Psychomotor development COMPASS IN CHILDREN FROM 0 A 6 YEAR When you meet with your child, you may be useful

to have some benchmarks for you to simply place his skills and abilities relative to age from birth to eighteen years, the child has been continuously developing, physical, sensory, intellect ual, which allows it to communicate and discover the world, to learn and integra te a family-academically and socially. This development (motor, behavior, langua ge) is usually assessed by reference to averages (eg proceeding acquired around a year). But each child develop at their own pace and there may be no need worry about it, gaps of several weeks or months of a child to another (a child can no t walk at sixteen months). These gaps must however remain limited compared to th e average and need extra careful if the child has a delay or a delay that has pe rsisted or worsened over the months. The assessment of psychomotor development o f a child asks "good cooperation" on his part. In other words, it is important t hat the child feels safe, possibly into the arms of someone he knows well and to offer recreational activities in a room or a quiet place. The child may be plac ed in trust through various games (cubes or colored objects, coins, illustrator, colored bottle containing a tablet). From the age of six months, for example, a good place to start is to offer the child a colored object resting on his hand before him, he should gradually be willing to take, manipulate, from 8-10 months of small exchanges may well established. It is also important to pay attention to what is said by the doctor at the orphanage, the director of the orphanage st aff who usually looks after the child (or a doctor that you brought with you to orphanage and was able to examine). If in doubt, it will be useful to question t he doctor who treated the child on his family history, the course of pregnancy, conditions of confinement and to question the timing of the achievements of chil d. With the help of the record or report on the child (and health record if one exists), the main stages of development can often be identified according to age . In any event, you yourselves, as future parents who will appreciate how the ch ild will watch you, if you can catch his eye and have exchanges glances with him . This exchange of looks is large. In addition, you will see the child for sever al days. If the first day, you can not communicate with him because he remains p rostrate in a corner, but the second day, he starts looking at you in secret, to look at what you do, the third day, you can have exchanges of scrutiny, and the fourth, he is on your lap, smiled and he wants to walk when he was completely passive in the first days, it will be a very positive dev elopment to take into account. 1. Chronology before the age of 3 years 1.1. Some historical landmarks are usefu l to know the benchmarks listed below correspond to the development of a child i n a nurturing and protective (of course, more a child experiences over an extend ed period of poor living conditions, these conditions may be more a negative imp act on the quality of cognitive development, even encourage a delay acquisitions ). - 0-3 months: the baby's eyes follow an object in both directions in space (1 -2 months) smiling response (2-3 months) holding the head (three months). - 3-6 months: interest in things, laughing, cooing. Basically, changing the tone conti nues to head toward the neck, then the trunk, pelvis, upper and lower limbs. - 7 -9 months: Sits without support, is a cake or objects in their mouths, handle th e cubes from one hand to another (7-9 months); is pointing, playing peekaboo, he re it is "repeats a syllable: mama, baba, tata, papa (9th month). Around this ag e, the behavioral level, the child gradually leaving a state where it does not d istinguish himself from his surroundings and entering a period where he sees him self as separate from the environment including mother. He is shy or scared with the unknown (concept of "anxiety of the eighth month"). He often attached to an object (piece of cloth, stuffed ...) whose smell€the sweetness and heat allow i t to better tolerate the separation is "transitional object" or "security blanke t". - 9-12 months: evolution of digital clamp to grasp small objects or coins (t humb and fingers: 8-10 months thumb and forefinger: 10-13 months); concept of ob ject permanence (acquired around 10 months): the child will find an object hidde

