€€€INTEGRATION AND IDENTITY IN THE HISPANIC CARIBBEAN ISLAND: THE BACHATA EN LA €€€DOMINICAN URBAN CULTURE €€€Alejandro Paulino Ramos

€€€(Historian and university professor) €€€(Text of the c onference dictated by the historian Alejandro Paulino Ramos €€€XI in the Dominican Congress of History, dedicated to Francisco Henríquez €€€Vasquez, Lina Hotel, 19-21 October 2007, under the auspices of the Institute €€€Geography and History, Geography and History Museum, €€€Dominican Academy of History, and the Archivo General de la Nación)

€€€This musical genre was invented "in large measure on the march €€€popular musicians at parties in neighborhoods, "and was long €€€considered by Dominicans as "guaracha" or "Dominican guaracha" €€€although more recently it has also been known as music of bitterness. €€€The bachata is its more distant roots in Cuba and Puerto Rico, the €€€guaracha, Bolero and dance, and very reminiscent of the Cuban bolero-son, and €€€as explained by Enrique Deschamps in 1906, the "Puerto Rican dance" €€€due to hybridization with the "Mexican air and guaracha and danzón €€€Cubans. " €€€So these Caribbean rhythms have become integrated with our €€€rhythms, musical taste and adapting to the idiosyncrasies of our people, €€€and facilitating musical syncretism that has made possible, which over €€€dominicanizando time to leave, taking characteristics of both €€€in interpretation as in the dance, becoming essential for €€€interpretation guitars, marimba instrument known as the €€€calabash, bongos, maracas, timbales and tambora latter €€€especially when it comes to meringue. €€€Throughout the process of its formation has been significant common history €€€Caribbean, and the constant migration and economic changes and €€€technological speakers hit the Hispanic peoples of the region. €€€The word bachata seems to have originated in Cuba, from there became €€€Puerto Rico and in the late nineteenth century, it adopted from the Dominican €€€immigrants from those islands. But before that word to Santa €€€Sunday, here was the word fandango, with the same or similar meaning. €€€The Martinique Moreau de Saint-Mery, describes the fandango in 1783, as a €€€dance which were accompanied by "guitar or pumpkin or maraca sound €€€waving ", while William Walton in 1810 describes him as one of €€€national music, more upbeat than the bolero and is also accompanied €€€voice and guitar, and was considered repulsive by its obscenity. Of €€€So the fandango and early nineteenth century, was seen as dance and €€€music, mainly from rural areas. €€€On the other hand, although it is said that of African origin, the term bacha ta is €€€Hispanic Caribbean own speaker and there is evidence that both Cuba,

€€€Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic for at least the nineteenth century €€€is present in dance related activities and diversions €€€"Poor people", but especially for the poor linked to marginality €€€urban. According to the "Cuban Vocabulary, 14th supplement. Edition €€€Dictionary of the Royal Academy of Language, by Constantino Suarez €€€Bachata is the same as "partying" frolic, "carousing", and in some cases €€€"Joke." For Suárez, "bachata" means something of little use, fun and €€€joke. €€€In addition, Malaret Augusto Santo Domingo said that is fun and bachata €€€Cuba and Puerto Rico in revelry, merriment, and bachata is fun. For its €€€hand, Patin Maceo "Dominican Americanisms in language, brings €€€word by relating it to the dance bachata slum. "And in 1938 €€€Enrique Aguiar defined as having fun dancing with the villagers. €€€There is also a definition of bachata, not quite curious: Esteban €€€Rodriguez explains that the word was used in Puerto Rico, and Santamaria, €€€Glossary Cuban author, said that Bachata is "the name given to binges or €€€course of the country with women in gay life, and in Puerto Rico is "species €€€country dance ": €€€Insular Caribbean Cultural Unit Hispanic €€€The Cuban historian Hernán Venegas Delgado Antillean Confederation: €€€reality and hope, "review the economic process, adaptation and hybridization €€€West Indies, where plantation "settled in the same location, €€€with a common climate and physiographic characteristics very similar. It €€€left, "he says, the same historical process of genocide on €€€original indigenous population and reached the same mixing process .. "And €€€referring to the dances and music of the Caribbean, made the process €€€hybridization went early in the culture of €€€Antilles: "It is precisely the music and dance one way €€€essential expression of that mixture, as is commonly recognized, €€€the guaracha and son, rumba and merengue, calypso and cumbia, €€€reggae and zouk, intermingle to give rise to highly debated whether €€€rhythms like salsa. " €€€For the Puerto Rican poet Pales Matos, the West Indies were the space €€€conducive to a "delicious mix" racial and cultural who had founded a €€€new national and regional character. For him, talking about West Indian poetr y €€€was not talking about white or black poetry, European or