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Issues Study Tips ENEM IME AND ITA Evidence Commented Univer. Cea ra OLYMPICS OF CHEMISTRY Evidence Aid PROF. Alex ALEXANDRE Productions Curriculu m Courses Books Cartoons Master Teacher Merit Important Moments BUSINESS Scienti sts Thoughts Catholic Community Contact Friday, August 1 Organic Chemistry Nomenclature of Organic Compounds NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS I. INTRODUCTION Organic Function: is a set of substances with similar chemical properties (functional properties) Functional g roup: the atom or group of atoms responsible (s) by chemical compounds belonging to a specific chemical function. The official nomenclature organic began to be created in 1892 at an international conference in Geneva, after several meetings came the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry). The IUPAC n omenclature the following principles: I. Each compound has a unique name that di stinguishes it from others; II. Given the structural formula of a compound, you can draw your name, and vice versa. Note: Although the IUPAC is the official, th ere are other types of nomenclature such as the usual nomenclature. II. EACH OIL (CxHy) compounds belonging to this function are made entirely of ca rbon and hydrogen, so have the general formula: CxHy. Hydrocarbons are very impo rtant because they form the skeleton of other bodily functions. Hydrocarbons are divided into several classes, among which worth mentioning the alkanes, alkenes (alkenes), alkynes (alkynes), Diene, cycloalkanes, and aromatic hydrocarbons Cy cloalkene. A. Alcan or PARAFFINS are saturated open-chain (acyclic). They have t he general formula: CnH2n +2. I. Fundamentals of Organic Nomenclature: AFIX PREF IX + SUFFIX + Prefix: indicates the number of carbon atoms belonging to the main chain. 1C = 2C = Met et 6C = 7C = hex hept 11C = 12C = undec dodecahydrate http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 2 of 9 Prop = 3C = 4C = 5C But pent 8C = 9C = oct non dec = 10C TRIDEC 13C = 15C = 20C = pentadec EICOS Kennel or infix: indicates the connection type between the carbons: all simple = an = en double in a triple =

two double three double dien = = = trien two triple Diino Suffix: indicates the function of the organic compound chemistry: hydrocarbon = no alcohol = ol al = aldehyde ketone carboxylic acid ona = = = oic amine ether a mine oxides = II. Nomenclature of Alkanes Chain Normal: Joins the prefix + infix + suffix. For example, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, no nane, decane, undecane, dodecane, etc.. III. Splits or groups derived from alkanes. Grouping: is the structure that resu lts when you remove one or more atoms of a molecule. Grouping Alkyl (a) or alcoi l (a) is the cluster formed from an alkane by removing a hydrogen atom: Note: Al though the word radical to be widely used it is the correct name is wrong or clu ster group: methyl group (correct), methyl radical (wrong). IV. Nomenclature of Branched Alkanes. To name a branched alkane, you simply foll ow the following rules established by IUPAC: 1. Shall be considered as the main chain, the carbon chain longer possible if more than one chain of the same lengt h as the main chain choose the most branched . 2. Shall enumerate the main chain so that the ramifications receive the lowest possible numbers (rule of smaller numbers). 3. Shall draw the name of the hydrocarbon citing the ramifications in alphabetical order, preceded by their numbers placed in the main chain and end w ith the name corresponding to the main chain. 4. No numbers are separated from e ach other by commas. 5. Of the numbers of words must be separated by hyphens. http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 3 of 9 Note1: in the case of two, three, four, etc.. equal groups linked in the main ch ain, they use the prefixes di-, tri-, tetra, etc.. before the names of the group s. Note 2: The prefixes di, tri, tetra, iso, sec, tert, neo is not taken into co nsideration in the placement of names in alphabetical order. B. OR Olefins Alkenes Alkenes, alkanes, olefins, hydrocarbons etenilênicos are o pen-chain hydrocarbons (linear) containing a single double bond. They have the g eneral formula CnH2n. I) Nomenclature of Alkenes Chain Normal and Branched Chain is very similar to the nomenclature used for alkanes.€Exchange to the terminati ng year of the alkane by eno. 1) The main chain is the longest that contains a d ouble bond. 2) The numbering of the main chain is always made from the end neare st the double bond, regardless of branching present in the chain. In the name of the position of the alkene double is given by the number of the first carbon of the double, and this number is written before the name of the alkene. 3) If mor e than one possibility for the main chain adopts the rule of the smaller numbers . C. Alkyne Alkynes OR ALQUINI, alkynes or acetylenic hydrocarbons are acyclic hyd rocarbons containing one triple bond. They have the general formula CnH2n-2. Nom enclature of Alkynes Chain Normal and Branched Chain is very similar to the nome nclature used for alkanes. Exchange to the terminating year of the alkane by ino . 1) The main chain is the largest chain containing the triple bond. 2) The numb ering of the chain is made from the end closest to the triple bond. (The views o f the other rules also apply alongside the alkenes alkynes). D. Diene hydrocarbons are acyclic (open) containing two double bonds. They have

