ITEM 15 "cerebral cortex" 1. Association cortex. Includes most of the brain surface of the human brain.

Re sponsible for complex processing of afferents and the generation of behavior. Th e functions of the association cortex are called COGNITION → ability to pay atte ntion to external stimuli or internal motivation, identify the significance of s uch stimuli and plan responses. The inputs include projections from primary and secondary sensory cortex, thalamus and brain stem. Efferents reach the HC, the b asal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus and other areas of partnership. 2. CORTICAL STRUCTURE. Gray matter consists of about 10 000 billion neurons. 5 t ypes of nerve cells. 6 cell layers or laminar. Citoarquitectónicas areas: region al differences based on the laminar characteristics. Crustal structure. Crustal structure corpus callosum Somatosensory cortical structure 1 3. Cortex cells. 1. Pyramidal: oriented pial surface of the cortex. The axon ends in deep cortica l layers or white matter fiber cerebral hemisphere projection, association or co mmissural giant pyramidal Betz cells =. 2. Stars: often referred to as granular in size. short axon ends in a nearby neuron. 3. Spindle: concentrated in the dee per layers. The axon enters the white matter as fiber projection, association or commissural. Dendrites ramify in the same layer and the surface. 4. Ramón y Caj al Horizontal: small horizontally oriented spindle cells in the upper layers. 5. Martinotti cells: small multipolar cells present in all levels of the crust. pi al surface of the cortex. Short dendrites and long axons to the His 2 4. Nerve fibers. a. Radio → run at right angles to the cortical surface (afferen t and efferent). commissural. b. Tangential → run parallel to the cortical surfa ce. For the most part are afferent fibers. Concentrated in layers 4 and 5 where they are known Baillarger bands. Heterotípias homotypic 6 layers and less than 6 may be projection, association or 5. LAYERS OF THE CORTEX 1. Molecular (plexiform): More surface, consists mainly of a dense network of ne rve fibers tangentially. synapses. 2. External granular: small pyramidal and ste llate cells. 3. External pyramid: pyramidal cells. 4. Internal Granular: stellat e cells more compact. horizontal band forming the outer Baillarger. 5. Internal node or pyramid: large pyramidal cells and intermediate as well as stellate and Martinotti. Horizontal fibers forming the internal band Baillarger. 6. Multiform e: Most spindle cells in addition to pyramidal and Martinotti. Numerous fibers 3 7. CITOARQUITECTÓNICAS AREAS. According to Broadman. 8. CEREBRAL CORTEX. The damage is devastating at the level of personality. Integrates complex percep tual information from sensory and motor cortices of the parietal association cor tices and temporal. The result is an appreciation of the individual in relation

to the world that can normally plan and execute behaviors → changes in temperame nt. 4 Case of Phineas Gage worked on the railroad in the mid-nineteenth century. The e xplosion of a flash of gunpowder caused a bar across his left orbit. Physically recovered from infection and injury but those who knew him said he was not the s ame. Gage's physician described it: Gage is changing, disrespectful, sometimes a llowing the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), or manifes ted the slightest deference to his colleagues, impatient at the restrictions or advice when they conflict with their wishes, sometimes stubborn, so stubborn but capricious and vacillating; imagine many plans for future action, who are aband oned in turn by others that seem more feasible. A child for his intellectual cap acity and manifestations, has the animal passions of a strong man. Although he h ad no school readiness, before the accident had a well-balanced mind and those w ho knew him considered him a shrewd businessman, intelligent, energetic and cons istent in implementing their plans. In this sense, his mind has changed radicall y, so that friends and acquaintances said he was "no longer Gage." Relationship between cognitive abilities: impaired function of the restrictions. Diso rdered thinking. Behavioral perseveration. Inability to plan appropriate actions . Related cognitive SELECTION PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR IN PARTICULAR SOCIAL CONTEXT S 5 9. FRONTAL LOBE. 1. LF: precentral area. Located in the precentral gyrus includi ng the anterior wall of the central sulcus and the posterior parts of the superi or frontal gyri, middle and bottom. Prevalence and Betz pyramidal cells mainly i n the top of the gyrus. Most of the corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers origi nating from pyramidal cells in this area. Regions: Back: motor area, primary mot or or Broadman area 4. Previous: premotor area, motor or area secundaia Broadman and part 6 of 8, 44 and 45. LF: posterior precentral area and primary motor - Conducts individual movements of different body parts. - Receives input from the premotor area, sensory cortex , thalamus, cerebellum and basal ganglia. - Final station design for converting the movement pattern in the execution of movement. 6 LF: precentral area before or promoter. - Stores software movement as a result o f experience. - Set the primary motor area activity. - Participates in the contr ol of gross postural movements through connections with the basal ganglia. 2. LF: supplementary motor area. - Located in the middle frontal gyrus on the me dial side of the hemisphere. - The stimulation leads to contralateral movements, but his injury does not cause a permanent loss of movement. 3. LF: frontal eye field. - Located from the facial area of the precentral gyrus to the middle frontal gyrus (parts of 6, 8 and 9). - Electrical stimulation pro duces conjugate movements of the eyes, especially to the opposite side. - Fibre to the superior colliculus of the midbrain connected with the nuclei of the extr aocular muscles by the reticular formation. - Controls the voluntary ocular trac king of moving objects involves the involuntary → visual area of the occipital c ortex. 4. LF: Broca's area or Broca. - Located on the third frontal gyrus, perisylvian,

