SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide Genesis of the Modern Movement. Roy Freyre Luis Alegre.

"The technique eventually can not be regarded as an end in itself, but acquires value and meaning when it is recognized as the most appropriate means of culture ." (P. Behrens) 1920 In this historical phase is also called "heroic years" since the crisis was mark ed by the desolation, bitterness and fear, having survived the experience of the first world war. Regarding the novice program of modernity, we can say that was suspended, and that in those moments, the key was to get food, habitat and shel ter. On behalf of functionalism are going to produce great confusion, almost nob ody will want to remain without a chance to enjoy this new experience, even if i ncorrectly. In the mid-20s, begin to emerge a hopeful situation for architecture , under the auspices of Le Corbusier, to the beginning of WWII. 1. POSTWAR EUROP EAN OVERVIEW: The highpoint of the first war and the European horizon is ineffab le at the expense of the conflict. Years go by, the destroyed cities are recover ing, new lights are lit and flowers hopeful an unknown type of life. Reborn the modern ideal dictating new rules: opposition to historicism and the need for pro gress. It is not true that there has been commitment to society, the fact is tha t they supported their structures to establish ideological premises as intense e xercise, analog and exclusive. They are displayed two trends: 1) objectivity (ra tionalism, constructivism, positivism), and 2) utopia (Futurism, Expressionism). Le Corbusier's argument strikes in both, reason and utopia. 2. PROGRAM OF MODER NITY IN GERMANY: a) Grosses Schapielhaus In 1921, H. Poelzig proposed rule and s ymbolic memory Zircus conservative Schumann, and erect in its place S. Grand The atre XX, with a much freer interpretation, contemporary and international. Doors open to fantasy purist against "vulgar modernist orthodoxies." 1 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide b) The Tower of Potsdam: Hours of win-war vigil E. Mendelsohn, who in 1924 built th e Einstein Tower (Potsdam), a continuation of the purist and expressive idea Sch apielhaus Poelzig Grosses. It begins in Germany a quasi-philosophical tendency t o empiricism functionalist detracts from the rest of the continent. c) Expressionism and Modernity: Klee, Vassily Kandinsky, Lyonel Feininger, Gerhanrd Marcks, Georg Muche and Moli-Nagy Laszlo, expressionist whose impact was used t o train the Bauhaus. By 1923, the school is open to new ideas such as constructi vism yd'stijil. Mies, Gropius, Mendelsohn fit a new objectivity. 3. THE WAY IN WHICH ADOPTS THE FUNCTIONALITY: It was not new doctrine, but claims i ts propensity ideal organic and mechanistic ta. Designers prefer the pure, abstract image, discarding the decorative. Before

Le Duc Violet, Greenhough, Morris and used the phrase "form follows function", now, serves to reinforce the type of manufacturing and engineer of the '20s. Fra nk Lloyd1 against the rigid functionalism, persists in exposing the relationship of some "functional" styles of the past. While the Germans are moving away from all anachronism by adjusting its original architecture and logic type sachlich "2. Similarly, the Netherlands mentioning to modernity by the derogatory term "z akelij." In Europe, begin to define three versions of functionalism: a) Function ality Rationalist: limited resolution of the problem and managed by manipulation of language forms. The man is another design element and should conform to the patterns of organization. Programming refers to context. b) Functionality Expres sionist: In 1927 the wave expands as expressive and as an independent factor bec omes important. The Residence of F. Storer Lloyd will boost the organic approach in architecture according to formal logic. (Mendelsohn, Häring). c) Internatio nal Functionality: After the Expo in Stuttgart, the expected movement away from the bombastic and popular, for it is ascribed to the logic of Le Corbusier in th e sense of the universal and infinite, of course pretext of an international pla yer. 1 In The Cause of The Architecture, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1908.texto too controversi al in which accused the first failure of modernity to rigid functionalism schema tic without truth. 2 Sachlich: in German, means objective. 