the general formula: CnH2n-2. Nomenclature of Diene Chain Normal and Branched Ch ain I. The IUPAC nomenclature is made with the termination Dien. II. The main ch ain is the longest possible and must contain the two double bonds. III. The numb ering of the chain starts by the end nearest the double bond so that the double bonds remain with the smallest numbers possible. IV. In the event of a tie in th e position of double bonds, one must number the chain so that the ramifications from getting the lowest possible numbers; http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 4 September E. Cyclanes Cycloalkanes OR CYCLE OR PARAFFINS-chain hydrocarbons are cyclic (cl osed) and saturated. They have the general formula CnH2n where n must be greater than or equal to 3. Nomenclature of Cyclanes Chain Normal and Branched Chain I. The name is given by adding the prefix CYCLE alkane corresponding to the name o f II. When the chain is branched, the numbering of the chain starts from branch simpler and follows clockwise or counterclockwise, so as to respect the rule of the smaller numbers, III. The branches should be listed in alphabetical order; F. Cyclenes alkanes OR CYCLE-CYCLE-olefins are cyclic hydrocarbons with one doub le bond. The general formula is CnH2n-2; nomenclature cyclenes Chain Normal and Branched Chain I. The name is given by adding the prefix to the name of CYCLE co rresponding alkene II. When the chain is branched, the numbering of the chain st arts from the carbon double bond (the double should be between carbon 1 and 2) a nd follows clockwise or counterclockwise, so as to respect the rule of smaller n umbers, III. The branches should be listed in alphabetical order; G. Aromatic Hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons which have one or more benzene rings, which are also called aromatic rings. Nomenclature of Aromatic Hydrocarbons I. T he IUPAC considers aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene derivatives, II. When t he benzene ring has more than one branch, the numbering of the chain starts from branch simpler and follows clockwise or counterclockwise, so as to respect the rule of the smaller numbers, III. When the benzene ring has two branches, the sa me or different, you can use the classification ortho, meta, so instead of numbe ring the benzene ring. 1.2 The position shall be indicated by ortho or simply "t he", the position 1.3 is now indicated by goal or simply as "m" and finally the position 1.4 is now indicated by or to simply by "p". IV. The branches should be listed in alphabetical order; 03. ALCOHOL (R-OH) (OH attached to carbon saturated) Note: R = organic group or cluster, Ar = aromatic ring or benzene ring. Journal (IUPAC) http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 5 of 9 I. Switching to the termination of the corresponding hydrocarbon by OL II. The m ain chain is the largest line of carbon atoms containing a hydroxyl, III. When m ore than one possibility for the position of hydroxyl, it must be numbered, IV. The numbering begins with the hydroxyl end closest to it; Note: In the hydroxy c omplex molecules can be regarded as a branch call: hydroxy; Note: unsaturated al

cohols: position of unsaturation hydrocarbon + + corresponding position of the O H + OL Obs .: dialcohol (termination: DIOL); trialcohol (termination: TRIOLE) et c.. Usual: I.€alcohol + name + hydroxyl group linked to ICO II. Naming Kolbe (me thanol = carbinol) and all other alcohols are considered as derivatives (+ name of carbinol groups). 04. ETHER (ROR 'or Ar-O-Air or Air-O-Ar) Journal (IUPAC): (smaller group) oxy + (hydrocarbon corresponding to the larger group) Usual: ether (smaller group) - ( larger group) + ICO 05. PHENOL (Ar-OH) Journal (IUPAC): Use the prefix HYDROXIDE; As appropriate num bering, this begins with the hydroxyl and follows the direction of menosres numb ers; Note: The number "1" assigned to hydroxyl can be omitted ; Usual: The hydro xy-benzene is called PHENOL and all other phenols are regarded as derivatives; 06. ALDEHYDE (H-R-COH or COH or Ar-COH) official (IUPAC): Exchange is the termin ation of the corresponding hydrocarbon by AL; The initial numbers are the carbon functional group; http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 6 of 9 Usual: The usual aldehydes have names corresponding to the usual names of carbox ylic acids: metanal (formaldehyde or formaldehyde), ethanal (acetaldehyde or ace taldehyde); etanodial (aldehyde or oxalic axaldeído) phenyl-metanal (benzoic ald ehyde or benzaldehyde) etc.. 07. KETONE (R-CO-R 'or R-CO-Ar or Ar-CO-Ar) Journal (IUPAC): Exchange is the ter mination of the corresponding hydrocarbon by ONA, the numbering of the chain beg ins with the end closest to the carbonyl ( -CO-); Note: unsaturated ketones rank of the corresponding hydrocarbon unsaturation + + + carbonyl position of ONA; U sual: (smaller group) - (larger group)-KETONE 08. Carboxylic acid (H-COOH or R-COOH or Ar-COOH) Journal (IUPAC): Switch to ter mination of the hydrocarbon corresponding to hear; ACID + + corresponding hydroc arbon hear; Usual: The usual nomenclature of carboxylic acids is related to orig in of the acid or its properties: formic acid (formic acid) Acetic acid (acetic acid), propanoic acid (propionic acid), butanoic acid (butyric acid); etanodióic o acid (oxalic acid) etc.. 09. ESTER (H-COO-R or R-COO-R or Ar-COO-R or COO-Ar-Ar) Journal (IUPAC): Replace s to the termination of the ICO carboxylic acid by ATO and Added to the name of the cluster of connected oxygen; Note: the name of the grouping must end with IL A and not IL. EX.: Methyl, ethyl etc.. Note: A reasoning is easier to add ATO co rresponding hydrocarbon and is therefore not necessary to reason with the carbox ylic acid; Usual: You, like the aldehydes, based on the nomenclature of carboxyl ic acids: metanoato = formate; ethanoate = acetate; propanoate = propionate. 10. AMINA (R-NH2 or R-NH-R 'or R-NR'-R'') http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica::::

