INTEGRATION AND IDENTITY IN THE HISPANIC CARIBBEAN ISLAND: THE BACHATA EN LA DOMINICAN URBAN CULTURE Alejandro Paulino Ramos
(Historian and university professor) (Text of the c onference dictated by the historian Alejandro Paulino Ramos XI in the Dominican Congress of History, dedicated to Francisco Henríquez Vasquez, Lina Hotel, 19-21 October 2007, under the auspices of the Institute Geography and History, Geography and History Museum, Dominican Academy of History, and the Archivo General de la Nación)
This musical genre was invented "in large measure on the march popular musicians at parties in neighborhoods, "and was long considered by Dominicans as "guaracha" or "Dominican guaracha" although more recently it has also been known as music of bitterness. The bachata is its more distant roots in Cuba and Puerto Rico, the guaracha, Bolero and dance, and very reminiscent of the Cuban bolero-son, and as explained by Enrique Deschamps in 1906, the "Puerto Rican dance" due to hybridization with the "Mexican air and guaracha and danzón Cubans. " So these Caribbean rhythms have become integrated with our rhythms, musical taste and adapting to the idiosyncrasies of our people, and facilitating musical syncretism that has made possible, which over dominicanizando time to leave, taking characteristics of both in interpretation as in the dance, becoming essential for interpretation guitars, marimba instrument known as the calabash, bongos, maracas, timbales and tambora latter especially when it comes to meringue. Throughout the process of its formation has been significant common history Caribbean, and the constant migration and economic changes and technological speakers hit the Hispanic peoples of the region. The word bachata seems to have originated in Cuba, from there became Puerto Rico and in the late nineteenth century, it adopted from the Dominican immigrants from those islands. But before that word to Santa Sunday, here was the word fandango, with the same or similar meaning. The Martinique Moreau de Saint-Mery, describes the fandango in 1783, as a dance which were accompanied by "guitar or pumpkin or maraca sound waving ", while William Walton in 1810 describes him as one of national music, more upbeat than the bolero and is also accompanied voice and guitar, and was considered repulsive by its obscenity. Of So the fandango and early nineteenth century, was seen as dance and music, mainly from rural areas. On the other hand, although it is said that of African origin, the term bacha ta is Hispanic Caribbean own speaker and there is evidence that both Cuba,
Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic for at least the nineteenth century is present in dance related activities and diversions "Poor people", but especially for the poor linked to marginality urban. According to the "Cuban Vocabulary, 14th supplement. Edition Dictionary of the Royal Academy of Language, by Constantino Suarez Bachata is the same as "partying" frolic, "carousing", and in some cases "Joke." For Suárez, "bachata" means something of little use, fun and joke. In addition, Malaret Augusto Santo Domingo said that is fun and bachata Cuba and Puerto Rico in revelry, merriment, and bachata is fun. For its hand, Patin Maceo "Dominican Americanisms in language, brings word by relating it to the dance bachata slum. "And in 1938 Enrique Aguiar defined as having fun dancing with the villagers. There is also a definition of bachata, not quite curious: Esteban Rodriguez explains that the word was used in Puerto Rico, and Santamaria, Glossary Cuban author, said that Bachata is "the name given to binges or course of the country with women in gay life, and in Puerto Rico is "species country dance ": Insular Caribbean Cultural Unit Hispanic The Cuban historian Hernán Venegas Delgado Antillean Confederation: reality and hope, "review the economic process, adaptation and hybridization West Indies, where plantation "settled in the same location, with a common climate and physiographic characteristics very similar. It left, "he says, the same historical process of genocide on original indigenous population and reached the same mixing process .. "And referring to the dances and music of the Caribbean, made the process hybridization went early in the culture of Antilles: "It is precisely the music and dance one way essential expression of that mixture, as is commonly recognized, the guaracha and son, rumba and merengue, calypso and cumbia, reggae and zouk, intermingle to give rise to highly debated whether rhythms like salsa. " For the Puerto Rican poet Pales Matos, the West Indies were the space conducive to a "delicious mix" racial and cultural who had founded a new national and regional character. For him, talking about West Indian poetr y was not talking about white or black poetry, European or