Chapter I General on power systems Introduction In our time, and without electricity, life would hardly be feasible, it is neces

sary to know the produce efficiently and continuously. To meet the growing consu mption of electricity, he had to invent and build plants (power plants) can prod uce electricity in large quantities. Once the current product, it must be brough t up to the consumer. In a country, the Transportation and Public Distribution e nsure the transit of electricity between the points of production and consumptio n points. I.1. From Central Subscriber Power grids are made by all the apparatus for the generation, transmission, dist ribution and use of electricity from generating stations to homes in the country side further away (Fig. I. 1). Power grids have been designed to interconnect th e centers of production such as hydropower, thermal ... with consumption centers (cities, factories ...). Electrical energy is transported at high voltage or hi gh voltage to minimize Joule losses (the losses are proportional to the square o f the intensity) and then gradually lowered to the voltage level of the user. Power Generation Transformer substation EHV / HV Transformer substation HV / MV Transformer substation MV / LV Subscribers HT Subscribers MT Subscribers BT Fig. I.1: Schematic of a grid 1 Chapter I General on power systems I.2. The levels of tension networks Power grids are hierarchical (Fig. I.2) in general, most countries are implement ing: • A transportation THT 220 ... ... .. 800 KV 60 KV 170 ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 36 kV (IEC) • A network of distribution HV • A distribution network MV • A delivery network of the subscriber BT 400/230 V This hierarchy is to say, th e levels of voltages used varied considerably from one country to another depend ing on the parameters related to the history of electrical engineering country, its energy, its surface and finally technical and economic criteria. [1] AT BT autotransformer HV High Voltage Low Voltage Medium Voltage MV EHV extra hi gh voltage Fig. I.2: Outline of a network 2

Chapter I General on power systems I.3. Network Topology The power transmission networks and interconnection are, by nature, consisting o f works capable of strong transit and mesh. The links form loops, thereby realiz ing a structure similar to the mesh of a net (Fig. I.3a). The distribution netwo rks they feed frequently looped structure (Fig. I.3B) and can then be operated e ither in a closed loop, the network said loop or open loop, the network is then said unbuckled. Some are also power antenna (item G, Fig. I.3B) or by tapping in to taking some energy moving on a line connecting the two posts (post H, Fig. I. 3B). These distribution networks to provide a regional energy distribution netwo rks, which are medium-voltage networks that provided food for many users either directly or after conversion to low voltage. Configuration and mode of operation vary. One can find, by country, mesh networks operated uncurled, networks with radial structure (Fig. I.3d) networks or tree structure (Fig. I.3c). Generally, these are the characteristics of generating sources, user requirements and opera tional experience which, together with economic considerations, leading them to choose the topological structure of networks. a) example of lattice structure b) example structure buckled c) example of tree structure d) example of radial switchyard post office distribution distribution Fig. I.3: Topology of Networks 3 Chapter I General on power systems I.4. Description of electrical networks I.4.1. The EHV transmission network This is usually the network that allows the transport of energy from distant pro duction centers to consumption centers. It is on the EHV network that are connec ted to the central principle of great powers (> 300 MW). [2] The transport netwo rks are a vast grid covering the territory, which are connected to the sources a nd uses (groups, processors). Each node A, B and C (Fig. I.4) is a "switchyard". €This item is usually consist of a main collector called "busbar" which will con nect the lines, using devices. These networks are mostly air and underground in the cities or in their approaches. They are designed for a given transit usually correspond to the thermal limit of line. Particular attention should be paid to the corona which can result in THT, to very significant losses to the climate a nd altitude. The pylons are usually fitted with double circuit (2 x 3 phase) see four or even six dull. The protections of these networks must be highly efficie nt. As for their operation, it is ensured by a national control center or dispat ch from which electrical energy is monitored and managed continuously. Fig. I.4: Example of a part of a transportation network 4