African, but a €€€new cultural expression born of the harmony of man and landscape and €€€racial fusion mulatería represented in the ". White impose its law and €€€culture, the tolerant and adapts black ... the black expands and evolves €€€as at home. "In Santo Domingo, Cuba and Puerto Rico was repeated €€€history and the integration is embodied in the model through the development €€€Spanish colonial bans and punishments. The tam-tam brought €€€Africa became more drum and bass drum then I remembered the €€€African pump characteristics .... The Andalusian guitar, the tam-tam €€€güiro muzzle and Indian are the holy trinity of music €€€Puerto Rican, melted in the same degree that the races have merged. " €€€Migration and Cultural Unity in the Caribbean €€€Against Indians in the Caribbean islands, migration activities €€€the Spanish colonizers who came to Santo Domingo in the sixteenth century €€€while gold was running out of the mines, forced to change €€€and economic way for the use of African slave labor as €€€fundamental strength of the sugar industry. At the rate that occurred €€€These changes were initiated conflicts faced powers €€€Europe. Privateers, pirates, smuggling and devastation at the beginning of €€€seventeenth century, struck the town of Santo Domingo and as a result of €€€same impoverishment of the people, dependence on a set €€€which never arrived and a prolonged economic crisis that will force some

€€€the Spanish major who lived on the island to migrate in search of €€€better life. In this regard, said Antonio Sanchez and Valverde in "Idea €€€the value of the Spanish island "(1785):" After those demolished €€€Plazas, which was the year of 606, gradually emerging from the Spanish, €€€or whole families or individuals who were still to some €€€flow before gradually consume you without hope to overtake (....) €€€Executed so many throughout the last century and the early €€€ours. The same trans-treated him and so provoking other €€€that barely stayed in the Spanish who by their very misery €€€were unable to shun them. " €€€This situation of crisis which deepened with the establishment in €€€western part of a French colony and the conflicts that this situation €€€generated, will cause the permanent exodus of the Spanish Dominicans €€€to Caribbean territories, carrying a part of the workforce €€€slave. For example, when France and Spain signed the Treaty of Basel €€€(1795), migrated between 15 and 25 000 people to Cuba, Puerto Rico and €€€Venezuela. -Spanish Dominicans who migrated from Santo Domingo would €€€reside in other Spanish possessions where they hoped to find better €€€economic opportunities, especially Cuba and Puerto Rico, in those €€€the presence of the settler areas of Santo Domingo due to impact €€€culturally in the places where they settled. But at the same time, according €€€Herman Reichard, during the war of conquest between 1808 and 1809, €€€and in 1863, both times had battalions €€€Puerto Ricans in Santo Domingo. €€€With those who emigrated from Santo Domingo are also expatriate customs €€€and folklore of the Dominicans, but the trend began to reverse itself €€€Since the birth of the Dominican Republic, leading to the presence €€€many Caribbean immigrants and the mainland, which will €€€substantial effect on the population growth and changes €€€cultural to be registered in the country was back, but €€€transformed the culture that had left many years ago, which €€€was integrated and retrain to the training of Dominican. €€€Especially following the annexation to Spain in 1861, will enter the country €€€a significant contingent of Spanish and with them thousands of Cubans and €€€Puerto Rican€yet after the war of the Restoration €€€many Dominican families emigrated partner annexation scheme €€€primarily located in Cuba: Juan J. Sanchez, in "Sugar cane €€€Santo Domingo "provides the data for the presence of 27,000 Spanish-Cuban €€€during the Spanish annexation. And Roberto Mars traces the abrupt departure €€€Dominicans in 1865. €€€A migratory movement that we are obliged to study, to understand €€€cultural syncretism of Dominicans is related to €€€Haitian revolution and the exodus of French on the island of Cuba and Santo €€€Sunday.. "The migratory movement in the Caribbean region (including €€€Haitian migration process after its antislavery revolution), will €€€cause shared features of an identity that is still waiting to be €€€studied. €€€Dominican Caribbean Migration and Culture €€€The Dominican migration process will reverse from the changes €€€began to perform in the Dominican economy in the seventies of €€€nineteenth century, and which relate to the Cuban war of independence €€€ten years (1868-1878), and "Little War" started in 1895, and €€€also with the cry of Lares in 1868 and the Puerto Rican sugar crisis €€€the last quarter of the nineteenth century: "From the decade of the seventies €€€produces a considerable migratory movement from the jurisdictions €€€Eastern Cuba. The devastating ferocity of the Ten Years' War €€€Santo Domingo drove five or six thousand Cubans who served in the course

