U ma way of classifying spaces and vector subspaces is through the concept of dime nsion, which will be presented in this

class. Here, we will make an association between space and a natural number called the dimension of vector space and see some of its main consequences. The content presented following a sequence. So we recommend that you follow the sequence of lessons. Try to understand well the c oncepts of the previous class to start this. The main goal of this lesson is that you learn to determine the size of a given vector space. Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 1 In class 8 (coordinate systems), we learn to find the coordinates of a vector in any one base. We saw that with respect to the base canonical coordinates at are 1, 1 and 1, but we may have other coordinates if we change the base. One question that may have crossed his mind is: is there any basis on which the vector has more than three or less than three coordinates? "This lesson will give an an swer to, but we'll pass the following result. Theorem 1 If a vector is based subspace, then every subset of containing more of vectors is linearly dependent. Show Is a subset of more than we know if there are no solutions to the equation zero vector, ie. QuereEquation (1) If this happens, the theorem is proved. How is a base, each of the vectors can be written as linear combination of vectors. Thus there are scalars such that. . . . System (2) So we are looking for scalar such that 2 Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I Equation (3) Putting the vectors based on evidence, Equation (4) That is, we are looking to form a scalar solution to the system . . . System (5) since

is linearly independent. , Which Note that the system (5) has equations and unknowns, with allows you to have fre e variables, and this implies the existence of non-zero solutions. It follows that any subset of more vector is based. Please note that, since we c an quickly find the canonical basis. Just consider the columns of the identity m atrix of order. Thus, together with any more, since the theorem states that it i s a linear element can not be base dependent. As a consequence of Theorem 1, we have the question answered by the beginning of class next theorem. Theorem 2 Two bases of a vector subspace same number of elements. of always have the same Show Consider two bases and any of. The base and elements. Note that there may be gre ater than. If this were the case, we linearly dependent. So. But it can not be g reater than, since it is linearly independent. So. To the two inequalities are t rue must have. We can now answer the question posed at the beginning of class. A fter all, all bases have three elements, corresponding to three coordinates, wha tever the base. Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 3 Note that the number three brings many important information about the structure . . By This information is relevant to any vector subspace of all this, we make the following definition. Is a vector subspace. The dimension of, denoted by, is the number of elements of any of its bases. For the special case where we say that its size is zero. subs pace is So. Resolved a year 1 Determine the dimension of subspace of Solution The vectors of this subspace can be written as This means that is generated by the vectors Then, Theorem 1 class 7 (bases of a vector space) ensures that we can find betwe en these vectors for a basis. Just find out those that are linearly independent. Following the procedure used in Exercise resolved three class 7, we scale the m atrix

4 Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I and find The columns correspond to the pivots linearly independent vectors. So form a basis for and therefore . Activity 1 Determine the geometric nature of zero-dimensional subspaces, one-dimensional, t wo dimensional and three-dimensional, ie, those who have dimension 0, 1, 2 and 3 , respectively. The next two theorems provide a way to construct examples of vector subspaces. Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 5 Theorem 3 Let a vector subspace. Any linearly independent subset can be expanded , if necessary, to form a basis for. Show If Be generates a subset that is linearly independent. , Then it is a basis for and nothing more needs to be done. that is not written Now, if, then how is there any linear combination of elements. Thus, all linearl y independent. Verified, so if the new set generates.€If not, we can continue with the process of expanding up to find a basis for, because according to Theorem 1, only find a maximum linearly independent vectors. Theorem 4 Is a vector subspace of dimension. Every subset linearly independent e lements is a basis for. Every subset with elements that generates is a basis for . Show Is a linearly independent set with vectors. By Theorem 3, can be expanded to for m a basis for. As the size of it, then it is a base for. Suppose now that is a s et with elements that generates a theorem of class 7, contains a database of. Be cause this is the base should have such a basis. . Then, the elements, 2 year fixed 1 Knowing that the line equation to find: represents a vector subspace ,

