org/educandos "SPACE FOR REFLECTION, questioning, criticism, EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATI ON" STYLES OF MANAGEMENT FOR QUALITY EDUCATION (As Translating Educational Reform through Microreformas) Mario Rios Quispe The College of Administration of Peru, IEE 2086 "Peru Holland," Studies Gpo Godo fredo Garcia - San Marcos E mail:, / l earners Tel 3282914, 999637750 1 Sommelier Public educational institutions in Peru so far have not had a sustained developm ent of their educational and social activities due mostly to be very subject to the policies and directives of intermediate bodies and the Ministry of Education , this has led educational organizations random, or military. The experience tha t I developed on modern management and their application to public educational i nstitutions is an attempt to enforce the relevant use of modern tools of adminis tration, and the specific experience has yielded results in this paper aims to t heorize. This research describes a theoretical framework, experience of improvin g the quality of education in state educational institutions as a vital experien ce having EI 2086 and work as a trainer in management and education management i n the various intermediate bodies through the Association of Administrators of P eru we can say the study and the work trainer, it is possible to achieve rates o f improvement of educational quality in public school, but that our experience p oints to the lack of sustainability that could be overcome unfolding consistent management styles, this would overcome the heterogeneity of the quality in our c ountry (World Bank 2007, for a quality education in Peru) and rather enhance the impact of those who have succeeded. I believe that the management tools that su ggest and that leads to management styles is to contribute to this quality, what I call the microreformas that reforms will become in perspective. Key Words: Modern management, management styles, quality policy, human potential , innovative pedagogy Introduction The state educational organizations in recent times have been confronted with a number of changes in the domestic product of the conditions that are presented b oth in the legal aspect as in the administrative and has had an impact on teache r's pedagogical activity . It has been tried in the past 40 years a number of ma nagement models for the educational work is efficient and effective, which in ma ny cases has resulted from state-level directives and today has been marked by l evel directives region, a product of globalization and in the specific field of education, state educational institutions have not seen a sustained development of their activities and processes. 2 However, the same state educational institutions have developed nuances of moder

n management in conjunction with the predominant mode of management, have called for this project management style. " On the other hand the management style is not isolated, is a medium that contributes to an objective, in our case educatio n. Among the various goals we have outlined for this project the level of intern al customer satisfaction where we refer specifically to teachers and administrat ive staff, mainly teachers, justified by the fact that the teacher cadre allowin g the other teacher correlations - pupils and students - parents develop learnin g projects that help generate a positive impact on the population, and thus enfo rce the quality basic chain is a supplier - customer. This concern is reflected in the experiences that has been forming managers, promoters, management teams o f the IE intermediate bodies in the field of institutional management, but mainl y, is the experience that has been with EI Peru 2086 Holland where it has been p ossible to observe different types of management and its relationship with the s atisfaction level of teachers and administrative staff. Successfully completing the research project will have taken an important relationship to management iss ues for not only evaluate some characteristic of the management, but we intend t o cover all the nuances of management that may occur in the handling of the IEs by management teams but turn€open up new questions and proposals consider the fa ct that the approach or model is appropriate management. Rationale and design of the Problem We start from the concept that education is a social process, and s econdly, that the management in educational institutions is to mobilize resource s and people in the fulfillment of certain objectives and goals, so we suggest t hat educational institutions in their management, can not avoid the dynamics of society and thus be interpreted very differently by the confrontation of social groups, and therefore a proposal other than the reality and educational perspect ive. In this context we note that state educational institutions (IEE) are alway s subject to external conflicts emanating from official directives, applications of global politics and public games. But educational institutions are managed a ccording to internal contradictions that are expressed for example in the so-cal led deterioration of the institutional environment is not simply the expression of the contradictions within the IE 3 The i.e. Peru 2086 Holland is a state educatio nal institution marginal urban area and as such, suffers economic hardship and s ocial support institutional coverage, which forces him to outline an organizatio nal and management style conducive to saving some extent these structural proble ms. However, in many cases the problems of an