€€€the years a large-scale positive influence on the economy €€€insular. "Before thousands had already arrived. In 1862 Roberto says Mars €€€in Santo Domingo had some 4,000 Cubans. Twenty years later, Javier €€€Angulo Guridi stands out as the presence of strong influence in the Caribbean was €€€population growth, especially in the presence of citizens €€€Cubans and Puerto Ricans. €€€From the State's interest groups and intellectuals who dreamed of €€€off the country on the path of modernization, the arrival of a €€€immigration "wanted" was out to many of the problems affecting €€€historically the country, as Cuban immigration was encouraged €€€by some media, highlighting El Porvenir "of Puerto Plata. €€€But other circumstances also pushed the Puerto Ricans to migrate €€€Santo Domingo. On the one hand Cuba with its war of independence does €€€was appealing to the migration of Puerto Ricans and the process of €€€Borinquen sugar production was in crisis, and the conflicts €€€generated by the struggle for independence of Puerto Rico. The heyday of €€€colonial sugar industry was neither too large nor last long. From €€€1870, when he began to feel the negative effects of the crisis €€€sugar, Puerto Ricans began a stream of emigration to €€€Cuba, Santo Domingo, St. Croix, St. Thomas and to Hawaii, apart from €€€Indent a New York. €€€What was happening in Cuba and Puerto Rico and the investment process €€€capital had begun in the Dominican Republic in the third €€€quarter of the nineteenth century, will result in the birth of a process €€€that will produce irreversible economic changes and changes €€€substantial in the life of the Dominicans: the rise of capitalism €€€industrial dismantling of the Dominican peasantry, the emergence of €€€labor sector, the strengthening of urban development, changes €€€the land and the activation of trade and both the need €€€to encourage the immigration of people from the Antilles. €€€As the sample is sufficient to note that for 1899 and resided in San Pedro de €€€1.142 Macoris about Puerto Ricans, a number that was gradually increased €€€during the first two decades of the twentieth century, especially from €€€1910, immigrated from Puerto Rico to work in large quantities €€€in central Rome. €€€Harry Hoetink, referring to the impact caused by groups €€€immigrants relates this situation to rise and urban growth and €€€emergence of new neighborhoods where these immigrants lived and step €€€appearance of the cabarets: "Prostitution in the capital acquired in the €€€nineties such forms, the authorities resorted to the registration €€€mandatory. Many of these prostitutes came from neighboring islands, with €€€whose names were known neighborhoods in which they Vivian: 'women €€€gay, young, white, educated and beautiful, coming from Puerto Rico and €€€Cuba. Some of these girls had received good education, €€€spoke more than one language, had pleasant conversion, and played to perfecti on the €€€piano. "€The same approach makes Enrique Deschamps in his work The Republic €€€Dominican published in 1907, when he says that a large number of women €€€encouraged the vice of prostitution came from abroad, leading €€€to many neighborhoods where these were known ironically lived €€€with the name of the cities or countries of origin. Save login €€€regarding the presence of Cuban and Puerto Rican prostitutes, €€€are knowledgeable and dancers, boleros and guarachas with the rise taken by €€€this music in the cafes and cabarets of the early twentieth century and the €€€social rejection that hit after the bachata, as music by tenérsele

€€€relating to such places of amusement? Recall the aforementioned definition €€€Bachata Santamaría that Cuba is "the name given to the partying or rumbas €€€women in the country with a happy life " €€€Sugar Industry and Social Changes €€€Before the advent of the sugar industry, the Dominican Republic €€€live cattle herd, cutting wood, the mill operation €€€and production conuqueros: The "arrival of the 70s of last century €€€Dominican society rested on an export-based economy €€€of precious woods and dyeing the exploration was taking place in €€€workshops of the band south and in certain coastal areas in the north €€€as Monte Cristi, in the production of snuff that had settled in the €€€Cibao based on family farming units subject to €€€layered network of dealers in Santiago had its principal place €€€collection and Puerto Plata in their port of departure to Europe (...) in the €€€operation of sugar mills and character meladores €€€family basically swarmed in sugarcane geography €€€traditional (...)