2 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide 4. EMERGING COMPLEMENT "Rationalism": The architecture ranges from the objective an d utopian, since confusion reigns and the rejection of architecture "juke-box." Under rationalism is justified purpose "minimalist" yes or no, Mies later translated as "less is more." The "reasonableness" no room fo r compromises. Bruno Taut, Scharoun, and Hermann Häring Finsterlin, as part of the opposition vilify this utopian rationalism accusing him of being simple "sty le" section of the very idea of rationality. They say the building is a carrier "expressive" of the symbolic values of a society, and that "necessity is the gre atest incentive for invention." Modern rationality was never proven, that would be their Achilles heel in the 50s. 5. CONGRES Internationaux d'Architecture Mode rne: a) Die Wohnung 1926: Mies würtenberg3 president strives to build a new fro nt of architects and engage in social architecture that is why in 1926 presents an exhibition at 1 / 1, by construction of 31 buildings and 60 housing units tha t still seems like, showed marked differences in techniques. The monitoring was conducted by Richard Dockler. In Cologne had good results. However, modern produ cts could not escape the influence of international effect. The Nazi National So cialist Party began to purge the radical elements of its architecture, and when the party comes to power, the city of Cologne was caricatured as a "araberdof" 4 and despised for their "abstract language" own Western cultural decadence . b) The Weissenhofsiedlung - Stuttgart: In 1927, given the successful past experienc e, Mies van der Rohe calls to 15 architects from five countries for the so-calle d "Housing Project 21 (1927)" 5 in the city of Stuttgart. Le Corbusier, Janneret , Schneck, Behrens, Oud, Stam, Victor and Burgeuois (radicals), Gropius, Frank, Hilberseimer, Taut, Rading (expressionist moderate) and Poelzig, Scharoun and Be hrens are called. Under the pretext of exposing the best of modernity, maturity and efficiency of European architecture, materialize the ideals of this unique p

roject. However, the undeniable desire was to "standardize the modern movement t o rebuild their absolute ground and throw the whole world." Coincides with the f irst international exhibition and other attempts to "internationalization" gener ic. April 3 Chapter of Wekbund. Charge of the social prototype of the architecture. The wors t village arrears. 5 The project is called that way for two reasons: XXI century and designed to build 21 homes for an equivalent number of families of the work ing masses 3 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide c) The castle of Madame Mandrot: Between wars, is a huge social confrontation. Alre ady in 1925, with the experience of Dessau began talking about "design for the p eople" because the products had to be economical, practical and in series. Start the first age of the machines tuned next to the projects of Le Corbusier or H. Meyer, trying a new language against the monumentality and a return to style. Fe arful of this, Le Corbusier and S. Giedion meet several representatives in the c astle of Mme. Mandrot in Sarraz, Switzerland, between 26 and June 28, 1928 signe d the "Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne." A year later it gets in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, and discussions led by Ernest May so touching the is sue of affordable housing. 6. Congresses: 1928 1929 1930 THIRD CONGRESS FIRST CONGRESS SECOND CONGRESS The Sarraz Frankfurt Brussels Foundation CIAM. Study for social housing and low cost. Study of regional fragme ntation. 1930 Under the influence of CIAM, there is a union of architecture against eclecticis m. It is a new moment that is released from the conventional structures and reac tionary thought of the first modernity. Birth of a new tradition of product inno vation and fashion of architecture or smooth white surface, which becomes a prod uct at the time it operated the black and white photo-journal of architecture fo r the dissemination of some ideas. The functionality is on the decline, the idea of the house as machine for living is vilified as a "modernismus." In Britain t here is an unfavorable tendency of modern architecture. 7. SYSTEMATIC IMPLICATIO NS: The new construct. The uniformity coupled with the sense of universality, it creates an ambivalent feeling of "White box", which is rejected by Germany and the USSR€giving priority to nationalism and monumentality as seen before. Furth ermore, Italy is not very serious flirtations with modernity, and reserves the r ight to make a proper decision, as well as modernist attachment occurs only in t he U.S. east coast and it is not until in 1931 he built the MOMA in NY, and a ye

ar later when he called the Exposition 4 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide "International Style: Architecture since 1922" who just gives you a little of im portance to modernity in this country. The universal validity depended on the de gree of acceptance. 8. INTERNATIONAL STYLE: ad-hoc fallacy: Hitchcook and Johnso n, after the exhibition at the MOMA in NY, continued with his attack on function alism, reflecting, not having breached purposes, but of taking a solution withou t having a real problem. The Esprit Nouveau in the 20s is now presented contradi ctory and must be eliminated. What supports this idea is that by then, most arch itects were based on common goals and characteristics, in fact frowned upon and distorted as the enthronement of a style "global" no trace of truth. A. Barr com plements the speech by saying he had emerged a new style as any in the past. For Mies, the universal trend has only stylistic similarities. 