academic, management are frequent and impair the development of pedagogical and educational activities on campus f or example, work areas, management of financial resources, curriculum and progra mming more relevant is the institutional environment, which teachers say is one of the important points to make effective and cooperative work as required by th e situation facing the IE 2086 "PerúHolanda." Educational practice has shown tha t mostly the problems we have pointed out, among others, should be - considering the context - a weak educational management in most cases is a bureaucratic man agement style is based on reporting documents, save responsibilities with underf unded plans and activities inflexible and low call. There are some aspects that can explain this problem as it has not internalized the concept of modern manage ment in the group of teachers to make more dynamic and broad institutional work effectively, although there is nourished management training programs sponsored by the Ministry Education and private institutions among which we highlight the training course IPAE Directors. In other cases, and as a result of the above are not aware of the relevance of certain management style as management tools rath er than enhance academic work is retracing it looks when it persists in a bureau cratic style of only requiring documents before if this procedure really going t o solve the problem as a concrete example we note the excessive use of memos. An other aspect arising from the above, it is noted that the bureaucratic managemen t style has influenced negatively on teachers product has thought more on the fo rmality of compliance with rules and regulations rather than assess the real nee

ds that have the campus. And here we have the relationship style of management a nd staff - administrative. However, the management carried out in i.e. 2086 must be understood not as rigid, because, although there is prevalence of a bureaucr atic management style truth is that management also have shades of something lik e a mixture of management. In i.e. 2086 at some point, there has been a manageme nt style quite flexible, cooperative, horizontality has given some positive deve lopments on campus such as educational innovation projects expressed in acquirin g data center and extension of physical education work through rhythmic dance, o r the development of learning projects theatrical innovation "Huascaran" with Th is is not to take sides for one or another style of management that aims only wh en improperly applied usually cause problems in the institutional development wh ich mostly occurs with the faculty and staff who will call from now on "internal customer." 4 We postulate following grounds,€that the appli cation of certain management style exert some influence on the teaching and admi nistrative staff that positively or negatively depending on the relevance of man agement styles. The idea is to tend towards innovative management styles that re sult in meeting the goals set by the institution and as an axis with customer sa tisfaction in our case the internal customer, which is an aspect which is appare ntly obvious, but nevertheless has not been identified that management style wou ld be appropriate to raise the level of customer satisfaction and thus raise the quality of education in educational institutions in poor urban areas. In this r egard Ms Josefina Vasquez Quality Week in the mid-90 states that the customer is not the first, that by neglecting the line of trenches doing parallel - refers to staff - could not understand what the customer really needs and then we can n ot enforce the part of supplier quality chain - customer. I.e. quality chain 2086 "PERU - NETHERLANDS (supplier) EXECUTIVE (Client) TEACHE R (Supplier) (Client) DIRECTING - TEACHING STUDENTS LEARNING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ( Supplier) (Client) (Student) (Parent) The issue of governance in i.e. 2086 mainly occurs between teachers and administ rators and is expressed in the following: • In the aspects of planning, guiding and operational instruments have been reduced to documents not been translated i nto effective action, and therefore do not have a mechanism control and improvem ent program, this situation has been that managers are perceived as compliant, a nd informants say and what order the UGEL. One consequence of this is the manage ment of financial resources remain limited in IE misallocated generating pedagog ical actions that are recharged with economic activities, developing ways to del ay self-financing educational activities. In the context there are problems and challenges in managing such as student dropout and repetition in marginal urban areas and is growing. 5 • • • The other aspect is that problems are given but has faced a bureaucratic management style giving it a negative result is als o observed nuances of modern educational management but that the body management has not internalized and were not aware that these practices could help improve the quality of IE expressed in a first part in the satisfaction level of "inter nal customer." A high level of satisfaction makes perfect and make education man ager EI 2086 an institution that meets the demands of society by developing inno vative pedagogies, supported by the appropriate management style and that in tur