., for the traditional cattle ranch established in the €€€vast plains of the East, for production-oriented conuqueros €€€supply the nutritional needs of the population. €€€The Dominican population in 1870 was nothing of 625.000 inhabitants, €€€devoted mainly to grazing, wood cutting, agriculture and €€€the conuco also little experience in industrial work in sugar: €€€"The low rate of population (...), was established," says Antonio Lluberes€€€promoting factor in the first immigration of laborers. Since 1882 €€€existed in the country about 30 mills: "Between 1875 and 1882 were founded €€€thirty 'sugar plantations. " (...). Of these thirty-three mills were in €€€the north, two in the District of Samaná and 1 in the District of Puerto Plat a; €€€these three were the first to be founded (in 1877 and 1978). As part of €€€the replacement of labor by foreign Dominican, which was €€€taking place in this industry because of alleged in the country had not €€€enough hands, and political conflict triggered in Cuba €€€and Puerto Rico in their struggle for independence, it quickly generated a €€€process of immigration from the British Isles, Cuba and Puerto Rico. To the €€€Referring to the arrival of the cocolos, said the British consul from a €€€discriminatory position against these immigrants, those workers not €€€were allowed "because of their race and because of their inferior quality eti ology. €€€Moreover, the immigrants brought with them their "race, customs, religion and €€€language. "Although the population were discriminated cocola, was given great er €€€consideration of the Hispanic-speaking Caribbean, to be more compatible with €€€cultural tradition of Dominicans €€€In addition, economic modernization led to the development of important €€€cities, the establishment of railways in areas of the mills and €€€trams in the capital and Monte Cristi, rail and Sanchez-La Vega €€€Santiago, Puerto Plata, telephone lines, the first commercial bank €€€first bridge over the River Ozama, the submarine cable, the first €€€daily newspapers, the establishment of the Normal School and the reopening €€€University, but particularly the urgent need for immigrants €€€for work in the mills. Of all the localities with conditions €€€to receive immigrants in the late nineteenth century, Puerto Plata was mainta ined €€€the forefront of this process for several years, not only by the movement €€€economic, commercial and industrial, but also for the support and protection €€€Blue Party that gave the Caribbean who fought against Spain €€€those times. €€€Puerto Plata and the Caribbean Immigration

€€€Puerto Plata was icon of urban development over the past three €€€decades of the nineteenth century and one of the locations of the Dominican R epublic €€€most preferred by Caribbean immigrants, especially the flow €€€trade was between this and other Caribbean islands as well as €€€mainland immigration of Cubans and Puerto Ricans was €€€related to political and economic aspects. "." €€€Emilio Rodríguez Demorizi in "News from Puerto Plata records the flow €€€Cubans and Puerto Ricans in the mid-Seventies: In 1875, the €€€"Civilian town of Isabel de Torres was the most active center of €€€Cuban and Puerto Rican patriots who agree with lovers Dominicans €€€freedom working resolutely towards the independence of Cuba, €€€insurgents, and the projected insurrection .(..). Puerto Rico Miles €€€Cubans were given to work in the city or in neighboring fields, to €€€while plotting against Spain and also considering that the €€€Dominican and Cuban culture bound us: "Origin, language, customs and €€€trends: more desired all this immigration than any other. " €€€Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo and Santiago were the main centers €€€receipt of the Cuban and Puerto Rican immigration to the country arrived €€€Following the war of the 10th anniversary of Cuba (1868-1878). "And because P uerto €€€Silver things "went with bias in favor of the Cubans and why €€€these piled one there to form a street called €€€Cuba-free .. "but in that city was also a significant amount of €€€immigrants cocolos. " €€€Syncretism in Caribbean Music €€€The roots of Dominican culture are based on a syncretism €€€where different ethnic groups were integrated elements that allowed the €€€emergence of a new town in the Americas. : Neither race nor €€€Aboriginal culture was lost without trace. "Elements" African and €€€merged indigenous undoubtedly reduced, from the beginning €€€hybrid situations perpetuates the black man on the island of Santo Domingo, a nd €€€in the other Antilles. The forced African immigrants "brought the €€€patterns of their own cultures. "In the case of music, sticks, €€€tambourine and conga drum, bongos and timbales marked, together with €€€guitar and tambourine of Andalusia, the roots of Dominican bachata: €€€Dominican at parties there was always "the succulent chicken stew €€€Rhythmic and notes of four and the guitar. €€€For years, the dances of the poor were related to €€€the fandango, as provided in the work of William Walton, published €€€in 1810 and explaining that this was "much more upbeat than the bolero and €€€also comes with voice and guitar. (...) "In addition to review it €€€lewd .. €€€One hundred and eight years after Schoenrich Otto in 1918, said the preferenc e of €€€Dominicans for the music of the Caribbean region in its process €€€integration and adaptation gave way to the Dominican bachata "Music €€€Waltz is very popular, but the favorite dance music is the beautiful "dance" €€€Puerto Rican, which is a relative of the Mexican air and "guaracha" €€€Cuban, and can be compared to the flow of a stream, now slipping €€€calmly, now running waterfalls. " €€€For its part, July Arzeno, possibly the first student of music €€€Dominican popular, contributed in 1927 an approach to the definition of €€€bachata music genre that was born: "There is no doubt that €€€basic foundation of the popular song, was the liturgical chant, and the only €€€artistic expression mainly enjoyed our society