9. 1934 and 1940: Em ergence of organicism. Organicism born in 1935 led by Lloyd Wright, is to reinte rpret the work of modernity before the 20s, and put aside the "architectural pro menade." Factor is emphasized that some countries can not and should use that ty pe because the climate or topography does not permit. In Finland, for example, w ho is academically Aalto heir of the CIAM, subtly shows this condition, and call s for really a timeless architecture. Example: Viipuri Library, 1927 and Piama S anatorium, 1933. For the first time we talk about environment and regionalism. T hen there is the concept of "organic" Lloyd, who, using analogies and metaphors to articulate its organismic theory alive. 10. THE ART DECO: High impact of Deco rative Arts. This event is strongly characterized by a tendency to superficialit y and likeness, purely plastic values and artistic achievement of the element. C ontinued from Paris Expo 1925 and for the first time, germinates a parallel and illegal expression of modernity, but more popular and less abstract jazz art dec o or modern age. This current, no determining role, instead using the zig-zag, t he breaking of leads, chamfered edges, the portholes, pastel colors, horizontal applications and areas of concern. Usually this type of architecture built in da mp coastal great influence and money (Malibu, Miami, the Danube) and was associa ted with dance clubs, nightclubs, casinos and entertainment centers. 11. THE CIA M: Concerns in the weakening. Anyway it promotes the right of continuity of clas sical modernism of the 20s, discarding all decorative or architectural symbolism of night clubs or casinos (surface and neon). "Progress, innovation and technol ogy are on any figurative" Le Corbusier had argued, and did not measure that wit h these words was giving more room to claim own novel aesthetic forms of the twe ntieth century. For now, the CIAM needed to regroup and form new alliances with the arts and other related events. The aim is to have a greater platform of expr ession and not give an inch to new symbolic or formal dalliances trying to disto rt the pure desire for modernity. 5 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide 12. Congresses: 1929 1930 1933 FOURTH CONGRESS SECOND THIRD CONGRESS CONGRESS Athens Brussels Fr ankfurt study of social housing and low social and economic costs. Study for the regional fragmentation of the territory. Analysis of 33 cities. Preparation of the Athens Charter.

13. 1933: The productive collaborations. As the CIAM invites all creative and produc tive forces to close ranks in pursuit of modernity, the intention is echoed in several movements. One of them is the MARS group, England (Modern Architectural Research Group), which begins to spread fu nctional architecture as the best option for the development of modern principle . Perhaps one of its shares has been the fact the refugees sheltering victims of domestic war or prolong a movement that supposedly ideologically sick. The trut h is that Ward, and Luke Cornell,€demanding more attention to modern projects t hat started to spread in England. The decade of the 30s, has an abrupt end becau se of the EMS. 1940 It is called the utility years, because in this period, the concentrations of wo rk will be very large and especially huge responsibility. Momentum particular ar chitecture that tends to the vernacular, is a new empiricism that seeks to resto re the traditional identity of each country. While the recommendations of CIAM w ere somewhat obscured, still hold some pressure but at a point zero due to auste rity, economic crisis and a set of values into disrepute. The modern experience, achieved great cost had the ability to impose certain assumptions symbolic, but was losing ideological cohesion in different contexts. 14. USA: The change in t he media. After the Second World War, the U.S., they acquire a new character. We live an industrial and financial turmoil like never before, as the military ind ustry in the service of war with thousands of workers, is now heading for civil development. This would begin to generate new demands and profits, both the habi tat and life patterns and behavior. It tends to serialization, prefabrication se eking greater comfort and response to the "time is money" inventing the "fast-ho uses." The Dymaxion House (Buckminster Fuller, 1927), serves as a metaphor for t his second age of the machine. 