African, but a new cultural expression born of the harmony of man and landscape and racial fusion mulatería represented in the ". White impose its law and culture, the tolerant and adapts black ... the black expands and evolves as at home. "In Santo Domingo, Cuba and Puerto Rico was repeated history and the integration is embodied in the model through the development Spanish colonial bans and punishments. The tam-tam brought Africa became more drum and bass drum then I remembered the African pump characteristics .... The Andalusian guitar, the tam-tam güiro muzzle and Indian are the holy trinity of music Puerto Rican, melted in the same degree that the races have merged. " Migration and Cultural Unity in the Caribbean Against Indians in the Caribbean islands, migration activities the Spanish colonizers who came to Santo Domingo in the sixteenth century while gold was running out of the mines, forced to change and economic way for the use of African slave labor as fundamental strength of the sugar industry. At the rate that occurred These changes were initiated conflicts faced powers Europe. Privateers, pirates, smuggling and devastation at the beginning of seventeenth century, struck the town of Santo Domingo and as a result of same impoverishment of the people, dependence on a set which never arrived and a prolonged economic crisis that will force some
the Spanish major who lived on the island to migrate in search of better life. In this regard, said Antonio Sanchez and Valverde in "Idea the value of the Spanish island "(1785):" After those demolished Plazas, which was the year of 606, gradually emerging from the Spanish, or whole families or individuals who were still to some flow before gradually consume you without hope to overtake (....) Executed so many throughout the last century and the early ours. The same trans-treated him and so provoking other that barely stayed in the Spanish who by their very misery were unable to shun them. " This situation of crisis which deepened with the establishment in western part of a French colony and the conflicts that this situation generated, will cause the permanent exodus of the Spanish Dominicans to Caribbean territories, carrying a part of the workforce slave. For example, when France and Spain signed the Treaty of Basel (1795), migrated between 15 and 25 000 people to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. -Spanish Dominicans who migrated from Santo Domingo would reside in other Spanish possessions where they hoped to find better economic opportunities, especially Cuba and Puerto Rico, in those the presence of the settler areas of Santo Domingo due to impact culturally in the places where they settled. But at the same time, according Herman Reichard, during the war of conquest between 1808 and 1809, and in 1863, both times had battalions Puerto Ricans in Santo Domingo. With those who emigrated from Santo Domingo are also expatriate customs and folklore of the Dominicans, but the trend began to reverse itself Since the birth of the Dominican Republic, leading to the presence many Caribbean immigrants and the mainland, which will substantial effect on the population growth and changes cultural to be registered in the country was back, but transformed the culture that had left many years ago, which was integrated and retrain to the training of Dominican. Especially following the annexation to Spain in 1861, will enter the country a significant contingent of Spanish and with them thousands of Cubans and Puerto Ricanyet after the war of the Restoration many Dominican families emigrated partner annexation scheme primarily located in Cuba: Juan J. Sanchez, in "Sugar cane Santo Domingo "provides the data for the presence of 27,000 Spanish-Cuban during the Spanish annexation. And Roberto Mars traces the abrupt departure Dominicans in 1865. A migratory movement that we are obliged to study, to understand cultural syncretism of Dominicans is related to Haitian revolution and the exodus of French on the island of Cuba and Santo Sunday.. "The migratory movement in the Caribbean region (including Haitian migration process after its antislavery revolution), will cause shared features of an identity that is still waiting to be studied. Dominican Caribbean Migration and Culture The Dominican migration process will reverse from the changes began to perform in the Dominican economy in the seventies of nineteenth century, and which relate to the Cuban war of independence ten years (1868-1878), and "Little War" started in 1895, and also with the cry of Lares in 1868 and the Puerto Rican sugar crisis the last quarter of the nineteenth century: "From the decade of the seventies produces a considerable migratory movement from the jurisdictions Eastern Cuba. The devastating ferocity of the Ten Years' War Santo Domingo drove five or six thousand Cubans who served in the course