Page 7 of 9 Journal (IUPAC): (groups linked to N) + AMINE; Note: The groups linked to N shou ld be placed in alphabetical order (in increasing order of complexity is not rec ommended by IUPAC) Note: In complex molecules the grouping characteristic amines can be considered an offshoot called AMINO; 11. Starch (H-or R-CONH2 CONH2 CONH2, or Ar-, or H-CONH-R 'or R-CONH-R' or Ar-CO NH-R ', or H-CONR'-R''or R-CONRADO' R-Air''or''CONR'-R) are compounds that have the following functional group: Journal (IUPAC): Switching to ICO termination of carboxylic acid on starch; Note : An easy argument is to add starch content corresponding hydrocarbon and is the refore not necessary to reason with the carboxylic acid, (similar reasoning was proposed for esters). 12. Nitrile (R-CN or Ar-CN) Journal (IUPAC): Give the name of the corresponding hydrocarbon by adding the termination NITRILE (corresponding hydrocarbon + nitri le); Usual: Cyanide (name of the cluster connected to the-CN ); 13. Nitro (R-NO2 or Ar-NO2) Journal (IUPAC): Use the prefix NITRO preceding the name of which originates from the nitro hydrocarbon (hydrocarbon + NITRO corresp ondent) 14. Organic halide (compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacing one or more hydrogens by halogens (F, Cl, Br, I). Journal (IUPAC): It is the halides as cor responding derivatives of hydrocarbons, halogen name precedes the name of hydroc arbon like any one grouping; http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 8 of 9 Note: If the chain exists only halogens as branches, the numbering of the chain begins with the end closest to them, but if there is any other group connected t o a main chain numbering starts by the end where it is possible to obtain the lo west numbers possible. Usual: They use the words of chloride, bromide, etc..,€fo llowed by the name of the cluster connected to the organic halogen, (name of the halide) of (group name); 15. ANHYDROUS; are compounds that have the following functional group: Note: The anhydrides are considered as derivatives of carboxylic acids; In anhyd rides with carbon chains equal, one should mention the name of the corresponding acid, preceded by the words ANHYDROUS; When the carbon chains have different fi rst you must write the name of the minor acid exists; 16. SALT ORGANIC - Compounds that have the following functional group: Journal (IUPAC): Replaces to the termination of the ICO carboxylic acid by ACT a nd adds the name of the metal bonded to oxygen; Note: An easy argument is to add the name of the ATO corresponding hydrocarbon, similar to what has been propose d earlier for other functions; Usual: It is based on usual nomenclature of carbo xylic acids: metanoato = formate; ethanoate = acetate, propanoate = propionate;

17. COMPOUNDS Grignard - Compounds that have the following functional group: http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008 :::: AlexQuímica:::: Page 9 of 9 Journal (IUPAC): (chloride, bromide, iodide) of (group linked to Mg) + Mg; 18. Sulfonic acids (R-SO3H or Ar-SO3H) Journal (IUPAC): Acid + (name of the corr esponding hydrocarbon) + SULPHONATED 19. TIOÁLCOOL or thiol (R-SH) Oxygen alcohol function is replaced by sulfur. Jou rnal (IUPAC): Note: UNCLE prefix indicates the replacement of an oxygen by a sul fur; The nomenclature is similar to the corresponding alcohols by changing the e nding OL by thiol; Usual: The SH-group is called Mercaptan (name group) + Mercap tan; 20. Thioethers (RSR 'or Ar-S-Ar) The function of the ether oxygen is replaced by sulfur. Journal (IUPAC): Note: The prefix indicates the TIO Substitution of an oxygen by a sulfur; The nomenclature is similar to the corresponding ethers by c hanging the ending OXI by TIO. BACK Copyright © - 2003 - All rights reserved Professor Alexandre Oliveira - AlexQuím ica Productions http://www.alexquimica.com.br/quimica/organica/nomenc.htm 01/08/2008