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Querginaldo JosÃ© Abreu Mendes Bezerra class 12 Federal Government President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's Education Minister Fernando Haddad Secreta ry of Distance Education - SEED Ronaldo Motta Reviewer Portuguese Language Janaina Tomaz Capistrano Sandra Cristinne Xavier Ho use Publishing Illustrator Carolina Coast Images Adauto Carolina Coast Harley de sktop publishers Bruno Cruz de Oliveira Mauricio Oliveira da Silva JÃºnior Thais a Maria Lemos Simplicio Images Used Sedis Image Bank (Department of Distance Edu cation) - UFRN MasterClips IMSI MasterClips Collection, 1895 Francisco Blvd East , San Rafael, CA 94901, USA. Masterfile - www.masterfile.cpom MorgueFile - www.m orguefile.com Pixel Perfect Digital - www.pixelperfectdigital.com FreeImages - w ww.freeimages.co.uk FreeFoto.com - Free Pictures www.freefoto.com Photos - www.f ree-pictures BigFoto-photos.com - www.bigfoto.com FreeStockPhotos.com - www.free stockphotos.com OneOddDude.net - www.oneodddude.net Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte Rector JosÃ© do Rego Ivonildo Vice Dean Nilsen Carvalho Fernandes de Oliveira Fi lho Secretary of Distance Education Vera Lucia Amaral Department of Distance Education-SEDIS bench Coordinator of Production Materials CÃ©lia Maria de Araujo Lima Reviewers Ivana Graphic Design Structure and Language Eugenio Tavares Borges Marcos Aurelio Feli pe Meirelles Peter Daniel Ferreira Nobre Mabel Tatyana Barbosa Technical Services Division of Cataloging Source Publishing. UFRN / Central Libr ary "Zila Mamede" Mendes, Iran Abreu. Spatial geometry: an interdisciplinary / Iran Abreu Mendes, JosÃ© Bezerra Querginaldo. - Natal, RN: EDUFRN UFRN Publisher, 2005. 324 p. 1. E uclidean geometry. 2. Theorems. 3. Triangles. I. Bezerra, JosÃ© Querginaldo. II. Title. ISBN 85-7273-288-8 RN / UF / BCZM CDD 516.2 UDC 514.12 2005/48 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or used without the express permission of UFRN - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. Presentation The study of issues related to the three-dimensional shapes and their relationships is key to understanding phenomena of our everyday life and for the performance o f various professions such as engineering, architecture and painting, among othe rs. Seek to develop the skills necessary for the understanding of spatial object s through their representations, exploring the projections in three perpendicula r planes, as well as their planning.

Objectives At the end of this lesson, hope you are able to perceive in space, the notions o f parallelism and perpendicularity, angle, shape and position of objects, and al so interpret their representations. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space 1 Visualization in three dimensions The following figures are representations of some pyramids of square base. Figure 1 Figure 2 The next Figure 3 is a geometric representation of a pyramid of this type. Figure 3 Activity 1 Please look at Figure 3 from various angles and tell which of planar geometric f igures, then, can be seen, depending on which angle you view. 2 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 1. If you answered all, congratulations! Otherwise, try to imagine the pyramid a li ttle distant from you, in various positions. Understand that in some positions, part of the pyramid is "hidden", ie you can not see it. Lines and plans relative positions Just as in other classes, we need some axioms to begin our study of the spatial geometry. Axiom 1 - Given two distinct points of space, there is one, and only o ne line that contains them. Axiom 2 - For three non-collinear points is one and only one plane that contains them. Axiom 3 - If two points on a line belong to a plan, she also belongs to this plan. Collinear points Collinear points are points belonging to a same straight line. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space your response 3 We want to make clear in the beginning of class, that for a rigorous axiomatic c onstruction of the subject that we are introducing it would take other axioms, b