€€€old, with the music of immigrants from feelings or €€€Spain, the Caribbean and Venezuela, were amalgamated to the sound €€€rudimentary Creole influence sufficiently to be €€€completely naturalized. Thus, the most used by our people €€€to externalize urban passions and feelings through song after €€€Bolero was the beautiful literary style of the song (...). Past, €€€while in the fashionable circles, ceremonial dance the Gang, the €€€French quadrille, the Schottische, the gull, the Polka, the Mazurka and €€€Cotillion introduced by the strong German and foreign mass €€€Spanish, especially the youth of the town is fun in its own way €€€doing their dance parties armed with Moorish and Spanish guitar, €€€maraca and tambourine, animated with joyful warmth, sometimes accented €€€with noisy tools. " €€€Citing Argeliers León, Helio Orovio said that emerged in mid boleros €€€nineteenth century in Santiago de Cuba, expanded rapidly in the Caribbean, €€€heir of Hispanic ancestry, underwent a process that Cubanization €€€associated with the dance and the habanera, "emerging in the last century a n ew €€€style rhythm guitar accompaniment, a mix of strumming and €€€points which, no doubt, reached us on the road again €€€renewed contracts with Yucatecan sones. Just joined the Spanish bolero €€€the name and structure is to quadruple time. "In this bolero ago €€€rReference Enrique Deschamps in 1906, when he says that dance is a "piece €€€West Indian musical rhythms pleasantly gentle and lilting the €€€movements slow and sensual rhythms "of peasant and self€€€of "the three great West Indies," but that was defined on the island of Puert o €€€Rico as Puerto Rican Dance "because of its hybridization with the" air €€€Mexican and Cuban guaracha and Danzon. "Possibly this €€€entrenchment Caribbean music was that music was contagious bachata €€€Dominican, who undoubtedly finds its earliest roots in the €€€integration of the bolero, guaracha, son and merengue and other rhythms €€€but with proper instruments of neighborhood parties, as happened with €€€Cuban bolero played by the septetos and trios in the twenties. €€€The Dominican bolero says Julio Alberto Hernández, very different dance €€€Spanish of the same name, is often love letters, and is one of €€€the genera most commonly grown throughout the country. He entered the country along the €€€guaracha by the city of Puerto Plata, as explained in July Arzeno €€€1927: "In our beautiful and beloved northern region, before we invaded €€€Fox Trot hilarious and vulgar, were improvised and composed songs for more €€€pleasure and enthusiasm that we now hear, especially songs, and €€€above all, Boleros, whose origin can not try or is our purpose in €€€this volume, find out, but we can say that the Cuban immigrants by €€€the 70 and 96, were brought him here. "The same thing happened with €€€guaracha, some of which were very popular in Puerto Plata in 1874: €€€retreats in the city of Puerto Plata, the orchestra played the €€€Cuban guarachas known as "Los Mangos", The Black good ", the flower €€€squash, and guaracha "La Adela. €€€In a way, the insular Caribbean music, with varied shades, was the €€€same roots and in the case of Santo Domingo was understood by many times €€€as their own what others understand others. It is perhaps for this reason tha t €€€1927 Enrique de Marchena son said in the magazine Black and White, the €€€"Dominican folklore because it will develop and alienate potential €€€regarded as typical compositions, styles imported from Puerto Rico €€€and Cuba, including Dance and Havana. "In the Hispanic triangle

€€€Caribbean area, bachata was a reality Cuban, Dominican and €€€Puerto Rican in origin because they showed very cultural practices €€€similar, as evidenced by the tenth of Puerto Virgilio Davila €€€written during the nineteenth century: "Disiembre! In the land mine / I month €€€know glory / Gualda month in its history / Mary's. / Disiembre! €€€Month joy / in the plain and the Sierra ./.../ is that the time / €€€in that distant time / selebra the Christian world / the Nabidae of Moesia / Y €€€coyunta to me, / that has a great dolama, / has strip Bed €€€dibeltilse strives pol, and the fun you want Dilsen, / because the dance and the €€€Nama. / A dance that no toy is / are there get ready / with a four well €€€templao / and the treble of the not calm her / it's like the ifDSSput dils pa / on the wings €€€of six chorriao. / A imagine it now / we are in the bachata / Wield usté its €€€mulatta, / and a good and other ba sei. " €€€The