n innovate in teaching. Unwrapped Modern Management Tools in the Management Styl es directive that is good when raises the contribution of modern management tool s, we recognize that this is the result of a directive management style which re sulted in many cases intuitively without necessarily being a systematic study ho wever, are experiences which in our case we have recorded and interpreted within the framework of management theory, after all these actions are set to try to g ive good customer service by creating what they call climates favorable institut ional climate that is one of the factors of internal customer satisfaction, whic h covered their explicit and implicit needs is paving the way to generate innova tive pedagogies. As to why the approach could influence the development of innov ative teaching methods, we have to say that the teacher always has been innovati on, because the teacher has been immersed in educational practice in some cases adapting to circumstances, but in others cases reversing the situation, innovati on is inherent to the teacher. In that sense we left that IEE not produce innova tion, but people and especially teachers develop innovative ideas and innovative pedagogy therefore, why we talk of development, because basically we are accept ing that there is innovation and test the work of teachers , the contributions t hat often occur in isolation but in the end are given, which is why our proposal focuses on customer satisfaction, internal (teachers and administrators). This is where we assume that the management styles socially oriented policy could con tribute to the emergence of innovative pedagogies.€The following are the manifes tations of policy management styles expressed in the IE 2086 "Peru - The Netherl ands" in light of modern theories and modern management approaches, or have more practice than science because the object of management job so requires, it dema nds quick decisions, organizational flexibility, shared leadership, could finall y spell out a set of attitudes expressed in this approach. 6 The truth is that referring to the managerial approach is to fashion a kind of management that requires the attitudes identifi ed and this is a directive management style. With this concept we give the possi bility that other subjects of the IE or as organically integrate management supp ort to underpin the pedagogical education. In this connection we mention also th e work of Alvarado Oyarce in his book Marketing Management and Education states that management is basically a set of attitudes to achieve results. And when con ceptualized says "..... we can infer that management is basically an administrat ive function of a professional nature inherent in the managerial position. " Con ceptualized what we pointed out that administrative aspects in the company has b een seized with the efficiency and effectiveness of the role of professionalism in many cases has been more for practice than knowledge for the simple reason th at all administrative functions are enriched in innovation practice. In any case the issue is not the central issue in management education, but the management style since they have to do more telling management function, and furthermore, t hat style being broadcast in the management education community then we are sett ing the levels communication, sharing, motivation and other continuous improveme nt. The training programs of the Association of Administrators of Peru 2002-2004 1 in Educational Management aimed at generating a spirit of management but mainl y managers aspiring teachers Managers, all of the subjects corresponded to the f undamental elements of educational management but with a connotation that is mor e modern, incorporating modern management tools, in the case of the educational management redefined as an active leadership. Experience in the training program but especially in the views, suggestions and contributions delineated the natur e of managerial work, as the very experience of the participants pointed out tha t although the directive management styles had limitations applies from the poin t of view of the text was not as if we evaluated our management practice in the text and look for relevant and appropriate definition. From all this we have to say however that there is no style without conception in our case, there is no w ay approach in many cases is mixed and the educational experience we affirm that there is a pendulum between the state bureaucracy and management. In this regar

d we have the following scheme: Bureaucratic Management Styles Management Educat ional Management Directive This scheme also Kurt Lewin: Personal Authority 1 Autocratic CLAP UGEL Training Programs 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07 Democratic permissive 7 Participation Group Then Kurt Lewin diagram modified to study the effect of our Democratic Executive Management Team Autocratic Permissive Describe modern administration management Issue of People Engaged some features of style through modern tools applied to the IEE Shared Vision When it comes to having a first phase of Shared Vision Senge2 Peter says: It is a force in people's hearts, a force of awesome power "is what we as an organized group derived from the image we have common interest in service, change , actio n, no vision will succeed if it is only a concept of a person or group is being pushed throughout the organization, nothing is more motivating and spiritually m ost important, the entire organization embodies the ideals and institutional pri nciples, the rest will be compliance but not commitment. 