ut we avoid them explicit as possible, not to justify all the facts that we use, letting our intuition and experience should undertake this. Proposition 1 - Giv en a line r and a point P not belonging to it, there is a single plane containin g re P. To demonstrate this proposition, we take two distinct points Q and R on the line r. Since P, Q and R are not collinear, the second axiom ensures that th ey pass a single plan.ÂIf the plan contains Q and R, then by axiom 3, it contai ns r. We show therefore that there is a plan containing re P. Because this is th e only plan which contains P, Q and R, it follows that is the only one that cont ains re P. Just as for straight lines on the same plane, two distinct lines in s pace can have at most one common point. This is ensured by an axiom. Thus, two l ines with more than one point in common coincide (same line). When they only hav e one thing in common, are called straight competitors and determine a single pl ane. Activity 2 R and t are two lines which compete in a point P. a) If A is a point of re B a point of t, both distinct from P, then P, A and B determine a ___________, second axiom 2. b) The plan set forth above contains ret because ______________________ _____________________________________________________________ __________________ _____________________. Congratulations! You just show that two competing lines determine a single plane. Figure 9 refers to the activity above 2 and represents a plane with two straight ret, competing in P and two points A and B, belonging arete, respectively. 4 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space r A t B P Figure 9 When two lines have no point in common, they can determine whether or not a plan . Determine if a plan, are straight and parallel, otherwise they are called stra ight reversed. Note that two lines are parallel in space is not enough that they do not intersect, there must also be in the same plane. You knew that, under na tural conditions identical, the two trunks of coconut trees not far away are alw ays parallel? Challenge How to check if two lines are parallel in space? To better understand the idea of reverse straight do the following experiment: t ake two sticks (which will represent two straight lines). Put them on a table in any position, provided they do not touch, and lift one end of one. You have not iced that there is a plan that contains these sticks in that position. It says t hat the lines containing these sticks are reversed. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space 5 Figure 10 represents a pyramid. Points A, B, C, D and E are its vertices, the se gments AB, BC, CD, AD, AE, BE, CE and DE are its edges, the triangles ABE, BCE, CDE and DAE are their faces and ABCD is its basis. The line belongs to the face

ABE r, s is the line on the face of the ECB and line t is at its base. E r D s C t A B Figure 10 Activity 3 In Figure 10, reflect a little and respond. a b c The lines are parallel res, competitors and reverse? The lines are parallel ret, competitors and reverse? There is a plane containing r and s? 6 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space and d There is a plane containing r and t? Justify your answers to the items c and d. a) b) c) d) e) Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space your response 7 The pyramid is a spatial figure, ie three dimensions. The representation of Figu re 3 is flat, ie a two dimensional projection of the pyramid. Because these proj ections distort angles, change length of segments and can not distinguish betwee n points that are on the same line of projection, it makes it very difficult to understand a three dimensional object, when viewed in a two dimensional projecti on. It is this ability that an engineer needs to develop the project of construc ting a building, bridge or dam, looking at the pictures (plants) made by the arc hitect. A similar situation is a mechanical engineer, for example, when going to build a new piece, represented on a sheet of paper or a computer screen (which is flat). In plane geometry, we use the word triangle, both to indicate the tria ngle itself (figure determined by the segments connecting three points not colli near) to indicate the region as determined by him and his interior. The same occ urs in spatial geometry, ie, the pyramid indicates the figure formed by their fa

ces, but all these points made by the interior points. It is as if one were holl ow and the other not. For you to understand better what is a pyramid and to dist inguish its vertices, faces and edges, we will help you build one. Take a sheet of cardboard in it and draw a square and four congruent isosceles triangles and cut the cardboard so as to obtain the following figure. Figure 11 Now, make a crease on each side of the square, to facilitate the folding of all triangles at their bases, in order to join his side, sticking them with masking tape, for example. See how the triangles are joined to form the pyramid in Figur e 12. Figure 12 8 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space The reverse procedure to what we do, that is, open the pyramid, is called planni ng.ÂConsists of cutting the pyramid along the edges and open it on a flat regio n (table). The following figure shows the pyramid opening. Figure 13 The pyramid is a special case of a family of geometric figures called polyhedra space, with which you had contact in class 7. Other examples are the cube and th e parallelepiped, shown respectively in Figures 14 and 15. Figure 14 Figure 15 The cube has six square faces, all congruent, while the rectangular parallelepip ed has six faces, and the opposite congruent. Note that the edges resulting from the intersection of two adjacent faces and opposite sides do not intersect, eve n if prolonged indefinitely. Note also that some edges intersect and others not, there is, therefore, parallel edges, competitors and reverse, in addition to pe rpendicular. The relative positions between two lines in space, mentioned earlie r, only the perpendicularity has not yet been introduced. When they are competit ors, are on the same plane and being perpendicular to form four right angles. If lines are reversed, being perpendicular to one intercept a line parallel to ano ther to form four right angles. See the following illustration, where the lines are reversed res, t is parallel to r, and remember to that the three lines are n ot in the same plane. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space 9 r t s Figure 16 Reread the comments made on the cube and the parallelepiped and certifying the e xistence of perpendicular edges, including edges reversed. Activity 4