areas 44 and 45 of Broadman. - In the dominant hemisphere is responsible for th e production of words. 5. LF: prefrontal cortex. - Region wide rostral to the precentral area includes most of the superior frontal gyri, middle and inferior, orbital areas 9, 10, 11 and 12 Broadman. - Afferent and efferent pathways connecting it with other areas of the cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and striatum. 7 - Frontopontine fibers connecting it with the cerebellum. - Commissural fibers o f the forceps minor and the genu of the corpus callosum connecting the two hemis pheres. - It relates to the formation of an individual's personality. - It plays a regulatory role of the depth of feelings, initiative and determination of the trial of the individual. 10. Parietal lobe. - From lesion studies have accepted that the LP, especially t he lower part, relates to the attention → specifically the right hemisphere. - P articipate in the construction of spatial representations that can guide both at tention and movement. - Contralateral Neglect Syndrome: - Inability to pay atten tion to objects or the same body in a portion of space, despite the fact that vi sual acuity, somatic sensation and motor are intact. - Do not communicate, do no t respond or orient towards stimuli that are presented on the side of the body o r visual space opposite the lesion. - Difficulty performing tasks such as dressi ng, writing or drawing = apraxia. - Primary somatosensory area - occupies the po stcentral gyrus on the lateral surface of the hemisphere: Areas 1, 2, and 3 Broa dman. - Histologically is granular and contains scattered pyramidal cells. Baill arger The outer layer is wide. Areas 1 and 2, more later, have fewer granulosa c ells. - You receive projection fibers from the ventral posterolateral and poster omedial nuclei of the thalamus. - Area 3 receives information from muscle spindl es, tendon organs and joint receptors → information to the primary motor cortex which affects muscle control. 8 - Secondary somatosensory area - is located in the posterior limb of the lateral fissure. - Its function is unknown but their neurons respond to transient cutan eous stimuli such as brushing or tapping the skin. - Somatosensory Association A rea - occupies the superior parietal lobule extending into the medial surface of the hemisphere, areas 5 and 7. - Purpose: To receive and integrate different se nsory modalities such as size and shape of objects, information relating to past experiences in their interpretation and recognition. Ex: select an object among others. 11. Temporal lobe. - The LT damage can lead to problems of recognition, identifi cation and naming of different categories of objects = agnosias (Greek for "not knowing"). - Prosopagnosia = inability to recognize and identify faces. LT der = agnosia for faces and objects. LT = left language difficulty. 9 - Primary Listening Area: - Located in the lower wall of the lateral sulcus, are as 41, 42 and 21. Area 41 is a granular type homotypic and Area 42 is primarily auditory association area - receive afferent fibers projecting from the medial g eniculate body. Previous = low frequency sound reception after = receiving highfrequency sounds - Listening Area High School: - It is estimated association cor tex, located posterior to primary auditory area in the groove lateral superior t emporal gyrus, area 22. - Receive impulses of primary auditory area and thalamus . - Function related to the interpretation of the sounds and the association of auditory afferents with other sensitive information. - Sensitive Area or Wernick e Language: - left dominant hemisphere. Connected to Broca's area by a bundle of fibers called the arcuate fasciculus. - Allows the understanding of spoken and

written language. - Converge information somatic, visual and auditory. 12. Occipital lobe. 1. Visual Primary Area: - area 17, located on the rear walls of the calcarine sulcus. - Macroscopic visual cortex and stria is thin, microsc opically granular type is pyramidal cells - receives input from the lateral geni culate body - receives fibers from the temporal half of the ipsilateral retina a nd the nasal half of the contralateral retina. H left: right half of visual fiel d der H: left half of visual field retinal quadrants higher = lower visual field inferior retinal quadrants = top field 10 2. Visual Area High School: - Surround the primary visual area on the medial and lateral surfaces of the hemisphere, area 18. - Receive area 17 afferent fibers and other cortical areas and thalamus. - Relates to information received by the visual experiences past 17, allowing to recognize and appreciate what you see. 3 . Occipital Eye Field: - It is believed that in humans is in the secondary visua l area. - Is associated with involuntary eye movements when following moving obj ects. 11