2 Senge 1998, p. 260 8 When a vision ensures development? We are not talking just of success, not our philosophy mean in wins, then, these once made can relax the spirit itself speak organizational, development, staging and campa igns carried out. In this regard an important criterion to ensure an ongoing and increasing effort is that we should not be defensive goals, such as saying: "st and up for what he has earned," "continue on the path we have charted"€vision is not simply the imagination of the future, it's also reckless because of what it is to generate something new and encourage creativity. In that sense there are experts who believe that "no matter what the vision is, but what does that visio n and that vision is not something have to be strictly rational but often percep tive motivator, its purpose is to win the heart of the people to achieve goals. What else could achieve the vision in the Educational Institution?, If we match the vision set a goal and covers the entire organization, one of the things I ac

hieved within the institution is that these ideals make meanness by Titles , ski lls, disappear, not having a dream that makes achieving the pettiness prevails a nd hence all the elements that erode the institutional fabric. The shared vision is therefore not necessarily the spirit of achievement, institutional cohesion is mainly because of this cohesion is ensured to meet the goals. Another feature of the vision is that we have to link the personal vision with the shared visio n, shared vision to encourage or develop the personal vision of each member of t he institution there is nothing more compromising than my personal view is balan ced with the institutional vision, not having view is to endorse the vision of " other" is to accept passively and not assume a sincere commitment. To build the vision do we have from the Institutional Education Project? If this were so, the vision was to make something operational management, it is known that many view s were achieved in a constant interaction of people from various levels, or peop le who do not have a strategic role in the institution, the origin is not define d , we know that the business of a well known brand copiers, no effort was born of the parent company but one of its branches, or a case closer, it is known tha t many regional institutions built their vision from comments and views of peopl e of lower rank. We can say that vision is the "what" of the institution, "as" s ometimes discouraged because it puts us in a situation of calculation being care ful analysis may lead us to negative results that would ease construction of the vision. We have seen in I.E.E. that when raised to build the vision, management has put his personal views and when they have done has been the product group o f techniques such as brainstorming and say "majority". But in the end it did not represent the shared institutional vision proof is that when supervisors asked UGEL with teachers on the school's vision did not know how to answer this not be cause the teachers lack of interest but because they wrongly conceptualized as b uilding vision, for it was not an academic or technical issue but basically spir itual. 9 The criterion of shared vision also includes u nderstanding the social and historical moment, because there is no vision in the abstract, is specifically when driving actions and energizes the entire institu tion as part of a general feeling and aspiration community primarily of the popu lation. Virtual Leadership On behalf of the Directors of the I.E.E. there are many complains about the gift ed leadership of the Ministry, as its position is Advisory Board, Body Board (de puty general training, administrative), APAFA, Board Committees Classroom, Schoo l Hall. Financial Resources Committee ....) seems that increasingly is losing au thority and then supposedly makes it impossible to work management. In this rega rd it is important that the management, efficiency and effectiveness is not base d on a person but a thought, a shared vision and then to have no command authori ty is not the problem but how to achieve that vision is really shared and thus u nfolds the thought this is the challenge for the administration and educational management. In this regard Taormina3 Tom says that "changes in the style of lead ership are needed to support the understanding of employees and operating cultur e" which means that autocratic leadership styles are no longer of these times ar e somewhat to share leadership and a way to share liderazgo4 is delegating respo nsibilities. In our educational institutions, in many cases, all you want to mak e the Director of a paternalistic, wear, off the daily actions with corporate go als, and leads inefficient managerial work.€Other appealing to know a lot about management schemes become very formal and are a compulsive use of management too ls but not due to institutional purposes but a good impression or save responsib ilities. In this regard we must say that tools like this can serve to some exten t in supporting the goals and culture of the institution. That is why we emphasi ze the virtual leadership in which I give my position as leader to compare my wo rk to make it more real and relevant courses of action of the institution, as in the case I mentioned in this paragraph, it may well be discussed techniques and elaborated by the people in the organization that eventually could develop lead