Please note the figure of a cube at various angles, and say which of planar geom etric figures, then, can be seen, depending on the angle of the observer. Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 When you can respond, mentally, to such matter, without recourse to the concrete object, you can celebrate, because many people have great difficulty in resolvi ng such issues. Let us now consider the relative positions between straight and flat. Note once again the figure of the parallelepiped, introduced earlier. Note that the edge of a face is always parallel to the edges of opposite sides. This suggests the following definition. A line is parallel to a plane, if not have in common with him. 10 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space If the line has points in common with a plan, we have two possibilities: one poi nt in common - secant plane, two points in common - straight coincident with the plan. (Axiom 3) If a line is a secant plane a point P, form angles with each li ne of the plane containing P. If it is at right angles to at least two distinct lines of the plane passing through P, we say that this line is perpendicular to the plane. Otherwise, ie if it formed a right angle to a maximum of one line of the plan say it is oblique. Let's continue with the activities. Activity 5 Justify why the rods used to measure the water level in dams is perpendicular to the water surface. 1. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space your response 11 Activity 6 February 1 Explain what you mean by horizontal position. Ask a mason as he can level a floor using a hose with water. Add your justificat ion for this procedure. your response 12 1. 2.

To complete our lesson, we introduce the notions about the relative positions of two planes. We have seen in class 2, that the lines are special subsets of the plans. In this lesson, we saw that two lines may not have points in common - par allel lines - may have a single point in common - straight competitors - and can have two things in common - straight match. Similar situations occur in space w ith a line and a plane. Make a mental exercise and try to imagine what happens w ith two planes. It may not have common points? May intersect at a single point? Can have only two common points? Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space The geometric representation of a plan resembling a sheet of paper, as shown in Figure 22. As the sheets are flexible and bend, in practice it is better to work with a piece of thick cardboard or even a very thin board, like plywood. Do not forget that our representation corresponds to a part of the plan that actually extends indefinitely in all directions. After these considerations, note in Figu res 23-25 and see if you can two planes intersect in one point, only two points or not intersect at any point. We advise you to make concrete experiences to hel p him in his conclusions. It is common to use Greek letters like and (alpha, bet a and gamma, respectively) and to denominate plans,Âand the use of Latin letter s to uppercase and lowercase points for straight, as you may have noticed. If bo th planes have more than one point in common, the third axiom assures us that th e intersection of these planes is a straight, and in this case we say that the p lans are drying. Note that the points common to the plans, the previous statemen t, belong to the same straight line, because otherwise, the plans coincide, as t he axiom says 2. Two planes can not intersect at a single point, as suggested in Figure 23. However, this result can not be proven from the axioms, and therefor e we have to add one more axiom to our theory. Axiom 4 - If two planes have one thing in common, then they have at least one line in common. The next activity w ill show the existence of parallel planes. Moreover, show that for a point not b elonging to a plane is a single plane parallel. Figure 24 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 25 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space 13 Activity 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Draw a picture representing a plan and on it, draw two distinct lines res, which intersect at a point P. Construct the line t perpendicular to the plane, passing through P. Mark a point Q on the line t, unlike P. Trace, through Q, the straight line area parallel u v parallel to s. Draw the plan that contains u and v. Why (disregard the possible inaccuracies in the drawing) the plan is parallel to the plane?