the years a large-scale positive influence on the economy insular. "Before thousands had already arrived. In 1862 Roberto says Mars in Santo Domingo had some 4,000 Cubans. Twenty years later, Javier Angulo Guridi stands out as the presence of strong influence in the Caribbean was population growth, especially in the presence of citizens Cubans and Puerto Ricans. From the State's interest groups and intellectuals who dreamed of off the country on the path of modernization, the arrival of a immigration "wanted" was out to many of the problems affecting historically the country, as Cuban immigration was encouraged by some media, highlighting El Porvenir "of Puerto Plata. But other circumstances also pushed the Puerto Ricans to migrate Santo Domingo. On the one hand Cuba with its war of independence does was appealing to the migration of Puerto Ricans and the process of Borinquen sugar production was in crisis, and the conflicts generated by the struggle for independence of Puerto Rico. The heyday of colonial sugar industry was neither too large nor last long. From 1870, when he began to feel the negative effects of the crisis sugar, Puerto Ricans began a stream of emigration to Cuba, Santo Domingo, St. Croix, St. Thomas and to Hawaii, apart from Indent a New York. What was happening in Cuba and Puerto Rico and the investment process capital had begun in the Dominican Republic in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, will result in the birth of a process that will produce irreversible economic changes and changes substantial in the life of the Dominicans: the rise of capitalism industrial dismantling of the Dominican peasantry, the emergence of labor sector, the strengthening of urban development, changes the land and the activation of trade and both the need to encourage the immigration of people from the Antilles. As the sample is sufficient to note that for 1899 and resided in San Pedro de 1.142 Macoris about Puerto Ricans, a number that was gradually increased during the first two decades of the twentieth century, especially from 1910, immigrated from Puerto Rico to work in large quantities in central Rome. Harry Hoetink, referring to the impact caused by groups immigrants relates this situation to rise and urban growth and emergence of new neighborhoods where these immigrants lived and step appearance of the cabarets: "Prostitution in the capital acquired in the nineties such forms, the authorities resorted to the registration mandatory. Many of these prostitutes came from neighboring islands, with whose names were known neighborhoods in which they Vivian: 'women gay, young, white, educated and beautiful, coming from Puerto Rico and Cuba. Some of these girls had received good education, spoke more than one language, had pleasant conversion, and played to perfecti on the piano. "The same approach makes Enrique Deschamps in his work The Republic Dominican published in 1907, when he says that a large number of women encouraged the vice of prostitution came from abroad, leading to many neighborhoods where these were known ironically lived with the name of the cities or countries of origin. Save login regarding the presence of Cuban and Puerto Rican prostitutes, are knowledgeable and dancers, boleros and guarachas with the rise taken by this music in the cafes and cabarets of the early twentieth century and the social rejection that hit after the bachata, as music by tenérsele
relating to such places of amusement? Recall the aforementioned definition Bachata Santamaría that Cuba is "the name given to the partying or rumbas women in the country with a happy life " Sugar Industry and Social Changes Before the advent of the sugar industry, the Dominican Republic live cattle herd, cutting wood, the mill operation and production conuqueros: The "arrival of the 70s of last century Dominican society rested on an export-based economy of precious woods and dyeing the exploration was taking place in workshops of the band south and in certain coastal areas in the north as Monte Cristi, in the production of snuff that had settled in the Cibao based on family farming units subject to layered network of dealers in Santiago had its principal place collection and Puerto Plata in their port of departure to Europe (...) in the operation of sugar mills and character meladores family basically swarmed in sugarcane geography traditional (...)