ership. This does not contradict the work together with a collective vision, tra ining, job training, a team that is a potential that ensures quality work. April 3 Virtual Leadership ISO 9000 and 1999 Ed Mc Graw Hill Another concept associated with shared leadership is the delegation or empowerment is empowerment. 10 Tom Taormina in another paragraph says: "The l eader takes over the helm when necessary. At other times they are among the work ing group, flying with the momentum of the group. When a team member is late, pa rt of the team is there to support any individual is able to fly alone (not supe rstars) 5. " We raised just as the Virtual Leadership to depersonalize the condu ct of institutions and give a distributed shared nature and consistent with the concept of shared vision we have outlined in the previous topic. One consequence of this concept is seen in the educational institutions is that the leadership within the handling of view is like talking nice to have a hierarchical position to what they called organic leadership is a product of the leadership positions of functional scaling but not the product of institutional link with the group, to build a organización6 in other words is not real leadership. On the other ha nd there is the leadership recognized that it is a product of interaction with t he group leader and partly because that group in a particular case recognizes fa culty and staff in their leader to be his driver. The directive is therefore rec ognized as a leader deal. State Educational Institutions managers often contradi ct their functional position to authentic leadership and does not depart from th e collective rather than institutional and therefore can not build or develop a shared vision, indicating that the virtual leadership is not contrary to the sha red vision but is an important complement. Dicta Tactic Strategy The experience in modern administrative practice reveals that companies 61% of t he members are not informed about the plans of the institutions. In I.E.E. this statistic appears to be higher whenever there is an excess of formality, rigidit y, which forces us to think that the plans, the strategy must be to generate fle xible7 balance between opportunities and decisions, thereby ensuring the long te rm. Tom regard in his book makes an interesting example of the movement of the geese in the air flying in a V shape but which is at the apex to the tire gives way t o the next. 6 Experts in leadership studies also call social architects. 7 Sobel , MBA Program for Managers, Chapter VIII Strategic Planning, 1995 5 11 is believed that the Institutional Educational Project (PEI) is detached from the Annual Work Plan (PAT) that are just simple documents that do not have a practical and theoretical significance of the insti tution that is not only a document for sending over the UGEL. By not reflect or project the institution with these instruments that is given is chaos, anarchy o rganized as they say, which is the situation where most are the IEE. This situat ion leads us to believe in what they call the modern management expert strategic thinker who is the person or group of people who connect daily activities with strategy, there are contributions in this regard makes it possible to theorize t he concept as actions taken conscience and conviction by step build general work ing lines and strategy. A scheme that can help enhance the corporate strategy is the formation of support groups or GAGE Educativa8 Management, which would leav

e the same members of the institution, the most enlightened and convinced of the ir work. This means that the tactic can often dictate the strategy.€For many yea rs it has handled the first sketch of tactics or strategy after the planning is more important that educational actions and then has proven to be experts becaus e they dominate affairs methodologies, processes, and not allowed to surface inn ovative pedagogies; therefore we must understand that the strategy is not someth ing that has been devised, it is also something that happens continually emerge from the IEE as different people respond to and reinterpret their sense of ident ity and purpose of the organization. Super Vision Supervision O Educational planning and management was established at the level of Latin Americ an governments, since the 609 in the various forums on educational policies toda y that underpin reforms calls the effort to improve the educational quality of e ducation in their respective countries. However the problem has occurred in the implementation of state policies regarding education, which in many cases it has proved a practice that has resulted in raising the quality of education and lev el of intellectual development and evaluative students. Quality instruments, equ ity, planning, management, strategic planning, monitoring are elements that were analyzed and studied as a result of the relative success they were private comp anies and governments were welcome your application, one of them was the oversig ht succeeded in business and industry americanas10, because there were only sequ ential production lines such as auto assembly lines, but looking at the company as a whole, this meant the super vision. This holistic look globally allowed to reduce defects and excess manufacturing time as well as administrative delays. 