Fandango and Bachata music in the Dominican €€€Ramón Emilio Jiménez explains, referring to merengue, without entering €€€detail how the late nineteenth century was disappearing the fandango "Y €€€birth of a new dance with the appearance of the accordion, the result of €€€evolution of ancient dances. "Julio Arzeno explains musical Folklore €€€Dominican (1927), the "joy of the peasant for dancing or €€€"Fandango" - who among us is not gender specific but dance €€€farmer-general holiday is evident in the diversity of styles €€€possess, such as "Zapateo." These festivities were called fandangos €€€happened decades later, the famous bachatas who had the same sense €€€previous: picnics, parties, fun where they sang, danced, and €€€drank alcoholic beverages to the rhythm of the instruments and music that €€€were in vogue then, but with the difference that the former was €€€fun of the rural poor, while the second was what the €€€urban marginality. €€€The word bachata appears in the Dominican Republic in the late €€€XIX but emerges in several publications in the early twentieth century. In 19 24 €€€Augusto Ortega (Professor Santiago), wrote an essay about schools €€€rudimentary Santo Domingo, leaving the word entered bachata €€€was customary among the peasants and meaning "ball, €€€jarana and joke. "The Dominican Rafael Brito P., published in San Francisco €€€Macorís his "Dictionary of criollismo" (1930), which contains the word €€€bachata and explains it as "Dance of neighborhoods." €€€For its part, Patin Maceo "Dominican Americanisms in language", brings €€€The word bachata dances relating it to the poor neighborhoods: "In Cuba €€€and Puerto Rico, "he says, revelry. In the Dominican people, little dance €€€more or less: "On Sunday we had the bachatas neighborhoods €€€poor and in which we a lot of fun. "In 1938 Enrique Aguiar €€€bachata defined in the glossary of his book "Eusebio Sapote" (sic) as €€€"Dance of guitar, tambourine, guiro and having fun with people of €€€people. " €€€During the colonial period, with a company related to extremely €€€the cattle herd and therefore it was the daily hunt, the €€€fandango was the popular party as opposed to Dominicans €€€ballroom of the lower nuclei of ranchers, slavery and oligarchy €€€colonial officials. While this was happening in the field of €€€peasants who were considered descendants of the Spanish in the sector €€€of slaves and freedmen whose roots went back to Africa, the parties €€€drums sticks or spread constrained by prohibitive laws €€€trying to root out this important component of ethnic €€€Dominican ancestral roots of a culture that not only survived

€€€Santo Domingo, but in the whole area of the West Indies. The word fandango, €€€to name the peasant party was definitely disappearing during €€€the first twenty-five years of the twentieth century, and it was bachata €€€replacing both the cities and in the Dominican countryside. On this €€€greatly impacted the result of economic transformation process €€€industrialization and the arrival of thousands of Puerto Rican immigrants and €€€Cubans since the late nineteenth century. At any rate, the country resisted a nd €€€many places in the Cibao, as expounded by Eulogio Cabral, including areas €€€urban fandango preferred to call it fun, a term that included €€€both the party areas such as block parties " €€€As for the music of drums or sticks danced by slaves and €€€freedmen, it was limited and marginalized from the earliest times €€€of the colony. The bans throughout history were constant €€€but indelible mark of identity shared and inherited, the €€€legislation and resolutions not to disrupt or disassociate the €€€Dominican people. In the festival of drums were contained the most €€€roots of early African contribution to Dominican music. €€€In "Letters to Avelina" (1941), Francisco Moscoso Puello certify that €€€Extended dance forms among Dominicans: "Then, at night €€€sometimes I can not sleep (...). The suits come at that time in activity. €€€(...). And my extension is peopled with strange music and strange and monoton ous chants €€€and sad. Everywhere sticks. And even I think the mountain €€€melancholy songs come from or the Mafia Maboba. And with his eyes €€€hard, like stones, I guess there in the section of Santa Maria, where €€€the drums fame brought on by the other African grandfather, touch €€€as anywhere, in the light of the jumeadoras or some Jacho of €€€Cuaba, rushes in too lavagallos and danced to the most unlikely €€€dislocation. " €€€African dances were not always allowed in Santo Domingo. The €€€more severe penalties applied to those who were played with drums, €€€even if they were purely recreational dances. Prohibitive provisions €€€1862, 1874, 1878, 1881, 1924 and 1930 testify to this. These dances were €€€persecuted for being regarded as undesirable, disordered and €€€scandalous. edifying are the following examples: in 1924 €€€Santo Domingo City Council had before it was banned in the urban area €€€instrument known as balsié, in order to preserve "everything €€€appropriate to