., for the traditional cattle ranch established in the vast plains of the East, for production-oriented conuqueros supply the nutritional needs of the population. The Dominican population in 1870 was nothing of 625.000 inhabitants, devoted mainly to grazing, wood cutting, agriculture and the conuco also little experience in industrial work in sugar: "The low rate of population (...), was established," says Antonio Lluberespromoting factor in the first immigration of laborers. Since 1882 existed in the country about 30 mills: "Between 1875 and 1882 were founded thirty 'sugar plantations. " (...). Of these thirty-three mills were in the north, two in the District of Samaná and 1 in the District of Puerto Plat a; these three were the first to be founded (in 1877 and 1978). As part of the replacement of labor by foreign Dominican, which was taking place in this industry because of alleged in the country had not enough hands, and political conflict triggered in Cuba and Puerto Rico in their struggle for independence, it quickly generated a process of immigration from the British Isles, Cuba and Puerto Rico. To the Referring to the arrival of the cocolos, said the British consul from a discriminatory position against these immigrants, those workers not were allowed "because of their race and because of their inferior quality eti ology. Moreover, the immigrants brought with them their "race, customs, religion and language. "Although the population were discriminated cocola, was given great er consideration of the Hispanic-speaking Caribbean, to be more compatible with cultural tradition of Dominicans In addition, economic modernization led to the development of important cities, the establishment of railways in areas of the mills and trams in the capital and Monte Cristi, rail and Sanchez-La Vega Santiago, Puerto Plata, telephone lines, the first commercial bank first bridge over the River Ozama, the submarine cable, the first daily newspapers, the establishment of the Normal School and the reopening University, but particularly the urgent need for immigrants for work in the mills. Of all the localities with conditions to receive immigrants in the late nineteenth century, Puerto Plata was mainta ined the forefront of this process for several years, not only by the movement economic, commercial and industrial, but also for the support and protection Blue Party that gave the Caribbean who fought against Spain those times. Puerto Plata and the Caribbean Immigration
Puerto Plata was icon of urban development over the past three decades of the nineteenth century and one of the locations of the Dominican R epublic most preferred by Caribbean immigrants, especially the flow trade was between this and other Caribbean islands as well as mainland immigration of Cubans and Puerto Ricans was related to political and economic aspects. "." Emilio Rodríguez Demorizi in "News from Puerto Plata records the flow Cubans and Puerto Ricans in the mid-Seventies: In 1875, the "Civilian town of Isabel de Torres was the most active center of Cuban and Puerto Rican patriots who agree with lovers Dominicans freedom working resolutely towards the independence of Cuba, insurgents, and the projected insurrection .(..). Puerto Rico Miles Cubans were given to work in the city or in neighboring fields, to while plotting against Spain and also considering that the Dominican and Cuban culture bound us: "Origin, language, customs and trends: more desired all this immigration than any other. " Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo and Santiago were the main centers receipt of the Cuban and Puerto Rican immigration to the country arrived Following the war of the 10th anniversary of Cuba (1868-1878). "And because P uerto Silver things "went with bias in favor of the Cubans and why these piled one there to form a street called Cuba-free .. "but in that city was also a significant amount of immigrants cocolos. " Syncretism in Caribbean Music The roots of Dominican culture are based on a syncretism where different ethnic groups were integrated elements that allowed the emergence of a new town in the Americas. : Neither race nor Aboriginal culture was lost without trace. "Elements" African and merged indigenous undoubtedly reduced, from the beginning hybrid situations perpetuates the black man on the island of Santo Domingo, a nd in the other Antilles. The forced African immigrants "brought the patterns of their own cultures. "In the case of music, sticks, tambourine and conga drum, bongos and timbales marked, together with guitar and tambourine of Andalusia, the roots of Dominican bachata: Dominican at parties there was always "the succulent chicken stew Rhythmic and notes of four and the guitar. For years, the dances of the poor were related to the fandango, as provided in the work of William Walton, published in 1810 and explaining that this was "much more upbeat than the bolero and also comes with voice and guitar. (...) "In addition to review it lewd .. One hundred and eight years after Schoenrich Otto in 1918, said the preferenc e of Dominicans for the music of the Caribbean region in its process integration and adaptation gave way to the Dominican bachata "Music Waltz is very popular, but the favorite dance music is the beautiful "dance" Puerto Rican, which is a relative of the Mexican air and "guaracha" Cuban, and can be compared to the flow of a stream, now slipping calmly, now running waterfalls. " For its part, July Arzeno, possibly the first student of music Dominican popular, contributed in 1927 an approach to the definition of bachata music genre that was born: "There is no doubt that basic foundation of the popular song, was the liturgical chant, and the only artistic expression mainly enjoyed our society