8 Approach given in the IEP Peru Netherlands by Prof. Antonio Wash ISP former teac her San Marcos, currently Professor of Marianne Frostig ISP. Forum Encinas Septe mber 1999, Education Planning, Gerardo del Carpio Ayzanoa 10 It is said that 30% of success is by the Oversight Management 12 This philosophy of supervision has to do with the redirect to the objectives of the institution when applying, it was not his purposes since the actions of oversight has been limited to go educational insti tutions, making a series of questions, ask for certain documents and fill out in formation sheets. This is further aggravated because the "supervisor" had no rec ord of the educational institution or had attended, in addition to that clashed with the number of schools that should be monitored UGEL such as 04 that has abo ut 470 educational institutions. As relates to educational institutions, while o versight is planned in the months of March and operates in semesters or trimeste rs in the best - as part of the fulfillment of the requirements demanded by the management UGEL - the fact is that monitoring tools are also reduced for certain information formats to be filled for a score and then supposedly where monitori ng is done is not the scope, alternatives, changes that must be generated in sch ool to raise educational quality. On this aspect, and as a result of the bad pra ctice of supervision, it's good that the chips to monitor is to be simple adapta tion of tabs generic models that usually sell outside the UGEL's, these adjustme nts are made turns out to be something formal but does not correspond to the obj ectives and purposes of the institution on the other hand, supervision in educat ional institutions because of its piecemeal approach has been focused on profeso r11 and not the entire institution and specifically in their organization, this has led to some discomfort at work and teacher performance because it has been m onitoring the work as a repressive attitude that has not help the creativity and innovation in teacher performance rather be perceived as a meet the formal requ irements which demand and intermediate bodies as the Ministry of Education, whic h has resulted in this valuable management tool, has a collection of useless or

at least repressive teachers often refer to the various UGEL's. There is a case of a I.E.E. that given their high level of organization only has slight coordina ting the months of the year but the question UGEL and even the sanctions because they have monthly meetings on the progress of the Annual Plan, which reveals a certain ignorance in the timely use of tools assessment and monitoring.€We there fore believe that monitoring is not only the Super Vision it means to have a hol istic overview to be a general of the actions developed in the institution but a bove all have a worldview processing and service to be a collective good these c onditions opens the way for a type of Super Vision constructive and creative, be cause in both cases requires knowledge of the reality that is pretending to help in teaching and institutional management. 11 UNESCO, the status of teachers in the past two decades, from 1999 to 2000. 13 We can say in our country that monitoring is in a phase of investigation and the creative phase is an ideal to be achieved. The vast majority are oriented withi n the concept of constructive oversight. However, changes now being experienced within the educational systems to emerging contemporary requirements, flow signi ficantly in the need to employ new methods and means and therefore new styles of supervision. We need to change the traditional style of supervision because the realities demand it and demand of the population is urgent and requires more cr eative supervision managers or Super Vision to control, because all I would expr ess is that the director is an informant of the organs intermediate. Total Quality and Quality policy The question will always be in the debate is whether there is "Total Quality Man agement in Education Public?, This question has always generated debate among po litical and academic positions. In our country so far gives us the experience we can say that at the level of state policy of Total Quality is not inserted in t he structure as it is for instance Japan, since it has gone from being just slog ans, good intentions and some actions oriented quality culture as is the case of health and education. What if it's good to understand is that quality is a form ula for survival and this requires going adding layers and layers of quality tha t will be pointing towards total quality (TQM) to be the goal of all modern educ ational institution. So what it is to develop quality from the very culture of t he institution through policies, standards and finally the TQM. It would be a mi stake to try to argue that quality management is a solution to the problems of e ducation in our country, as these are due to other field such as economics and s ocial relations, our role as educators is to show that quality management can he lp contribute to the improvement of education in our country that collect local experiences about the quality of education and assume a policy aimed at bringing quality culture .. Culture Of Quality Education Our country has been much talk of quality, Total Quality and Quality Systems and we have seen education as there are educational institutions that claim to be a pplying Total Quality and some are more daring, for in his slogan claiming to be on the road to Excellence . 14 Sigfredo Chiroque12 states in this regard: "Wh en we say that a quality education? When there are new school buildings, or scho ols with brand new lab and computer equipment?" If so, it means that the quality