n under a cloth or in hand, he is standing with support (8-10 months), sits down and starts standing alone. The child has a number of words related to situation s identified by him (bye, bravo, give, hold). - 12-18 months: language appears: first as separate words, "word phrase" which may take several meanings, such as "mom" may refer to the individual but also the bag, the shoes ... Mom. The words are then grouped in pairs. Development of autonomy in certain gestures (drinkin g glass, using a spoon), acquisition of walking. The child discovers his body: h e likes watching his reflection in the mirror (the mirror stage). It can and lik es to show his nose, his mouth ... demand. -18 Months to 2 years: further develo pment of autonomy: market gained, understanding and responding to simple command s. Around the 24th month, it combines two words ("Daddy Party"), has a greater a bility (superimposed objects, tower of cubes). He understands how to remove the tablet from the bottle by turning. - 2-3 years: the child is now very independen t in its movements, one undresses and starts to put some clothes. Acquisition of clean days (22-30 months), night (around 3 years old on average). He begins to use a pencil. The language is enriched, because of short sentences, the "I" appe ars about three years. Understanding the meaning of different objects is increas ing. This is translated by imitation in the game with dolls, cars, games ... symbolic as the plane represented by two crossed sticks. Evaluation of hearing a good appreciati on of what development course assumes that the child has normal hearing. In infa nts from the age of 2-3 months, the response to noise (voice, bell) could be det ected before a rotation of his head towards the sound source. Screening from the whisper is possible from 2-3 years. Affectivity is defined by the scope of feel ings and emotions in relation to self and others. Several stages have been descr ibed as the physiological function associated. - Between 0 and 18 months, the pl easure is largely related to food and what accompanies it; conflicts expressed a round the food. - Between 2 and 3 years between children, occurred between educa tion sphincter with its pleasures (the withholding or expulsion, to be clean or dirty) and conflicts with peers. This period is also that of the opposition of t he child in relation to parental prohibitions he discovers. This is reflected by the "NO", the anger sometimes impressive (rolls on the ground, sobbing spasm .. .). 1.2. Conversely, some signs should alert because development follows a steady an d smooth. However, if there is no cause for concern for relatively small deviati ons from the average, it must however be very careful if the child has a delay o r retardation that persists or worsens in time. The signs listed below refer to the new health book released in France since 1 January 2006. In terms of languag e, for example, a number of signs should alert: if at 12 months, the child doe s not babble (do not spontaneously repeated syllables such as mama, baba, tata o r dad) if does not pronounce any word in 18 months if he does not associate two words at 24 months (eg, "daddy party") it is no three-word sentences to th ree years. In terms of behavior, have value of warning signs at 12 months: lack of babbling lack of finger pointing lack of other social movements such as playing peekaboo, here it is " (game knowing many variations in which the face of the adult is hidden and revealed to the child, causing laughter). Similarly, the markings on the occasion of the 24th month review are directed towards the d etection of developmental disabilities and their absence was alert value: at 24 months, a child uses his index finger to point someone one or something, prete nd play , imitate adults in everyday life, respond to your smile. Regardless of age, loss of language or ability to trade with others is a warning sign. 2.€Chronology in children aged 3 to 6 - Language: language becomes rich from age 3 1 / 2, the colors are known to four years, the seriation in space (small / la rge) and time (nap or night) begins to be controlled between 4 and 5 years. - Au tonomy: the child undressed around 3 years old, dressed only about 4 years 1/2-5

years, including buttons. The node is acquired laces around 6-7 years. - Graphi cs: schematically, it can be a circle is made around 3 years, 3 years to cross h alf a square after the demonstration to 4 years, 5 years into a triangle, a diam ond around 6-7 years . The drawing of the man is progressive: tadpole man to thr ee years 1/2-4 years. The man with five separate parts to 4 years-4 years 1 / 2, then enriched with details. The profile is about 6 years. Lateralization acquir ed between 4 and 5 years for the hand (left or right handed) and the foot. - Aff ectivity-intelligence: it is an age characterized by • curiosity: the age of "Wh y? "Which reflects a search for explanations, but also rules and assertions. • " magical thinking": everything is seen as living and endowed with good intention or bad (good / evil); parallel, the child develops a moral sense by internalizat ion of prohibitions set by adults. • discovery of sexual difference allows the c hild to gradually define as a sexual being. Being a non-Francophone children, fr om an orphanage and whose lives have been disrupted recently, the evaluation of psychomotor development may be rendered difficult course and it should be carefu l about the conclusions. The possibility of severe malnutrition in the first yea r and lack of stimulation indeed cause scars, but were often seen as an appropri ate management allowed these children to recover lost time.