old, with the music of immigrants from feelings or Spain, the Caribbean and Venezuela, were amalgamated to the sound rudimentary Creole influence sufficiently to be completely naturalized. Thus, the most used by our people to externalize urban passions and feelings through song after Bolero was the beautiful literary style of the song (...). Past, while in the fashionable circles, ceremonial dance the Gang, the French quadrille, the Schottische, the gull, the Polka, the Mazurka and Cotillion introduced by the strong German and foreign mass Spanish, especially the youth of the town is fun in its own way doing their dance parties armed with Moorish and Spanish guitar, maraca and tambourine, animated with joyful warmth, sometimes accented with noisy tools. " Citing Argeliers León, Helio Orovio said that emerged in mid boleros nineteenth century in Santiago de Cuba, expanded rapidly in the Caribbean, heir of Hispanic ancestry, underwent a process that Cubanization associated with the dance and the habanera, "emerging in the last century a n ew style rhythm guitar accompaniment, a mix of strumming and points which, no doubt, reached us on the road again renewed contracts with Yucatecan sones. Just joined the Spanish bolero the name and structure is to quadruple time. "In this bolero ago rReference Enrique Deschamps in 1906, when he says that dance is a "piece West Indian musical rhythms pleasantly gentle and lilting the movements slow and sensual rhythms "of peasant and selfof "the three great West Indies," but that was defined on the island of Puert o Rico as Puerto Rican Dance "because of its hybridization with the" air Mexican and Cuban guaracha and Danzon. "Possibly this entrenchment Caribbean music was that music was contagious bachata Dominican, who undoubtedly finds its earliest roots in the integration of the bolero, guaracha, son and merengue and other rhythms but with proper instruments of neighborhood parties, as happened with Cuban bolero played by the septetos and trios in the twenties. The Dominican bolero says Julio Alberto Hernández, very different dance Spanish of the same name, is often love letters, and is one of the genera most commonly grown throughout the country. He entered the country along the guaracha by the city of Puerto Plata, as explained in July Arzeno 1927: "In our beautiful and beloved northern region, before we invaded Fox Trot hilarious and vulgar, were improvised and composed songs for more pleasure and enthusiasm that we now hear, especially songs, and above all, Boleros, whose origin can not try or is our purpose in this volume, find out, but we can say that the Cuban immigrants by the 70 and 96, were brought him here. "The same thing happened with guaracha, some of which were very popular in Puerto Plata in 1874: retreats in the city of Puerto Plata, the orchestra played the Cuban guarachas known as "Los Mangos", The Black good ", the flower squash, and guaracha "La Adela. In a way, the insular Caribbean music, with varied shades, was the same roots and in the case of Santo Domingo was understood by many times as their own what others understand others. It is perhaps for this reason tha t 1927 Enrique de Marchena son said in the magazine Black and White, the "Dominican folklore because it will develop and alienate potential regarded as typical compositions, styles imported from Puerto Rico and Cuba, including Dance and Havana. "In the Hispanic triangle
Caribbean area, bachata was a reality Cuban, Dominican and Puerto Rican in origin because they showed very cultural practices similar, as evidenced by the tenth of Puerto Virgilio Davila written during the nineteenth century: "Disiembre! In the land mine / I month know glory / Gualda month in its history / Mary's. / Disiembre! Month joy / in the plain and the Sierra ./.../ is that the time / in that distant time / selebra the Christian world / the Nabidae of Moesia / Y coyunta to me, / that has a great dolama, / has strip Bed dibeltilse strives pol, and the fun you want Dilsen, / because the dance and the Nama. / A dance that no toy is / are there get ready / with a four well templao / and the treble of the not calm her / it's like the ifDSSput dils pa / on the wings of six chorriao. / A imagine it now / we are in the bachata / Wield usté