has been understood as something physical and tangible, but we know that educat ion remains a social phenomenon is immersed the aspirations of the people, the l evel of knowledge, the profile that the company has established; this means that when it comes to quality education is actually taking into account all the inst ruments and procedures involving education directly. In sum is to stick to a sta ndard standart, however an absolute rule is not dependent on the context and the internal dynamics of the institution and institutions with similar characterist ics, indicating that the quality is not equal for all and demand that the instit utions develop education guidelines based on one study estándares13 that can des ign and that will depend on the profile expected by society, resources and cultu re. But not having that standard does not mean that you can not work in quality orientation and this is good to specify that you can develop a culture of qualit y, because quality and quality systems rests on their culture, according to Rona ld J. Ebert14 when it comes to quality says: "The quality-oriented culture gives us criteria that can be handled at the institution, these criteria when there i s consensus becomes and design standards and then comes to form the quality syst em and basically includes the organization,€procedures, processes and resources. "As can be seen then, the quality is not just good intentions or appeals to the good heart, is basically starting to become an organization focused on quality policies create the culture that is basically doing things right from the start and that meets and exceeds the expectations of the people which provides a servi ce. The Total Quality Culture When an institution of service and education in our case, that is not structured to take by quality, and want to change, to do so necessarily must change their culture and redefine its philosophy. The culture of the institution is not only the conjunction of its values and its rules, his way of being and reacting, but what has been stratified, deposited during its life and which governs human beha vior within the organization , is what makes certain behaviors are fully accepte d, while others are implanted. In any process of cultural change, managers need to understand and give importance to the implications of this aspect, because a delicate mechanism can not be transformed in the short term and without a proven methodology finely. December 1913 Public School Review SUTEP year 3 May 1995 / No. 4, What is Quality Education? T hese concepts suggested 10 years ago is now called Education Accreditation 14 QU ALITY MANAGEMENT, Ronald Ebert, Prentice Hall 1991, 4th Edic. 15 This change in quality-oriented culture is not to deny the above radically but pick the best, positive move beyond what has al ready turn to innovate new forms and style of work that seek translation of betw een quality management which includes planning, organization and incremental imp rovements. And for this we must know precisely what is demanded by members of th e institution among other things such as: educational content with updated techn ology, innovative educational methods, highly qualified teachers, quality infras tructure. These new concepts, revolutionizing the way we have traditionally been addressing education as it confronts us to raise the projects from an integrati ve perspective. Because it is now that educational institutions must work in con cert with parents and students. Develop a culture of quality is the first step i n developing criteria and standards that involves the whole educational process and so able to assume the challenge of implementing a quality system in educatio n and in which is no longer a simple dynamic continuous improvement activities b ut also and mainly the statistical control of these changes and planning of new projects and innovation programs that are based on the reality of zona15.

Clarifying the concept of Quality The great error of the training program IPAE Directors by the Peruvian Institute of Business Administration settled from the very foundation of quality because they have seen - until now - a quality competition argue that quality can not ex ist if not there is competition and that competition is the engine for things do ne right the first time. In this regard there is a question to the same father o f quality when it comes to the relationship expertise and quality, Deming says, "We must jettison the idea that competition is a necessary way of life. Instead of competition we need cooperation, "16 competition all it does is to create win ners and losers and education in our country needs more education coverage and o vercrowding, the industrial concept of quality only become in gentrification and therefore in the privatization of education, wherever it was developed countrie s education is because they assumed she must have a mass character and have a ma ss character must necessarily decouple the quality selection and therefore winne rs and losers. This selection criterion is expressed in classrooms across the gr ades, students passing students pulled, creating social exclusion, moral decay. Deming says elsewhere that destroyed scores innate joy of learning to learn. "Th e ratings for having become the whole and the purpose of education because they have acquired the moral equivalent position, students interested in earning good grades rather than an education." 17 15 16 MUNGUIA SALAZAR, Romulus, Educational Quality Technical Education in 1992. Demin g, 1993 p. 124, 17 Total Quality in Education, Fenwick W. English / John C. Hill . 