the greater prosperity and culture of the municipality, and to avoid €€€the spread of harmful habits "and because" the use of that €€€instrument was demoralizing effect, "disturbs the rest and disturbs €€€neighbors, "and starting the Trujillo dictatorship in 1930, were banned €€€SANCO and dances such as the Voodoo being harmful, undesirable and immoral €€€also€because in the holidays, "is danced in an immoral way." La Conga €€€Cuba was widely criticized in 1941 by a journalist to understand the time €€€that this "is not lounge music circles or where it should prevail €€€aesthetics, culture and urban manners, but typical of black music €€€Congolese have never seen the sun shine or the beauty or the €€€civilization. " €€€Returning to the training of bachata, which was first party and €€€fun and then became musical genre taste in the marginalized €€€urban areas, Federico García Godoy "Rufinita" (1909), referring to €€€Dominicans diversions provides the following testimonial: "The €€€chapter of distractions, as expected, was relatively small. The €€€crowded cockfighting (...), excursions on horseback to nearby fields €€€(...), The nine days of celebrations, and some other dance fig

€€€figs carried out to youth and even some that she did not belong; €€€with music that is timely requested the nearby city of Santiago, €€€expansions formed the repertoire of the neighborhood. There was no shortage, €€€Nor, intimate meetings that did the honors to succulent €€€chicken stews are talking to the dozen and often echoed €€€Rhythmic notes of four and the guitar. " €€€In "Alma Dominican (1911), Garcia Godoy insists on describing €€€entertainment of the people and uses to refer to parties using €€€bachata terms, fandango and rustic revelry and parties and step €€€insists on the instrumentation used in them, ignoring the typical €€€accordion: "The orchestra, consisting of a treble, four, drum and guiro, €€€popped the soft notes of a rhythmic merengue (...). While €€€Tulio M. Cestero, in "The Romantic City" (1911), shows the presence of €€€music reminiscent of Africa in the celebrations of the marginal €€€Dominican capital, as distinct from the "party society" that €€€held in the Colonial Zone or intramural, where "the dance cast their €€€voluptuous notes, his hands are pressed, the bodies are close, but €€€women's honesty and modesty of the gentleman watch the fire, impressing €€€turns to some gracious languor. But the picture is one in the balls €€€public outside the walls, where city councils couples drunk liquor and lust, and €€€bodies move in rhythm wise brothel on the edge of €€€mountain, hill Galindo, Indian dance is adulterated ways €€€imported, and the sound of four, and the accordion and a drum made of €€€hollow log covered with the ends of a taut goatskin on €€€expert hands beat which, in infamous atmosphere, which in the light of €€€African forests, movements, couples intertwine and separate, €€€stomp on the concrete floor, take the breasts of females and €€€swirling bellies join in epileptic shocks " €€€It is even more interesting, the data provided for the study of €€€the formation of the bachata a novel about the "revolutions caudillistas" €€€the beginning of the twentieth century, published in 1916. Chapter II brings in curious €€€title: "General Babieca says politicians have failed, and is €€€Patricio save from the bachateros "and it refers to €€€the guarachas of the time: "As I was talking the general, €€€Patrick appears with two more, at about eight o'clock at night, singing €€€guarachas and songs to the beat of a guitar, but staggered in such a €€€so so drunk they were, the General rose angrily, and €€€got into the room, leaving his partner with those bohemians. €€€Don Pepe Hernandez allowed to sit, and sang in the retail and €€€solved in C major song: "This love is so violent / €€€that does not learn how to see, / I would not love you, / because it is much €€€suffering. / When I see you at the time / I suffer a passion so strong / that €€€more like death / to feel like I feel. / It can not €€€love me, / I understand and despair, / but my God what me? / If this €€€love is real / and you can not love me / and I love you. "More €€€later you can read in this novel: "Patrick wanted to stay with her €€€Dulcinea, saying it was unwise to sing at night as guarachas €€€darkness. "care calls it, would it be that bad guaracha was held or €€€rejected and could be dangerous to sing? €€€These guarachas, who according to Don Julio Alberto Hernandez were guarachas €€€Dominican, were undoubtedly the earliest stirrings of the €€€Guarachita, music of bitterness or Dominican bachata, that were already €€€interpreted as the feasts of the barrios of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata: €€€Eulogio C. Cabral in "Cachimbolas" (1922) brings in a poem written by him €€€a description of the feast of bachata Lilís time: "By the year €€€eighty-nine, / I was an unbridled colt, / As my greatest enjoyment /