its mulatta, / and a good and other ba sei. " The Fandango and Bachata music in the Dominican Ramón Emilio Jiménez explains, referring to merengue, without entering detail how the late nineteenth century was disappearing the fandango "Y birth of a new dance with the appearance of the accordion, the result of evolution of ancient dances. "Julio Arzeno explains musical Folklore Dominican (1927), the "joy of the peasant for dancing or "Fandango" - who among us is not gender specific but dance farmer-general holiday is evident in the diversity of styles possess, such as "Zapateo." These festivities were called fandangos happened decades later, the famous bachatas who had the same sense previous: picnics, parties, fun where they sang, danced, and drank alcoholic beverages to the rhythm of the instruments and music that were in vogue then, but with the difference that the former was fun of the rural poor, while the second was what the urban marginality. The word bachata appears in the Dominican Republic in the late XIX but emerges in several publications in the early twentieth century. In 19 24 Augusto Ortega (Professor Santiago), wrote an essay about schools rudimentary Santo Domingo, leaving the word entered bachata was customary among the peasants and meaning "ball, jarana and joke. "The Dominican Rafael Brito P., published in San Francisco Macorís his "Dictionary of criollismo" (1930), which contains the word bachata and explains it as "Dance of neighborhoods." For its part, Patin Maceo "Dominican Americanisms in language", brings The word bachata dances relating it to the poor neighborhoods: "In Cuba and Puerto Rico, "he says, revelry. In the Dominican people, little dance more or less: "On Sunday we had the bachatas neighborhoods poor and in which we a lot of fun. "In 1938 Enrique Aguiar bachata defined in the glossary of his book "Eusebio Sapote" (sic) as "Dance of guitar, tambourine, guiro and having fun with people of people. " During the colonial period, with a company related to extremely the cattle herd and therefore it was the daily hunt, the fandango was the popular party as opposed to Dominicans ballroom of the lower nuclei of ranchers, slavery and oligarchy colonial officials. While this was happening in the field of peasants who were considered descendants of the Spanish in the sector of slaves and freedmen whose roots went back to Africa, the parties drums sticks or spread constrained by prohibitive laws trying to root out this important component of ethnic Dominican ancestral roots of a culture that not only survived
Santo Domingo, but in the whole area of the West Indies. The word fandango, to name the peasant party was definitely disappearing during the first twenty-five years of the twentieth century, and it was bachata replacing both the cities and in the Dominican countryside. On this greatly impacted the result of economic transformation process industrialization and the arrival of thousands of Puerto Rican immigrants and Cubans since the late nineteenth century. At any rate, the country resisted a nd many places in the Cibao, as expounded by Eulogio Cabral, including areas urban fandango preferred to call it fun, a term that included both the party areas such as block parties " As for the music of drums or sticks danced by slaves and freedmen, it was limited and marginalized from the earliest times of the colony. The bans throughout history were constant but indelible mark of identity shared and inherited, the legislation and resolutions not to disrupt or disassociate the Dominican people. In the festival of drums were contained the most roots of early African contribution to Dominican music. In "Letters to Avelina" (1941), Francisco Moscoso Puello certify that Extended dance forms among Dominicans: "Then, at night sometimes I can not sleep (...). The suits come at that time in activity. (...). And my extension is peopled with strange music and strange and monoton ous chants and sad. Everywhere sticks. And even I think the mountain melancholy songs come from or the Mafia Maboba. And with his eyes hard, like stones, I guess there in the section of Santa Maria, where the drums fame brought on by the other African grandfather, touch as anywhere, in the light of the jumeadoras or some Jacho of Cuaba, rushes in too lavagallos and danced to the most unlikely dislocation. " African dances were not always allowed in Santo Domingo. The more severe penalties applied to those who were played with drums, even if they were purely recreational dances. Prohibitive provisions 1862, 1874, 1878, 1881, 1924 and 1930 testify to this. These dances were persecuted for being regarded as undesirable, disordered and scandalous. edifying are the following examples: in 1924 Santo Domingo City Council had before it was banned in the urban area instrument known as