Chapter I General on power systems I.4.2. The network distribution HV The purpose of this network is primarily to convey the electricity transmission network to the major consumption centers, which are: • Whether the public with a ccess to the distribution network MV • Let the private sector with the subscribe rs with access to consumer (above 10 MVA) delivered directly to HT. Essentially, industries such as steel, cement, chemicals, rail, ... [3] The structure of the se networks is generally focused on air (sometimes underground near urban sites) . The protections are similar to those used on transit systems, the control cent ers are regional. I.4.3. The MV distribution network Users can be grouped in a very dense as in cities or separated from each other b y distances greater or smaller in the countryside. They are served by a distribu tion network supplied by a distribution station that receives energy from distan t power plants, through the transmission system. Distribution lines at medium vo ltage (MV) start of fueling stations and distribution substations located in dif ferent places around the area to be served; these substations step down the volt age to a value adequate to feed the public distribution system which subscribers are connected by connections. We distinguish throughout the world, different sy stems of MT distribution. These include mainly: • The North American system (Fig . I.5a) distributed directly to neutral grounded; the three-phase frame is compo sed of four son, and leads to single phase distribution line to neutral, there a re one or son of multiple phase, depending on the power to serve, plus neutral. • The system used for example in Great Britain or Ireland (Fig. I.5B), which fra mes from three phase to three son without distributed neutral fuels from diversi ons may be son of two Phase • The Australian system (Fig. I.5c), very cheap, con sists of three frames son without distributed neutral, with, among others, singl e-phase leads to a single wire with ground return (this solution requires a low resistivity of the soil) • The French system (Fig. I.5d), fully phase in framing and diversions, to neutral not distributed. 5 Chapter I There are also: General on power systems • The types of rural networks usually air, Tree and bouclables, • Urban networks and essentially buried bouclables. The protections are less sophisticated than in the case of previous networks. [4] a) MV network neutral distributed b) MV network without distributed neutral, mixed two or three phases d) MV network without distributed neutral, fully phase c) MV network without dis tributed neutral, mixed one, two or three phases DFIN single fuse breaker switch sorting TI neutral single phase three phase isol ation transformer Fig. I.5: Different modes of distribution 6 Chapter I General on power systems

Plans neutral MT The choice of a neutral system of MV network involves the future, because each s ystem involves the installation of special equipment for the isolation level, op erating conditions and maintenance, protection systems against defects . The neu tral system adopted must be consistent with the structure of the MV network (vol tage level, length of departures, air or underground system, charge density) and has an impact on levels of safety and quality of service.€We meet around the wo rld on various systems (Table I.1). • Isolated Neutral Interest in this system i s to promote a good quality of service. In case of faults between phase and eart h, he avoids triggering the fault currents are limited to very low (except where departures, especially if they consist of underground cables are long and the v oltage high coverage, in which case the capacitive current becomes significant). In addition, the isolated neutral system has the disadvantage of generating tra nsient overvoltages (during switching). • Grounding of neutral extinction coil ( called Petersen) The principle is to insert in the neutral reactance Lω equal to the capacitance net ork 1/Cω presents a real interest in spite of its cost. The net ork has seen the failure as high impedance (parallel LC circuit) and the fa ult current is lo and self-extinguishing. It presents the same dra backs, ho ev er, the surge at the time of the maneuvers are some hat less high. • Neutral con nected directly to earth This technique generates fault currents bet een phase a nd earth very important. Therefore, for safety reasons, to limit the return curr ent through the ground, install a neutral conductor connected to ground step by step and through hich flo s a considerable part of the fault current. This syst em has the advantage of minimizing possible overvoltages. It leads to frequent t rips, but allo s a selective removal of defects, such as using fuses adapted to different locations of departures. The current high short-circuit resulting in s evere constraints on materials. This system requires monitoring of the continuit y of the neutral conductor. A breach of it ould be dangerous, resulting in pote ntial gradients around 7 Chapter I General on po er systems ground connections, linked to high current flo to earth. The presence of the ne utral conductor allo s the realization of single-phase taps. • Neutral grounded impedance of interest is to limit the impedance values of short-circuit fault be t een phase and earth, hile having moderate surge. The relatively lo values of fault currents do not require the addition of a neutral conductor. Plan neutral MT Country Belgium Germany Italy Japan Nor ay Isolated neutral Reel of extinction called the Petersen L: po er compensation net ork Germany Finland Nor ay Neutral directly to ground Canada USA Neutral impedance Zn fe

tens of ohms

Belgium France Great Britain Ireland Japan S eden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