€€€Flirt with the girls. / In a block party / From then €€€were made, / With stews and songs / Y bebentinas noisy. €€€In "Eusebio Sapote: the story and the novel of a moron", published in 1938, €€€Enrique Aguiar author episodes of the life outside the city €€€capital, and defines what for him were held in City bachatas €€€New: "The nights of calm, as it was when they were not ready €€€of war, ran full of great enthusiasm: when entering the neighborhood €€€you are, on either side of the street, groups of people standing in €€€the doors of the houses where they were celebrating this so-called bachata €€€is a dance of guitar, guiro and tambourine in a small room where €€€barely there were three couples, but such was the amount of Bachata €€€everybody could dance with comfort. . €€€Ramón Emilio Jiménez confirms what we have tried to explain in that €€€Bachata music and dance was neighborhoods and emphasizes the implementation €€€used. For him the instruments of the orchestra are typical accordion €€€güira and drums and sometimes the saxophone and with them were celebrated €€€dances called merengue, cassava, bug, tap, and others, but when €€€meeting is a bachata, then the instruments are guitars, Mongo, €€€sticks or spoons and dancing bolero and guaracha. The same observation was €€€made by Jose Medina P. In its report about race, character, €€€customs, religion, people and Monción Sabaneta. in 1922. To the €€€refer to the cockpits, offers the following definition of bachata: The €€€cockpit is "are all that can gratify their vices and bad desires €€€Contents: cockfighting, sweets and rum, but what he loves and €€€appeal is the party (if accordion), or if bachata guitar and €€€edges or boleros .. "For the same Porfirio Golibart recalls his adolescence a nd €€€bachatas the holiday at the beginning of the twentieth century. Referring to €€€sancochos yard, "dinner alley bachata with the guitar, €€€guiro and bongos (...). All my life I feel rooted in the Dominican. €€€There are many details that prove our approaches €€€relation to the bachata as a social and related musical €€€marginalized urban culture, as shown in the authors we have cited and €€€others have collected, but that we have available for other writings. €€€I will conclude with two statements: the first Dominican musicologist €€€Américo Cruzado, taken from his musical "Songbook of yesterday and today" €€€when he explains that the generation of the fifties were not aware of a group €€€songs that were sung at the beginning of the twentieth century and that he le arned €€€while still a teenager, they were not under the rhythms songs, but €€€were interpreted at the whim of the singer, "with accompanying base €€€arpeggios, some with rhythm of waltz, dance, bolero, in Creole, and €€€guaracha call at the time, it was a kind of bolero €€€faster pace than the slow and soft Mexican bolero. " €€€And the second copy taken from the novel The Dance Blue, written by €€€Victor M. Coradín in 1928: €€€"It was 10:45 pm when the youth group went into a €€€Cafe situated at the banks of the mighty river Ozama, in €€€near the pier. Refuge pimps, dock workers, €€€marine and other characters of low social class, was that nasty €€€establishment, where a lost youth indulged in the most €€€vices rampant. €€€It was long and spacious, divided into several apartments, where dirty whores €€€had their own bedrooms. There were young people equivocal, with €€€retina of the eyes too red, excess of alcohol. Old sailors

€€€English, who in those days visiting the city on an ocean liner, €€€stood trembling with joy by waste liquor. €€€Others, leaning at the bar, glasses of Brandy rushing lanes. In the first €€€some guys playing pool hall, you hear the voices and the clash of €€€balls. In another inner apartment, sitting on wooden benches; €€€others were given to all kinds of gambling. €€€And beyond that, to the beat of bachata music, some nearly naked women, €€€were unabashedly embracing men, given to the most €€€wild orgies, while the orchestra consisted of guitar, €€€guiro and drums, sang a song parodied in dirty words €€€obscene. €€€People of false face, brutal, vengeful and criminally, was left note €€€there for its look suspicious and unpleasant. (...) A few scattered in the €€€Ballroom, enjoying the joy of this fictional party, delivered €€€in the treacherous hands of those unworthy women who sell their €€€caresses to the highest bidder. " €€€€ €€€Alejandro Paulino Ramos is a historian and documentary filmmaker, director €€€Library Archives of the Nation. €€€€

€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€All text is referred to in this €€€part of the book, in print, "BACHATA: Origins Caribbean genre €€€Dominican musical. The Bachata has been considered by several €€€Dominican cultural researchers as a marginal genre €€€which is based on Spanish guitar instrumental and the €€€instruments originating in Africa, associated with the neighborhoods and fun €€€Dominican countryside, but few have seen this as a cultural phenomenon €€€part of the integration process of the people who constituted the €€€Caribbean islands and especially in the Hispanic Caribbean speaker.