balsié, in order to preserve "everything appropriate to the greater prosperity and culture of the municipality, and to avoid the spread of harmful habits "and because" the use of that instrument was demoralizing effect, "disturbs the rest and disturbs neighbors, "and starting the Trujillo dictatorship in 1930, were banned SANCO and dances such as the Voodoo being harmful, undesirable and immoral alsobecause in the holidays, "is danced in an immoral way." La Conga Cuba was widely criticized in 1941 by a journalist to understand the time that this "is not lounge music circles or where it should prevail aesthetics, culture and urban manners, but typical of black music Congolese have never seen the sun shine or the beauty or the civilization. " Returning to the training of bachata, which was first party and fun and then became musical genre taste in the marginalized urban areas, Federico García Godoy "Rufinita" (1909), referring to Dominicans diversions provides the following testimonial: "The chapter of distractions, as expected, was relatively small. The crowded cockfighting (...), excursions on horseback to nearby fields (...), The nine days of celebrations, and some other dance fig
figs carried out to youth and even some that she did not belong; with music that is timely requested the nearby city of Santiago, expansions formed the repertoire of the neighborhood. There was no shortage, Nor, intimate meetings that did the honors to succulent chicken stews are talking to the dozen and often echoed Rhythmic notes of four and the guitar. " In "Alma Dominican (1911), Garcia Godoy insists on describing entertainment of the people and uses to refer to parties using bachata terms, fandango and rustic revelry and parties and step insists on the instrumentation used in them, ignoring the typical accordion: "The orchestra, consisting of a treble, four, drum and guiro, popped the soft notes of a rhythmic merengue (...). While Tulio M. Cestero, in "The Romantic City" (1911), shows the presence of music reminiscent of Africa in the celebrations of the marginal Dominican capital, as distinct from the "party society" that held in the Colonial Zone or intramural, where "the dance cast their voluptuous notes, his hands are pressed, the bodies are close, but women's honesty and modesty of the gentleman watch the fire, impressing turns to some gracious languor. But the picture is one in the balls public outside the walls, where city councils couples drunk liquor and lust, and bodies move in rhythm wise brothel on the edge of mountain, hill Galindo, Indian dance is adulterated ways imported, and the sound of four, and the accordion and a drum made of hollow log covered with the ends of a taut goatskin on expert hands beat which, in infamous atmosphere, which in the light of African forests, movements, couples intertwine and separate, stomp on the concrete floor, take the breasts of females and swirling bellies join in epileptic shocks " It is even more interesting, the data provided for the study of the formation of the bachata a novel about the "revolutions caudillistas" the beginning of the twentieth century, published in 1916. Chapter II brings in curious title: "General Babieca says politicians have failed, and is Patricio save from the bachateros "and it refers to the guarachas of the time: "As I was talking the general, Patrick appears with two more, at about eight o'clock at night, singing guarachas and songs to the beat of a guitar, but staggered in such a so so drunk they were, the General rose angrily, and got into the room, leaving his partner with those bohemians. Don Pepe Hernandez allowed to sit, and sang in the retail and solved in C major song: "This love is so violent / that does not learn how to see, / I would not love you, / because it is much suffering. / When I see you at the time / I suffer a passion so strong / that more like death / to feel like I feel. / It can not love me, / I understand and despair, / but my God what me? / If this love is real / and you can not love me / and I love you. "More later you can read in this novel: "Patrick wanted to stay with her Dulcinea, saying it was unwise to sing at night as guarachas darkness. "care calls it, would it be that bad guaracha was held or rejected and could be dangerous to sing? These guarachas, who according to Don Julio Alberto Hernandez were guarachas Dominican, were undoubtedly the earliest stirrings of the Guarachita, music of bitterness or Dominican bachata, that were already interpreted as the feasts of the barrios of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata: Eulogio C. Cabral in "Cachimbolas" (1922) brings in a poem written by him a description of the feast of bachata Lilís time: "By the year eighty-nine, / I was an unbridled colt, / As my greatest enjoyment /