6 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide 15. THE CIAM 1945: Fears of the unknown. The period is slow and hesitant, and not le ast the concern of the proponents of CIAM, which scattered by war, come with much pain as many of his "faithful" followers begin to give the shelve and do the opposite. The war obscures the international sense and promotes a sense of personal style of each nation. In Latin America, modern ity began to sink in the aesthetic sense, Espaço Brazil Costa and Niemeyer to m ake a personal interpretation of architecture, like Pro Arts, Chile, Mexico Bord er Area or the Association of Peru, while in Europe Le Corbusier was seen as "a thorn in the side." 16. Le Corbusier: 1940-1944. During the war, is devoted to p ainting, reflection, and above all to generate new theories of urban planning. A lso concerned with defining his famous modular measurement system: l'Module. Wil l be influential writings: l'humane establishment, and his mansion charte des ho mmes of Athens, who already had put on board the USS. Parris in 1933. By the lat e '30s, he began a speech speculating against the School of Sullivan and proves it with his building Algiers, in which implants "L'Modular Partout!" To work on large building facades. He also speaks of space and the unspeakable universal si gnificance and international architecture. By the end of 40, began his project o

f the Unité d 'Habitation. 17. ON PLANNING: The new issue of S. XX. After meeti ng the writings of Le Corbusier, many architects take the need for planning as a n idea of improvement and progress of cities. One of them is the English MARS gr oup, responsible for carrying out urban plan of London published even in the Arc hitectural Review, famous for its analogy with a skeleton of salmon. Others pref er to stay outside the set of CIAM and allows freedom of creation. While new ide as are criticized because in urban planning, people were accustomed to the typol ogy of Howard with his famous "garden city". Tripps Alkar plans "for neighborhoo ds" and Stein "Radborn" in the U.S., which serve as an example to English towns. 18. Congresses: SIXTH SEVENTH CONGRESS 1947 1949 Congress Bergamo Reaffirmation Bridgewater purp ose of the CIAM, restructuring of primary points of view. Implementation of the Charter of Athens. Birth of the grille CIAM urbanism. 19. THE AMERICAN SIMBIOSIS: End of the 40s. In 1940, the perception of the car is im measurable in the U.S., so it is conTruyen express roads, openings and expansions are made. This brings a new kind o f architecture: the drive-inns, motels, bar Ways road, road houses, etc. A new s ymbols defined by the tall building, the winding highway. However, given the dec line of some avant-garde, American society claims the right to interpret the arc hitecture of a more contemporary (say now), and is made a collage of internation al styles post7 P Gina ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide war improvements, to summarize a piece of architecture, at this time will lay th e foundations of pop culture and pop art. 1950: With the emergence of some cultures "pop" and single art, is to reconstruct mode rnity, already seen as obsolete and decadent, because of its persistence of minu te ideas for making architecture. The so-called "first line" that is made all th e forces believers in modernity, only manages to increase the questioning of the functionalist postulate. Art Deco, Paris 1925 and the preamble to pop, and cont emporary claimed against the modern. This is how da appear first pop culture in the U.S. and then in England through noticeably simplified versions, and all beg in to infringe on the annotations of CIAM and Le Corbusier's own which they cons ider symbolic enemy of progress. 20. 3G: A "modern overcome." The pop is the res ult of a lifestyle that is adopted by a culture influenced by capitalism, consum ption and fashion. The art becomes the object of consumption, so with architectu re. Andy Warhol said, "The reason why I paint so I want to be a machine." It is therefore a period of less competition and restrictions for originality, apart f rom the experimental to adopt a simple empiricism. For a new generation of archi tects, are still influential ideas of Le Corbusier, Mies and Aalto, and the writ ings of modern premises (Pevsner, 1936), Space, Time and Architecture (Gideon, 1 941) and Modern Architecture (Richards , 1940). 21. RECONSTRUCTION: The City may change ... Strabury and Poplar, London two cities that serve as a model for con temporary urban planning. Is driving new and rehabilitation works in an attempt to recover some urban settings have come down by war or modern practices. Invest ed large amounts of time and money to rebuild villages pilgrims, as had been bef ore the war in territories of France, Warsaw or Poland. It grows the idea that t he city if you can change, and an example of this is the identification of new u rban functions followed by incessant attempts at recovery. Some errors are expla ined as Plymouth city or New Towns, of which a replica is made in the USA, in th