a) a basis for this subspace, b) a basis for the plan that contains the line. 6 Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I Solution a) Making the association with the plan, we have that the line represents the se t whose elements have the second coordinate equal to twice the first, ie. This s et is generated by the vector, which is linearly independent. Soon, the whole un it is a base for the line. b) We can use the procedure of proof of Theorem 3 to expand. Then, taking an element of the set to obtain a basis for not belonging t o, or an element that is not the way, for example, we obtain a set of two elemen ts that is linearly independent. is 2 and we linearly indepenComo the size of th e tooth, the first part of Theorem 4 ensures that this set is a basis. to 3 year fixed 1 Find a basis for the vector subspace represented by the plane equation. Solution Such a plan can be characterized by the equation. That is, we have the second co ordinate of its points as a function of the first and third. Therefore, we say t hat your points are of the type. Which means that the plan is generated by ve. A s a plane can always be identified with producers, their size is 2. Therefore, t he second part of Theorem 4 tells us it is a basis for the plan in question. Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 7 Activity 2 The plan of the equation represents a subspace of three-dimensional Euclidean sp ace. Find one of their bases and a base of space that contains it. Summary Earlier this lesson, ask whether it is possible that a single vector has a diffe rent number of coordinates in relation to different bases. In an attempt to give an answer to this question, we show that a subspace has vectors in some basis, then any subset of elements is more linearly dependent. The answer to our questi on came next: two bases of the same vector subspace always have the same number of elements. As the number of coordinates equals the number of basis vectors to which it relates, we will always have the same number of coordinates, no matter what base is being used. We called the number of vectors of a basis for a subspa ce dimension of this vector subspace. By this definition following two results. The first says that every subset of a vector subspace can be increased, if neces sary, to form a basis. Then we saw that if a vector subspace has dimension, line arly independent subset of all elements is a basis. Just as every subset with el ements that generates the subspace is also a basis. 8 Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I Make sure you understand well the concepts presented in class by answering the f ollowing questions. a) What is the dimension of a vector subspace? Give an example. b) What is the m

aximum number of linearly independent vectors that can have a subset of a vector subspace of dimension 10? c) Two bases may have different amounts of elements? Why? d) If a vector subspace has dimension 200 and choose a subset with its 201 elements, we can say about their linear dependence? Proposed exercises 1) Find a basis of containing and. 2) Verify that the following statements are true or false. Justify each answer. a) If is a set of generators and. are vector subspaces, then. with five elements , then. elements, so it is b) If a base c) If d) If and is a set of generators is a subset of linearly independent. and with five elements, then 3) are the subspaces represented by the vector equations and plans, respectively. Deter mine. Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 9 4) Consider the subspace generated by the vectors a) The vector ? b) Find a basis for c)? Why? . What is the size? 5) Given the matrix? What is the size of the subspace given by ANDRADE, C. R. L; BEZERRA, J. Q; BIELSCHOWSKY, R. H. et al. Applied linear algeb ra. Christmas€2005 (Document to be published). LAY, David C. Linear algebra and its applications. Rio de Janeiro: LTC - Technical and Scientific Books S. Publi sher A., 1999. Responses of the proposed exercises 1) Take a vector that does not belong to the subspace generated by and for examp le To complete the base. 10

Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 2) a) True, because every set of generators of a vector space contains a basis. b) False. Note that c) False. Take, for example. We have, but not a base represe nted by the straight line given by the axis and, but is not contained in. . the plan given d) True, for every linearly independent set can be completed to form a basis. 3) The intersection is a straight line, therefore, has dimension 1. 4) a) Assemble the matrix and make . Note that the post is less than the rank vector. . Therefore, not belong to the subspace generated by the other four b) The vectors and form a basis for the subspace in question. PerTherefore, its size is 2. is 4, this may not be the subspace generated by vector s c) As the size of which has dimension 2. 5) The matrix has only one free varia ble. So just have a canonical solution to generate. So. Lecture 09 Linear Algebra I 11