacing the Queen Mary I, her mother, who was i ll. In both Brazil and Portugal fought systematically revolutionary ideas from F rance. In 1807 he was forced, due to invasion by Napoleonic troops to embark for Brazil with her husband, children and the rest of the Court. Living in Brazil f rom 1808 to 1821 and having its home country, Spain has also been occupied by Napoleon I, devised a plan to rule the Spanish colonies. The bill fa iled, including a lack of interest in D. John became queen in 1816, with the ris e of D. John VI to the throne. Always loyal to the ultraconservative views, retu rning to Portugal he devoted himself, with his son D. Miguel, conspiring against the courts had held that the liberal revolution. After the death of D. John sup ported the absolutist movement that allowed the rise of D. Michael to the throne . D Peter was born at the Palace of Queluz, Portugal, 12/10/1798. Son of D. John VI and Dona Carlota Joaquina. He came to Brazil with all the Royal Family, beca use the invasion of Napoleon against Portugal. At 18 he married Miss Maria Leopo ldina, Archduchess d'Austria, in 1821 D. John returned to Portugal leaving D. Pe ter governing Brazil. On departure day he told his son who did everything for th e good of Brazil, before adventurers take their place. Remembering always the wo rds of the father D. Peter struggled to unite the Brazilians with the Portuguese . Due to change of the royal family to Brazil, D. Peter was never able to comple te his studies for this reason the Portuguese Cortes called him to Europe to con tinue that. The Brazilian people feared running out of the Prince Regent and as evidence of the trust deposited in him, wrote him a letter asking him to stay in Brazil as a perpetual defender of this country, that this letter was delivered by José Clemente Pereira. D. Peter replied to the letter with a phrase that wou ld later become historical: "How is it for the good of all and happiness of the Nation, I'm ready, tell the people that get" why the day became 1/9/1822 called on the "I". He then began the struggle between those who supported the Prince Re

gent and those who were in favor of Portuguese politics. Meanwhile, D. Peter tra veled to Sao Paulo to see the fortifications of the port of Santos. On September 7, 1822, when he returned to Santos, found in the Hill lpiranga, messengers who brought him letters from Portugal and Rio noting that the said D. John VI, D. L eopoldina and Jose Bonifacio in the cards, drew the sword and shouted "Independe nce or Death!". On October 12, 1822, D. Pedro was proclaimed jmperador Brazil,€ and the coronation ceremony held on December 1. The Portuguese troops seeing the ir defeat, returned to Lisbon. During his reign were succeeded by the following facts: drafted a proclamation to the people asking Brazilians to join more and f orcing those who were opposed to withdrawing from the country; on 05/03/1823, in stalled the Constituent Assembly, in which highlighted the Andradas brothers, wh o disagreed with the plans of D. Pedro I, became the opposition, being dissolved in the same year that Assembly and arrested and condemned to exile, Jose Bonifa cio, on 3.25.1824, D. Peter swore to the 1st Brazilian Constitution, the same ye ar was the Revolution of Pernambuco. They wanted a republic. This revolution was called the Confederation of Ecuador and headed by Brother Mug and Paes de Andra de in 1826, Dona Maria Leopoldina died, his wife, D. John VI, his father, and he therefore abdicated the Portuguese crown in favor of his daughter Maria da Glor ia, Princess of Grand Para. Two years later came the independence of the provinc e Cisplatin that became the Republic of Uruguay. At age 31, D. Peter chooses the Dona Amelia Lauchtemberg to be his second wife. In 1831, he abdicated the crown in Brazil, because he was upset about the struggles between political parties i n Brazil, passing the crown to his son D. Pedro de Alcantara, who then had five years of age. Back in Portugal, D. Peter regained the throne from his brother D. Miguel had seized violently. The Portuguese won again, defeating those who favo red D. Miguel. But did not stay long with the joy of becoming loved by the Portu guese, having been affected by tuberculosis, which would end his life on 9/24/18 34 (in the same palace of Queluz, where he was born there 36 years). Its full name is: PEDRO DE ALCANTARA ANTONIO JOAO CARLOS XAVIER FRANCISCO DE PAU LA JOAQUIM RAFAEL MIGUEL CIPRIANO JOSEPH GONZAGA PASCOAL Serafim of Braganza, BO URBON By Rainer Sousa Graduate School of History Team Brazil

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