Flirt with the girls. / In a block party / From then were made, / With stews and songs / Y bebentinas noisy. In "Eusebio Sapote: the story and the novel of a moron", published in 1938, Enrique Aguiar author episodes of the life outside the city capital, and defines what for him were held in City bachatas New: "The nights of calm, as it was when they were not ready of war, ran full of great enthusiasm: when entering the neighborhood you are, on either side of the street, groups of people standing in the doors of the houses where they were celebrating this so-called bachata is a dance of guitar, guiro and tambourine in a small room where barely there were three couples, but such was the amount of Bachata everybody could dance with comfort. . Ramón Emilio Jiménez confirms what we have tried to explain in that Bachata music and dance was neighborhoods and emphasizes the implementation used. For him the instruments of the orchestra are typical accordion güira and drums and sometimes the saxophone and with them were celebrated dances called merengue, cassava, bug, tap, and others, but when meeting is a bachata, then the instruments are guitars, Mongo, sticks or spoons and dancing bolero and guaracha. The same observation was made by Jose Medina P. In its report about race, character, customs, religion, people and Monción Sabaneta. in 1922. To the refer to the cockpits, offers the following definition of bachata: The cockpit is "are all that can gratify their vices and bad desires Contents: cockfighting, sweets and rum, but what he loves and appeal is the party (if accordion), or if bachata guitar and edges or boleros .. "For the same Porfirio Golibart recalls his adolescence a nd bachatas the holiday at the beginning of the twentieth century. Referring to sancochos yard, "dinner alley bachata with the guitar, guiro and bongos (...). All my life I feel rooted in the Dominican. There are many details that prove our approaches relation to the bachata as a social and related musical marginalized urban culture, as shown in the authors we have cited and others have collected, but that we have available for other writings. I will conclude with two statements: the first Dominican musicologist Américo Cruzado, taken from his musical "Songbook of yesterday and today" when he explains that the generation of the fifties were not aware of a group songs that were sung at the beginning of the twentieth century and that he le arned while still a teenager, they were not under the rhythms songs, but were interpreted at the whim of the singer, "with accompanying base arpeggios, some with rhythm of waltz, dance, bolero, in Creole, and guaracha call at the time, it was a kind of bolero faster pace than the slow and soft Mexican bolero. " And the second copy taken from the novel The Dance Blue, written by Victor M. Coradín in 1928: "It was 10:45 pm when the youth group went into a Cafe situated at the banks of the mighty river Ozama, in near the pier. Refuge pimps, dock workers, marine and other characters of low social class, was that nasty establishment, where a lost youth indulged in the most vices rampant. It was long and spacious, divided into several apartments, where dirty whores had their own bedrooms. There were young people equivocal, with retina of the eyes too red, excess of alcohol. Old sailors
English, who in those days visiting the city on an ocean liner, stood trembling with joy by waste liquor. Others, leaning at the bar, glasses of Brandy rushing lanes. In the first some guys playing pool hall, you hear the voices and the clash of balls. In another inner apartment, sitting on wooden benches; others were given to all kinds of gambling. And beyond that, to the beat of bachata music, some nearly naked women, were unabashedly embracing men, given to the most wild orgies, while the orchestra consisted of guitar, guiro and drums, sang a song parodied in dirty words obscene. People of false face, brutal, vengeful and criminally, was left note there for its look suspicious and unpleasant. (...) A few scattered in the Ballroom, enjoying the joy of this fictional party, delivered in the treacherous hands of those unworthy women who sell their caresses to the highest bidder. " Alejandro Paulino Ramos is a historian and documentary filmmaker, director Library Archives of the Nation.
All text is referred to in this part of the book, in print, "BACHATA: Origins Caribbean genre Dominican musical. The Bachata has been considered by several Dominican cultural researchers as a marginal genre which is based on Spanish guitar instrumental and the instruments originating in Africa, associated with the neighborhoods and fun Dominican countryside, but few have seen this as a cultural phenomenon part of the integration process of the people who constituted the Caribbean islands and especially in the Hispanic Caribbean speaker.