Circulatory System Circulatory System Circulatory System consists of: 1 .

- The Cardiovascular System: Blood transports in both directions (in both directions) between the heart and tissues. 2 .- Vas cular Lymphatic System: Lymph collects excess tissue extracellular fluid and tak en back to the Cardiovascular System. (One way) Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and the blood pumped into two se parate circuits: 1 .- The Pulmonary Circuit: that carries blood to the lungs and out of them. 2 .- The Systemic Circuit: distributes blood to all organs and tis sues of the body, and outside them. These two circuits are: 1 .- Arteries: A series of vessels that carry blood from the heart and vessels branch into increasingly smaller diameter to supply blood to all parts of the body. 2 .- Hair: make beds, a network of thin-walled vessel s in which gas exchange, nutrients, metabolic wastes, hormones and signaling sub stances or pass between the blood and tissues of the body to maintain normal met abolic activities. 3 .- veins: vessels draining the capillary beds and form incr easingly larger vessels returning blood to the heart. Structure of Blood Vessels Overall arteries have thicker walls and are smaller in diameter than their veins . Tunic of Vessels: The blood vessel walls are composed of three layers: tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia. Tunica intima: is composed of squamous epithelium simple and subendothelial connective tissue (this is the innermost layer) is end othelial cells lining blood vessels in the light of the rest on a basal lamina. These cells not only provide an exceptionally smooth surface, but also act to se crete collagen type II, IV and V, lamina endothelin, nitric oxide and von Willeb rand factor. And have enzymes, subendothelial layer, an elastic lamina. Tunica media: it is usually the thickest layer of the vessel wall is composed of layers of smooth muscle arranged in a spiral. They are type III collagen fibers and proteoglycans. Adventitia: the outermost layer of the vessel wall merges wi th the surrounding connective tissue, this is formed mainly of fibroblasts, type I collagen fibers and elastic fibers oriented longitudinally. Vasa vasorum: These supply blood to the walls, the deeper cells of the tunica me dia and adventitia are fed through the vasa vasorum. These are defined as small arteries that penetrate the vessel walls and branch profusely in to feed cells a re mainly located in the tunica media and adventitia. Vessel innervation: sympat hetic nerves provide innervation to the smooth muscles of the tunica media. Thes e postganglionic sympathetic nerves, unmyelinated are responsible for the vaso-c onstriction of the vessel walls. The arteries have a larger amount of vasomotor nerves to the veins, but the latter also receive vasomotor nerve endings in the adventitia.