Complete the plan as constructed, is the only plane parallel to. (Hint: assume t hat there is another and use the fifth postulate of Euclid). Congratulations! You just show that for a point not belonging to a given plane i s a single plane parallel to it. 14 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space Challenge Explain how to construct a perpendicular to a plane passing through one of its p oints, drawing on the figure below, consisting of one plane and two triangles. Figure 26 Note that this is a procedure used in day-to-day, since it corresponds to the ne ed, in various professions, to be in the upright position, a post, the columns o f a building, an antenna etc.. To check whether you answered the challenge correctly, see the book The Mathemat ics of Secondary Education, vol. 2, Elon Lages Lima and others. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space your response 15 1. The concept of a perpendicular line to a plan is fundamental to the concept of d istance from one point to a plan and the idea of symmetry on a plane. The distan ce of a point P to a plane, which denote by d (P) is the distance from P to poin t Q of intersection of the plane with the line that contains P and is perpendicu lar to. The symmetric of a point P not belonging to a plane, with respect to thi s plan, is the point P 'of straight and perpendicular to the plane containing P, so that the point of intersection of this line with the plan is the midpoint of PP '. Figure 27 explains a little more, these ideas. P Q P ' Figure 27 PP ' and PQ = P'Q Another important idea due to the perpendicularity of straight and level is the orthogonal projection of a point on a plane. The orthogonal projection of a poin t P on a plane is the point of intersection of the plane with the perpendicular line that contains P. The orthogonal projection of a figure F in a plane is the figure one gets projetandose all points of F in the plan. The following illustra tion shows the orthogonal projection of a triangle on a plane. Figure 28 16

Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space Reread the first activity and see their relationship with the concept of orthogo nal projection. Note that what we see when we look at a figure which is far (mor e is better), is practically an orthogonal projection. That is why technical dra wing the words "front", "profile" and "top" correspond to three specific locatio ns of the observer or, equivalently, three positions of the object. The front vi ew shows how an observer situated in front of the object far away and see him. I n profile view, the observer is located next to the object and the top, on the o bject. In the case of polyhedra, the designs of these views correspond to their edges. The following figures represent a solid and its three views. Watch them c arefully to understand the meaning of the terms front, profile and top. So that you understand the format of this solid, imagine a bar of soap, the kind found i n supermarkets and grocery stores, where one of its corners removed a piece that looks like a cube. Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Summary In this class, we studied all cases concerning the relative position between str aight lines and planes and between planes. We also discuss a number of issues ar ising from these situations, including constructions and applications. We also s tudiedÂthe form of some three-dimensional figures and their schedules, highligh ting the spatial vision as important skill in understanding the properties of th ese objects. Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space 17 Self-evaluation The theory presented in this class, along with the activities, provide understan ding and solving the following problems. Given a line r in space and a point P n ot belonging to r, construct a line that contains P and is parallel to r. 1 March 2 May 4 Prove that a line is parallel to a plane, if and only if, it is a line parallel to the plane. Justify why the opposite faces of a parallelepiped are parallel. Show that two distinct straight lines perpendicular to the same plane are parall el. Try drawing the picture space, whose front view (front), lateral (side) and top (top) are shown in the figures that follow. Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35

6 Try drawing the front view, profile and top of Figure 36, below. Figure 36 18 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space References BARBOSA, JoÃ£o Lucas Marques. Euclidean plane geometry. 6.ed. Rio de Janeiro: SB M, 2004. The First Book of Euclid's Elements. Translation Irenaeus Bicudo. Gener al Editor John A. Fossa. Hometown: SBHMat, 2001. (Series history books of mathem atics, 1). LIMA, Elon Lages et al. The mathematics of high school. Rio de Janeir o: SBM, 1999. v. 2. Loff, Dina Maria Santos. Some educational activities for the introduction of Euclidean geometry. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra, 1993. (Pu blications in history and methodology of mathematics). LOUREIRO, Cristina et al. Geometry. Lisbon: Ministry of Education, 1998. MACHADO, JosÃ© Nilson Measuring lengths. SÃ£o Paulo: Editora Scipione, 1988. OLIVEIRA, A. J. Franc. Euclidean ge ometry. London: Open University, 1995. Resende, E. Q. F; QUEIROZ, M. L. B. Eucli dean plane geometry and geometric constructions. Campinas: Editora da UNICAMP, 2 000. (Collection textbook). Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space 19 Annotations 20 Lecture 12 Plane Geometry and Space

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