Table I.1: Different schemes used in the MV neutral orld 8 Chapter I General on po er systems I.4.4. The delivery net ork BT Is the net ork that e are familiar in principle because it is the voltage V 400 /230 (380/220 in Algeria). We meet in our homes via the chain of meter, circuit breaker, fuses (micro circuit breakers). The purpose of this net ork is to route the electricity distribution net ork MV points lo in the public domain ith ac cess to BT subscribers. It represents the last level in an electrical structure. This net ork can feed a large number of consumers corresponding to the domestic realm. Its structure, like air or underground, is often influenced by the envir onment. These net orks are usually operated manually. The BT net ork to distribu te to consumers, the 230 V (1 phase + neutral) - 2 son Or the 400 V (3 phases + neutral) - 4 son BT's net ork is characterized mainly by the ay are managed and the neutral Grounding of the masses (domestic appliances). Called protective co nductor PE electric, the driver that connects the masses and make them land. It may or may not be confused ith neutral. These subtleties are defined by IEC 364 , hich deals ith the protection of persons and property in buildings (U <1000 V). There are three systems: • IT isolated neutral BT hich allo s continuous op eration at the first fault. We use this principle in hospitals or manufacturing process. • TT this system requires a clear distinction bet een neutral land and land masses, a distinction can be difficult to achieve. • TN is the most common system.€Regimes are distinguished: TN-C and PE are neutral hen combined (PEN) a nd TN-S here neutral and PE are separated (PE + N) I.5. Constitution of electrical net orks I.5.1. Po er plants There are five main types of po er plants: • The fossil fuel plants (coal, oil a nd natural gas) called conventional thermal po er, nuclear po er plants • The po er plants that also can be called thermals, • hydro 9 Chapter I • solar photovoltaic po er plants, • The ind po er plants. General on po er systems Essential elements for the production of electricity are: • A turbine. • A gener ator that is to say, a magnet driven by the turbine and surrounded by a coil tha t produces electrical current. a) The thermal po er plants produce electricity f rom the heat from the combustion of coal, oil or natural gas. It is often found near a river or a lake, as huge quantities of ater are required to cool and con dense the steam from the turbines. The combustion releases a large amount of hea t used to heat ater in the boiler (or steam generator). We no have ater vapor pressure. The pressurized steam turns a turbine at high speed hich is itself a generator that produces a sinusoidal alternating voltage. At the exit of the st eam turbine is cooled to become ater, then returned to the boiler (Fig. I.6). Fig. I.6: The thermal po er stations 10 Chapter I General on po er systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

   

 

 

 

Fig. I.7: Photo of a thermal po er plant b) Nuclear po er plants also use these conversion cycle thermodynamics, ho ever, their "boiler" is a nuclear reactor. N uclear energy obtained from reactions of fission of uranium and plutonium is the source of heat used. They produce about 15% of global electricity. Nuclear plan ts produce radioactive aste and pose a safety hazard. A nuclear po er plant is identical to a po er plant, except that the boiler burning fossil fuel is replac ed by a reactor containing the fuel nuclear fission. Fig. I.8: Photo of a nuclear plant in France 11 Chapter I c) hydro General on po er systems Hydroelectric plants convert the energy of moving ater into electrical energy. The energy from a falling mass of ater is first processed in a ater turbine in to mechanical energy. The turbine drives an alternator in hich mechanical energ y is converted into electrical energy (Fig. I.9). Fig. I.9: Hydroelectric Fig. I.10: Photo of a hydroelectric plant in Germany d) The central solar photov oltaic That other means of generating electricity ith solar po er uses the sun' s light rays, hich are directly converted into an electric current through cell s based on silicon or other material having properties converting light / electr icity. Each cell delivers a lo voltage, the cells are assembled into panels. 12 Chapter I General on po er systems Fig. I.11: Photo of a solar e) ind po er Wind energy is produced in the form of electricity by ind po er. Wind turbines consist of a mast topped by an electri c generator driven by a propeller, are ideally positioned on the lakes or indy hills. Fig. I.12. Photo of a ind farm I.5.2. Substations It differs, depending on the functions they provide several types of positions: • The positions of interconnection function, hich for this purpose include one or more common three-phase busbars called, on hich various departures (lines, t ransformers, etc..) the same voltage can be routed; • The transformer stations, here there are at least t o busbars of different voltages connected by one or m ore processors; • Posts mixed, the most frequent, hich provide a function in th e interconnection net ork, hich also comprise one or more stages of processing. 13 Chapter I General on po er systems The basic actions inherent in the functions to perform are performed by the appa ratus at high and very high voltage in the post and installed that allo s: • To establish or interrupt the flo of current through the circuit breaker • Adequat ely continuity or isolation of a circuit through the breakers; • To change the v oltage of electricity, through po er transformers. A set of protections and auto matic control electrical quantities reduced, developed by reducers (voltage and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