16 / students believe that more than quality and equivalenc e of selection and competition to cooperation because we take it for what it is to win a collective, this is supported by the contributions of Chinese teaching in the 60 schools which became socialization centers not only the learning but l ie within the community which means that we must put cooperation over the compet ición18. Then we will say that in Peru today is not fighting only for the qualit y of education, but by the quality of education with a focus on mass, but where the concept of quality is coupled with the concept of partnership and equity as noted by Dr. Beatriz Macedo19. In the institutional quality on the new approach must involve: • • • Democratic management attention to basic needs Pedagogical Innovation Organization horizontality One element that would make possible the culture of quality is the Horizontal or ganization as this proves to be effective and efficient, as increasingly difficu lt to maintain or satisfy the greed, the more horizontal organization is generat ed because it is given value, recognition, social power. This approach stems fro m the war, in peacetime the hierarchy is the highest expression of the rigid hie rarchical structure, static, in times of war many things have to be reconsidered including the organizational structure as it has to be flexible in trying times you have to give the command. In this type of organization one is indispensable or center of the world's leading position is possible in the circumstances. At schools the formal presentation, protocols, reports to the intermediate body can be understood under a vertical organizational criteria, but the action itself, the institutional dynamics have to be raised under the scheme of horizontal orga nization that will likely develop a culture of quality service to the people. Human Potential Management

18 This concept of cooperation rather than competition highlights what the prof. Ca stillo Ríos in his book Education in China, on page. 75. Edit Lima SA 1988. 19 N otes to the International Education Seminar II San Marcos ISP. 17 Statistics reveal that in most teachers often have other professions or other occupations and often complemented by the work o f teachers especially when you are a committed staff, and this is something that is not is used in the best sense of the word so that it becomes in particular p otential for the implementation of actions and objectives. In this regard there is a modern concept on Management of Human Potential which says it is fundamenta lly a knowledge management, and this gives us an imperative, we must incorporate in our management structure of cambio20. For knowledge is not static is a produ ct of history but also and mainly theory and practice practice. So when we speak of management differ radically from the concept of human resources policies sit uation Multilateral banks still use it by saying that teachers are resources for the improvement of the quality concept as dangerous as any appeal is interchang eable and declared obsolete. The management of human potential goes through the grounds, a change of culture and education for staff, and that within the organi zational sphere should consider recruitment, development, labor relations, compe nsation, health and safety investigation of human potential among others. It is important for inventory management such as educational background, skills assess ment, development needs, areas of expertise, goals and aspirations, psychologica l profiles. UNESCO on teachers talk about them quality factor of education, but we see that in practice it is denigrated and see the negative side, however we n ote that the teacher is the character of history in education because the most d ifficult conditions of their work and that these conditions enhance their intere st and desire to change for which autoexige to innovate new teaching practices t hat in many cases it is still short of educational theories that will lead to pe dagogical models, we set then that creativity and innovation is given, what is n eeded is to manage lift make it more visible and concrete for large segments of the population.€The management of human potential is part of the management of e ducation and demands that the new teacher as an education manager and particular ly a manager of human potential inclusive concept that is supported by Vygotsky' s theory of the ZPD or Zone of Proximal Development in which not evaluate the pe rson as such, but in what may be assisted by the instructor, teacher or guide, t here is the potential criteria that is latent and it is necessary concretizar21. In this regard Dr Peñaloza you see how important the role of manager of the tea cher when he says that the teacher must engage in administración22. 20 Idalberto Chiavenato in the book "Advances in Human Resource Management Challeng es" proposes the concept of change management 21 was part of a job within the co untry with ICCAP on Vygotsky and Significant Learning 22 Education Teacher and t he Challenges of XXI Century in July 2003 International Seminar 18 This is the central point of our proposal in t he sense that teaching will remain important but the new realities require that the teacher is both a manager of the changes that occur and that it intuitively what exactly does this through teaching practice. Any initiative to improve teac hing practice would not charge weight on the institutional history if not mobili zed the resources and people in our country while the "system" formal education does not meet the needs and aspirations of the people the truth is that the teac

her initiative and innovation is constrained and it is important and strategic t o overcome this obstacle which is necessary for the new teacher's commitment to the institution and participation at all levels and strata in order to realize t he projects and teaching ideas. 19