e form of suburbs. 22. Historicism and NEO VANGUARD: Hope to a neighbor chaos. I t is a time of mass aspirations and changes. It is believed that modernity is in operable as well as the CIAM due to a quarrel between Le Corbusier and Van Eeste ren. The third generation, unlike their predecessors advocated a return to the p ast and the link with new forms of action. Under the pretext of organizing the C IAM X, TEAM X is formed, a new van8 P Gina ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide guard Peter and Alison Smithson, John Voelckcr, Howell, Bakin, G. Candillis and Eyck, who define new strategies to challenge the Dubrovnik CIAM 1956. As there w as no consensus, we determined the completion of the CIAM X three years later, i n Otterlo, in that place the TEAM X launches his deadly assault on everything th at considered decadent and obtuse, relied to a 3G. 23. NEW brutal means as a thr ow-away or objet trouve, emerging as an alternative to the phase of confusion an d doubt that come through. There is a school, but a mixture between the structur al logic of Mies, and clear lines of Le Corbusier. Their ideology germinates in England and is based on the metaphor of exposed raw concrete in the 30s. Increas es with pop culture absurdity ys a noun textures and architectural forms, under the assumption that building materials must be visible. It is an attempt to simp lify the architecture, at least try to make the intentions of returning to the p rinciples of classicism as the composition, symmetry and eurythmy. 24. Congresse s: 1951 1953 1956 1959 PRE CONGRESS EIGHTH NINTH CONGRESS - CONGRESS TENTH CONGRESS Hoddesdon Aix-en-Provence Dubrovnik Otterlo Study center, the periphery and the core cities. Study of human habitat and livi ng conditions of peoples. Study of human habitat. Failure of CIAM, Team X and tr iumph of the new avant-garde. 25. AMERICAN FORMAL: In 1955, the construction of the chapel at Ronchamp meant three things: the role of Le Corbusier in the field of architectural culture, the response to continuing d emands for creativity and innovation formal and constructive,€above all the det ermination that went into effect a new language supported by the visual and pers pective. In the U.S., is taken as an example and thus loa defined parameters of what would be a "new international style." The American proposal is eclectic and universal rather than indeterminate, based on the aphorisms that Mies began to pronounce. They form two trends: 1) minimalist comes from the "less is more", an d 2) sky scraper, also called glass box. 1960: Deterministic and symbolic architecture that changes the theoretical emphasis on a reflexive character. There is great influence of a new generation of architec ts; Dioxiadis and "ecumenopolis" as well as Fuller Buckmisnter with "world game" . Scene again romanticism and classicism in dichotomy of principles: formal / in formal, rational / irrational. Year 12 (Th Crosby, 1968) proposes a new rational ity and criticizes C. Alexan9 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Architecture Theory Instruction Guide der. It states that human habitat should be linked complex and inclusive vision. For the first time you start to talk about "environment." There is an electroni c management and information technology (HW & SW), also interest in ecology. By 1959 dies Lloyd Wright, 1965 Le Corbusier, Mies 1969 and 1970 Neutra. 26. THE FO URTH GENERATION: steeped in the conventions, the new architects down culture "in cluding" or gray (if not, white and black). They have better publicity because o f the early reformers. Coincides with the revolution of May '68 university and t herefore is multidimensional. The happenig and tech, will be great argument for the development, which emphasizes the environmental culture. Lois Kahn, J. Utzon , Van Eyck, Coderech, L. Barragán, F. Tavora, Nervi, etc., Oppose formalism and figurative mannerism American international style. Begins a process of construc tion of the new nature which aims to: monuments, history, you and reality. The s logan is "hard social design and technologically complex." 27. Minimal: It was u sed by the philosopher R. Wolheim in 1965 to describe the paintings of Ad Reinha rdt and Marcel Dunchamp with ready-made. Has two roots: one inherited from ancie nt traditions Japanese and an American in the late 50s in USA (Crystal Box), bot h are connected by their sympathy and bare essentials. In architecture it is cle ar from what is trying to condense into a few elements of his artistic principle s and reflective. He identifies with the crisis of American visual arts and pop culture that has spread throughout the world in the 70s. Links to the most naked of modernism and postmodernism is associated with the reaction, as opposed to p ictorial expression. 28. SPACE & FICTION: new meaning based on the structuralist theory, although this phase is dominated by the eclecticism, the discovery will be important for systematic and high technology. The space and the configuratio n is not only an environment but the opportunity to play with their feelings as well as the chemically modified food, it is believed in the possibility of alter ing the conditions and visual sensitive architecture. Television and radio repla ce the printing press, and make it more eloquently, thus arises the proposed act ions for more dynamic architecture, that was the collective demand according to development time, space travel and scientific progress . MSc. Roy Freyre Luis Alegre 10 P a g e ROY LUIS ALEGRE FREYRE