current mainly) and acts on the high voltage equipment to ensure operating condi tions for hich the net ork as designed. We shall therefore, by definition, s i tchgear, and measuring equipment and protective fit for a start, are grouped in a cell. A position has so many cells that departures are connected to its busbar s. In addition, the busbars may be multiple nodes ith the opening of electrical circuit breakers; so-called peak busbar or busbar section thus formed. The numb er of vertices of a post and characterized its ability to form electrical nodes. I.5.3. Po er lines The type of line used is dictated by the follo ing factors: • Active po er to ca rry. • Distance of transport. • Cost. • Attractive, compact and easy installatio n. Four types of lines: • Line of lo -voltage distribution; • Line of medium vol tage distribution; • Transmission Line High voltage transmission line • high vol tage. a) LV Distribution Lines The lines are installed inside buildings, factori es and homes to feed the engines, stoves, lamps, etc.. b) The MV distribution li nes are lines that connect customers to the positions of major transformation of the electricity company. 14 Chapter I c) HV Transmission Lines General on po er systems These are the lines connecting the substations to the main generating stations. d) EHV Transmission Lines These are lines that connect the central remote center s to use. These lines can reach lengths of 1000 km and they operate at voltages up to 765 kV. Components airlines An airline is composed of to ers (supports), conductors and cable insulators. • The role of mast to ers is to maintain the ires at a minimum safe distance from the ground and surrounding obstacles, to ensure the safety of persons and facil ities located in the vicinity of the lines. The choice of the to ers is based on the lines to achieve, their environment and mechanical stresses related to terr ain and climate conditions of the area. Their silhouette is characterized by the provision of cable conductors. - For high-voltage lines, e use to ers consisting of a lattice steel. The higher the voltage, the higher the scale is bigger and the poles are high. Fig. I.13: photo of a very high voltage line (steel pylon year) For po er lines, to ers are used in steel or concrete 15 Chapter I General on po er systems Fig. I.14: photo of a high-voltage to er in concrete For medium voltage lines, t hese ooden poles or concrete poles. Fig. I.15: photo of a medium voltage line on

ooden poles

- For lo voltage overhead lines, it uses simple ooden posts. Fig. I.16: photo of a lo -voltage line on

ooden poles 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter I General on po er systems • Cables To carry current drivers are used conductor cables that are carried by pylons. The current phase is used, there are three cables (or bundles of cables) conductors per circuit. The lines are either simple (a circuit) or double (t o circuits per ro of pylons). Each phase can use 1, 2, 3 or 4 conductor cable, ca lled bundles. The cable conductors are "naked" that is to say that their electri cal insulation is ensured by air. The distance bet een these conductors and the soil ensures good insulation ithstand. This distance increases ith the level o f tension. The copper conductors are less and less used. In general use of alumi num conductors, aluminum-alloy or steel, there are also drivers consist of a cen tral core of steel hich are t isted strands of aluminum.€• Cable guard duty cab les carry no current. They are located above the drivers. They play a role as a lightning rod on top of the line, attracting lightning strikes, and avoiding the lightning conductors. They are usually made of steel. At the center of steel ca ble are sometimes placed a fiber optic cable that is used for communication of t he operator. Fig. I.17: photo of a fiber optical cable inserted into custody Fig. I.18: photo of a fiber optic attached to a ire or cable guard • Isolators insulation bet een the conductors and to ers is ensured by insulator (insulator strings). They are made of glass, ceramic or plastic. The glass or ceramic insul ators generally have the form of a plate. 17 Chapter I General on po er systems They are associated together to form chains of insulators. The higher the line v oltage, the higher the number of insulators in the string is important. Fig. I.19: photo of an insulator • The arresters arresters are devices designed to limit overvoltages imposed on processors, instruments and electrical machiner y by lightning and by s itching operations. The upper portion of the arrester is connected to a son of the line to protect the bottom and is connected to ground by a grounding of lo resistance, typically less than one ohm. Fig. I.20: photo • Spark arrester horned The spark gap is a simple device consis ting of t o electrodes connected to the first driver to protect the second groun ded. At the point here it is installed in the net ork, the spark is a eak poin t for the flo surges to ground, protecting the equipment. 18 Chapter I General on po er systems The voltage of the spark gap is adjusted by adjusting the distance in the air be t een the electrodes, so as to obtain a line bet een the impact resistance of ma terials to protect and ignition voltage to the shock of spark gap (Fig. I.22). Fig. I.21: Spark MT shank bird control breakers • A circuit breaker is intended to establish, support and breaking currents under its rated voltage (maximum vol tage of the net ork), in normal service and under the conditions specified abnor mal ( short-circuit). It is the ultimate protection device, capable of full capa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

city to intervene ithout causing excessive voltage on the net ork. • The fuse i s used directly as a s itching device is indirectly connected to the secondary c ircuit of a current transformer, ith a touch of a merger that the circuit break er tripping order. The major dra back of these devices lies in the fact that the y are damaged by defects and they have lo sensitivity. The operator must have a large number of spares for different calibers. The variety of po er systems req uires models of different types of fuses according to the application. 19 Chapter I It is: General on po er systems • The fuses inside tables installed in the upstream HV transformers, fuses • out door type transformers used for protection air. • Fuses immersed in the transfor mer tank. • S itches for a single element of the MV net ork, it has control s it ches Mechanics (IACM) and are of t o types: • Type I: 200 Rated current (A), bre aking 31.5 or 50 (A ) Mainly active load, and 200 (A) load loop, and closing cap acity 10 (kA) effective in 24 (kV). • Type II: 400 Rated current (A), breaking 1 00 (A) Mainly active load, and 400 (A) load loop, and closing capacity 10 (kA) e ffective in 24 (kV). This unit can be converted into remote controlled apparatus (IAT) or automatic s itch opening in the voltage dip (IACT). Disconnectors type IACM are simple and robust. Their assembly is in horizontal poles: Concrete, Me tal or Wood. Fig. I.22: photo of a s itch • transformer top post in the distribution net orks in rural areas, here distan ces bet een points to be served increase investment spending, e look for econom ic solutions. The lines are lo and medium voltage overhead, mounted on concrete poles or ood. The substations are located in booths masonry, narro and high,€ building simple or even orn by the to ers themselves (pole position) (Fig. I.24 ). 20 Chapter I General on po er systems Fig. I.23: Photo of a pole position (the transformer) Underground lines The structure of underground systems is one type of line: the ridges. These net orks of small length and large cross-section of the drivers seat of reduced volt age drop. Consequently, and taking into account the importance of the incidents, there shall be a recharge or by neighboring systems or by a lifeline. I.6. Categories expenses Depending on the nature of the receptors can be classified into three large char ges category: • The first category in this class receptors only allo less than t o seconds off of po er such as hospitals and military areas. • The second cate gory for this class, the receivers accept a decision of less than t o hours, suc h as factories. • The third category in the latter category, the decision may be more than 24 hours. As public lighting and homes. 21 Chapter I General on po er systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

Conclusion It as in this chapter, a general study of the electrical grid, ith the study o f its various components necessary for the generation, transmission, distributio n and delivery of electrical energy. The primary purpose of a po er net ork is a ble to feed consumer demand. As it can still be stored economically in large qua ntities of electrical energy must be continuously maintaining the equality: Prod uction = Consumption + Losses The grid must allo users to deliver consumer good s to meet their needs, characterized by : An available po er, depending on the quantitative needs of the client A fixed voltage, po er and function of this type of clientele; A quality reflecting the ability to respect the values and the formal requirements of these t o parameters and keeping them time. 22